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them."

THE OLD MAID.

sian Mining Corps, observed this phenomenon with the coöperation of the Royal Geographical Society great attention in one of the Siberian rivers, and in of London, at whose suggestion Dr. Richardson, a Memoir, since translated from the Russian by the able and enterprising Arctic traveller, has drawn Colonel Jackson, he thus states his views of the up a series of instructions for the servants of the cause of this apparent anomaly. “I conceive that Hudson's Bay Company. The object is to collect the intensity and long continuance of the cold may information, from every part of the Company's vasi freeze the soil to the depth of the bottom of the territories in North America, respecting the state river, particularly where it is not deep, and that of the soil at various depths from the surface, and there the diminished velocity of the water permits in various latitudes. Investigations of this kind are its congelation, particularly if there be any hollows now being carried on in the northern parts of both where the water remains stagnant. So long as the continents, and we may confidently look forward io congealed masses continue small with regard to the the acquisition of much valuable information on this volume of water immediately above them, they ad- interesting subject. here as if rooted to the bottom, but when by degrees they increase in bulk, the difference in their specific gravity operates to overcome their adhesion

Poems by AMELIA, is the title of a volume just to the bottom, and they rise, bringing with them issued. Amelia is the name by which a Kensuch gravel and stones as we find attached to tucky poetess, Mrs. Welby, is known to the liter

ary world. She writes with great sweetness and With respect to the depth at which the Siberian flow of versification, a graceful use of poetic imaground is frozen, Professor Baer remarks that its gery, and often with a gentle, womanly pathos. determination would throw great light on the nature Take, for example, the first five stanzas of the little and formation of springs; because most of the Sibe- poem entitled rian springs, which have their source at a small depth below the surface, cease to flow in winter, as if their very sources were frozen up; whereas oth- Why sits she thus in solitude ? her heart ers, which Aow all the year round, are supposed to

Seems melting in her eye's delicious blue, have their source in the warm strata beneath the And as it heaves, her ripe lips lie apart frozen ground. That the Siberians are familiar

As if to let its heavy throbbings through; with the fact of the drying up of small streams in In her dark eye a depth of softness swells, winter, was shown by an odd incident which oc

Deeper than that her careless girlhood wore : curred to Admiral Wrangel a few years ago. He And her cheek crimsons with the hue that tells was riding (to the north of Yakutsk, in about 65°

The rich, fair fruit is ripened to the core. N. lat.) over the ice of a pretty considerable river, It is her thirtieth birthday! with a sigh when the ice suddenly gave way, and his horse Her soul hath turned from youth's luxuriant sank: he was himself saved by being thrown on the

bowers, ice, at the moment his horse fell. He was lament- And her heart taken up the last sweet tie ing the loss of his horse to the Yakutskers who ac- That measured out its links of golden hours : companied him, as he knew not how to get another; She feels her inmost soul within her stir but they laughed at him, and assured him they With thoughts too wild and passionate to speak ; would soon get his horse back, and with a dry skin Yet her full heart—its own interpretertoo. They procured some poles and broke away Translates itself in silence on her cheek. the ice, under which the bed of the river was perfectly dry, as well as the horse and his pack. The Joy's opening buds, affection's glowing flowers, cause of the phenomenon, which appeared to be Once lightly sprang within her beaming track; well understood by the natives, was this : the sur-Oh, life was beautiful in those lost hours ! face of the river had become frozen before the spring

And yet she does not wish to wander back! itself, but when the latter froze likewise, the supply No! she but loves in loneliness to think to the river was cut off, and the river emptied itself,

On pleasures past, though never more to be : and left a hollow shell of ice where the surface of Hope links her to the future—but the link the water had once been.

That binds her to the past is memory! The Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburgh, From her lone path she never turns aside, desirous of ascertaining how far the influence of the air and of summer heat affects the frozen ground, Like some pure planet in her lonely pride,

Though passionate worshippers before her fall; caused a number of thermometers to be buried in

She seems to soar and beam above them all! the earth at the sides of the deep well sunk through Not that her heart is cold! emotions new the soil at Yakutsk. The thermometers were

And fresh as flowers, are with her heart-strings placed at the depth of 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150,

knit; 200, 250, 300, and 350 feet, two at each depth, the And sweetly mournful pleasures wander through bulb of one immersed in the side earth to the depth

Her virgin soul, and softly ruffle it. of a foot, and the other to that of a fathom. These thermometers were to be observed daily for a long For she hath lived with heart and soul alive period, and there will doubtless be some valuable To all that makes life beautiful and fair ; results obtained from their indications.

Sweet thoughts, like honey-bees, have made their Professor Baer has pointed out the desirability of

hive tracing a line round the northern hemisphere, be- Of her soft bosom-cell, and cluster there; yond which, northward, there is permanent frozen Yet life is not to her what it hath been,soil, or ground-ice; and also of determining the Her soul hath learned to look beyond its glossdepth to which the surface soil is affected by the And now she hovers like a star between heat of summer, and the depth of frozen ground be- Her deeds of love-her Saviour on the Cross ! neath. To aid in these investigations, he solicited

Evening Post.

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land, suitably situated, was essential. But a single rected towards it; and it is mainly for want of establishment near Glasgow bleaches fourteen hun- this that so many objects lie worthless or unimdred pieces of cotton daily throughout the year! proved around us. What an enormous capital would be required to purchase land for this purpose! How greatly would it increase the cost of bleaching to pay inter

From the St. Louis Union. est upon this capital, or to hire so much land in England !” And yet the object of this vast saving MORAL INFLUENCE OF THE WAR WITH MEXICO. —this powerful aid to our manufacturing great- That war is an evil, is unquestionable, and that ness-was, not many years ago, run into the near- it is to be avoided, so far as may be consistent with est common sewer as a thing of no commercial honor, is equally true ; but there are few evils withvalue."

Nay, we believe the huge chimney stacks out a countervailing good. which have been erected within the last five years Civilization has been the legitimate consequence in Glasgow and other places, for the purpose of of national conflicts, the justice nor the seeming carrying off the deleterious fumes of the muriatic propriety of which the world could applaud. Colacid disengaged in the manufacture of soda, are lision of arms has brought collision of minds, and now rendered superfluous, by the conversion of the general intelligence has increased and gained acid into a mercantile commodity. So blind are we strength by its very diffusion. Knowledge grows to the demands which the progress of the useful not by hoarding, but, like other wealth, adds to arts

may make, that one year we lay out vast sums itself by being judiciously imparted. to get rid of a substance, which in the next we are Whether the present Mexican race is susceptible careful to preserve as a source of pecuniary profit! of much enlightenment, is a matter into which it Another example from the fertile field of chemistry, is not now our purpose to inquire. Sufficient is it, and we have done. It is known that a fleece of that these people cannot but be measurably improved wool, in its natural state, is impregnated with by the acquaintanceship they must necessarily exgreasy matter, which has to be got rid of, as far as perience from the existing attitude of the two possible, before it can be subjected to the ulterior countries. But a greater benefit than this, or any processes of manufacture. This necessary purga- other which the present race may experience, will tion is undertaken by the woolwashers. The waters be the dispelling of the charm which has so long through which the wool is passed and purified be- veiled that country from the rest of the world, as come necessarily the receptacle of all the fatty stuff an almost unknown land. The barbarism of the thus discharged. The habit with the woolwashers Mexican nation, and the unsettled condition of its has been to throw away these greasy washings as government, have conspired to keep hidden one of worthless-if in country districts, to the pollation the first agricultural and manufacturing countries of the neighboring streams ; and if in towns, to the on earth. In future, here will men of enterprise nuisance of the streets and thoroughfares. In sum- meet from every country, and either elevate the mer-time and hot weather, the decomposition and national character of the native Mexicans, or raise pernicious exhalations of those washings become an up a nation of their own. exciting cause of disease in towns such as Rheims, This war will facilitate the march of improveElbeuf, &c., where the woollen manufactures of ment in many respects. The day is not very disFrance are most largely carried on. Now, how- tant when a race of civilized men must people the ever, by an ingenious appliance, the evil may not shores of the Pacific lying in comparative neighonly be obviated, but converted into a source of borship with China. A trade so valuable as one gain to the manufacturer, and healthy profit to the which might readily be established between the public. By the simple addition of a certain quan- Atlantic coast and China, across this continent, tity of potash and slacked lime, M. Pagnon-Vautrin cannot for many years be neglected. Opening a has obtained the saponification of the greasy wash- path, then, to these distant regions, bringing the ings, and employs the soap so formed for scouring Californias near to us, by acquaintanceship, teachthe fibres or threads of carded wool--thus making, ing our young men the route to the future homes as it were, the fleece scour itself.

of many of them, constitute a national good, the Such are a few illustrations—and they could be benefits of which will be felt when all the evils of extended almost indefinitely-of the old-fashioned the existing war shall have been forgotten maxim with which we headed this paper.

We The acquirement of a more just appreciation of know of no fact in our economical progress more the Anglo-American character, by the Indian, will gratifying than that we should, within such a brief be another benefit springing from this war. Hereperiod, have converted to our use, comfort, and tofore the Indians of the southwest have derided pleasure, so many substances hitherto considered as all efforts to civilize them, for the reason that those useless, or even as detrimental. Nor does its bear who essayed the task were neither physically nor ing end here ; it points us hopefully to the future, mentally their superiors. The effeminate Spaniard bids us regard nothing in nature as worthless, and or mongrel Mexican, has been their object of conwarns us to throw nothing aside until we have ex- tempt, rather than emulation. Of other white hausted our ingenuity to turn it to advantage. races they have seen but little, and scarcely dream And even then the history of the past must conipel they are so nearly neighbored by a powerful and us to admit that we have failed in our efforts only highly civilized nation. The Indians of the west for the present, and that a time will come when the and northwest are but little better informed. They rejected object shall assume its value. If the last have occasionally met with an American trapper, quarter of a century has furnished us with more or a missionary, and have learned to fear the one, illustrations of our maxim than any former period, and respect the other ; but as to our national it is only because human energy and invention has, strength, the number of our people, or the condition during that time, been more vigorous and more of the useful arts among us, they know nothing. sustained. There is scarcely any difficulty that They have considered our reputed power as a the human intellect may not conquer, provided fable, and in more than one instance, it is said, have thought-vigorous, concentrated thought-be di- punished, even with death, those who have repre

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