« ElőzőTovább »
what humanized by what he found, he should, in a when we behold a man wise as well as learned , greater degree, animalize what he found by that and, as far as this little book has made us acquainted which he brought in. Learning, the arts and sci- with its clever author, we offer the tribute of thankences, and all that distinguished man in a higher fulness for the amount of truth which he has writcondition of social existence than that from which ten. they themselves emerged, were despised by these wild conquerors and considered marks of 'effeminacy; and there is no wonder that, for a period, CONSIDER THE LILIES OF THE FIELD. both knowledge and civilization should be retro
MATTHEW vi. 28. gressive. Mr. Hallam considers the extinction of learning to have been intimately connected with the SWEET nurslings of the vernal skies, change of language which immediately ensued when Bathed in soft airs, and fed with dew, so many parts of the world changed masters, as well What more than magic in you lies as the gradual dying out of Latin, the common source To fill the heart's fond view ? of all written information, as a living tongue. The In childhood's sports, companions gay : Church, certainly, on the one hand, preserved what In sorrow, on life's downward way, light there was, whilst at a later period there came How soothing !--in our last decay, in from the East the knowledge of the sciences. Memorials prompt and true. By one of those wondrous systems of compensation which the history of the world so frequently affords, Relics ye are of Eden's bowers ; the Arabian paid the Christian in the impartation As pure, as fragrant, and as fair of his own civilizing knowledge for the wrongs he As when ye crowned the sunshine hours had done him in his faith ; and if the crusader found Of happy wanderers there. in the Holy Land little but wounds and sickness, Fallen all beside—the world of life, mortification and defcat, he brought back with him How is it stained with fear and strife! many an art which he had learned, and many a In Reason's world what storms are rife, polished habit which he had acquired in his rough What passions range and glare ! intercourse and stern encounter with his Moslem foe. Many an amenity which chivalry possessed But cheerful and unchanged the while, many a gleam of scientific knowledge which had Your first and perfect form ye
show : so large an influence on the social condition of those The same that won Eve's matron smile days—may be traced to this source, and the reflec- In the world's opening glow. tion opens a new field of profitable speculation on The stars of heaven a course are taught the wondrous ways in which Divine Providence Too high above our human thought ; has watched over the destinies of Christendom.
Ye may be found, if ye are sought, Sir Francis, in the work before us, puts into the And as we gaze, we know. mouth of the friar, in the way of sagacious proph
Ye dwell beside our paths and homes, ecy, some admirable meditations on the probable effects of the future developments of the science
Our paths of sin, our homes of sorrow : that was then in its infancy. He has also been
And guilty man, where'er he roams,
Your innocent mirth may borrow. true to the fact, in rendering Roger Bacon's remarks subservient to the one great religious principle which,
The birds of air before us fleet, as his biographers inform us, was really predominant
They cannot brook our shame to meet ; in his mind. We deem it the highest praise, indeed,
But we may taste your solace sweet, which we can bestow upon this work, to say, that
And come again to-morrow. throughout, the reflections are all conceived in the
Ye fearless in your nests abide ; spirit of the deepest reverence to the divine will and law. Of this the last chapter on knowledge, a very
Nor may we scorn, too proudly wise,
Your silent lessons, undescried beautiful chapter, is a sufficient proof.
By all but lowly eyes ; It is, indeed, refreshing when men of information
For ye could draw the admiring gaze and deep learning dedicate the talent which God
Of Him who worlds and hearts surveys: has bestowed upon them to His service. Knowl
Your order wild, your fragrant maze, edge is not always wisdom : this consists in its
He taught us how to prize. right use, rather than in its ample possession. The highest attainment of wisdom is the knowledge of Ye felt your Maker's smile that hour, our own ignorance; and the nearer we are led to As when he paused and owned you good ; God by that which we learn the better has learning His blessing on earth's primal hour fulfilled her proper province—the better shall we be Ye felt it all renewed. able to discern how much, in the midst of all we
What care ye now if winter's storm know, we yet lack. God has endowed his creature
Sweep ruthless o’er each silken form? man with many wondrous faculties and powers, and Christ's blessing at your heart is warm ; has allotted to each its proper sphere of exercise Ye fear no vexing mood. and action ; and it is a melancholy thing when men turn them from their right uses and bring ruin and
Alas! of thousand bosoms kind deformity into the fair creations which it is their That daily court you and caress, province to engender. Such, alas! is in our day How few the happy secret find too often witnessed : what might be a noble work Of your calm loveliness! : for the amount of skill and genius that are brought • Live for to-day! to-morrow's light to its often stands an idol temple—the
To-morrow's cares will bring to sight : prison-house of holy things—or the leprous lazar- Go, sleep like closing flowers at night, etto of diseased thoughts, through the absence of a And Heaven thy morn will bless." master principle of godly reverence.
- The Christian Year.
From the Foreign Quarterly Review. man, led thither an army of 40,000 men; and 1. The French in Algiers, and Abd-el-Kader. Mur- though this expedition was not entirely successful, ray, London. 1845.
it paved the way for future attempts; and Hassan, 2. Abd-el-Kader's Prisoners ; or, a Five Months'
of Egypt, established a nominal Captivity among the Arabs. By Mons. A. De Arabian supremacy ever an immense region, more FRANCE. Translated by R. F. Porter. Smith, general name of Barbary, the states of Morocco,
than 2300 miles in length, comprising, under the Elder, and Co. London: 1846.
Fez, Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunis. IF Africa owns one peculiar district on which But though the Arabs overcame the resistance her ancestral curse is specially entailed, it is surely of the aboriginals and of the Romans who still rethat portion of the southern shore of the Mediter- mained in the country; and though their halfranean flanked by the pathless sands of the Desert disciplined and predatory tribes roamed at pleasure of Sahara, which is known by the modern apella- through these fertile districts; it was not in the tion of “ Algeria.” In former times, indeed, the power of such an unconnected and marauding peohand of the Algerines “ hath been against every ple, whose principal strength lay in their fervent, man”—and foul were the outrages and cruelties but evanescent religious enthusiasm, to form any which rendered their city a byeword, and their lasting projects for the subjugation of the provinces name a reproach.
they overran. Many, indeed, settled in the coun
try they had invaded, and in time became exposed, “Ergo exercentur pænis, veterumque malorum in their turn, to aggressions, such as those by which Supplicia expendunt."
they had themselves profited.
But the greater
number preferred the wild charms of a desert life to Rhadamanthus himself could not inflict a severer the sober pleasures to which alone a citizen can expiation for former license, than their present con- aspire. Princes, however, of Arabian blood—the dition. The red pennon of the pirate is forgotten Zäirides-reigned over the north-western coast till in the aggressions of the tri-color. Providence- the beginning of the twelfth century; and it was or ambition—has assigned to the “Great Nation" under their patronage that Abdallah, the marabout, * the task of avenging, and that, perhaps, altogether implanted in the bosom of his countrymen that too ruthlessly, the ancient insults of the lawless love of Islamism, which—if it has imparted to the corsairs of Algiers.
resistance of their hardy descendants the ferocity We propose, in the present article, to take a of a religious war-has also stamped it with a rapid review of the rise and fall of this piratical generous self-devotedness which irresistibly chalstate, and to enter into some brief considerations lenges our admiration and our sympathy. of the position and prospects of its French con- But, in addition to the aboriginal tribes, the requerors.
maining Roman colonists, the Vandals, and their The north-western coast of Africa has under-| Arabian conquerors—and we must add to our list gone, perhaps, more than the usual vicissitudes to the ubiquitous Jew—another people combined to which national as well as individual life is sub- swell the heterogeneous throng, which dwelt in jected. Mauritania Cæsariensis-for such was the these regions. The Spanish Moors, driven from name which that district which we now term Al- their native fields in Granada and Andalusia, found geria received from the Romans, when the battle here a temporary refuge where they might brood of Thapsus reduced Numidia under their sway, is over vain hopes of future revenge. a region whose most prominent feature is the two
This confused mass, in course of time, subsided parallel chains of mountains which traverse the into separate and independent kingdoms-of which country from west to east. The southern and Algiers, Morocco, and Tunis, were the most conmore lofty of the two is called the Great, and that siderable. The history of the two last must from which fringes the Mediterranean coast, the Lesser this period be abandoned, in order to pursue the forAtlas. Ancillary ridges, usually stretching north tunes of Algiers itself. and south, unite at unequal intervals the two At- Exposed to all the temptations, which situation, lases, and enclose within their arms valleys and poverty, and the hereditary craving for wild and table-lands of exquisite fertility ; while the north-hazardous adventure conspired to afford, it is not ern slopes of the lesser Atlas are covered with the strange that the coast of Barhary became the dread rich and varied vegetation of the east, and yet pre- of every Mediterranean cruiser ; but the maritime serve some of the peculiar advantages of more depredations of its occupants, however daring, did temperate climates.
not attain any formidable degree of organization till This productive colony was lost to the Western the commencement of the sixteenth century ; when Empire, under the third Valentinian. Bonifacius, the restless ambition of two brothers, in humble the imperial governor in Africa, desirous to revolt, station, laid the foundation of that lawless power but diffident of his own resources, resolved upon an
.“ friends of the sea, but enemies of all that experiment, which is never tried but once, and in- sailed thereon”- as they exultingly proclaimed voked the aid of a foreign power. Genseric and themselves, which for nearly three centuries renGonderic, the young and ambitious leaders of the dered the name of Algiers at once an object of Vandals, having already devastated Spain, cheer- hatred and of terror. fully promised their assistance; and these princes
A potter in the island of Lesbos enjoys the amestablished, on the ruins of the kingdom they were biguous celebrity of being the father of these summoned to preserve, a dynasty which (though youths. Horuc and Hayraddin have not been the at one time menaced by the famous Belisarius) only truants who have shrunk from a life of induscontinued to sway the north of Africa, until its conquest was achieved, at the close of the seventh * A marabout is the Levite of the Arahs. The discentury, by the enterprising khalifs of Arabia. tinction is hereditary and is confined to a particular
The reduction of the west had indeed been at-tribe. He is considered a saint both before and after tempted by the Saracens somewhat earlier ; for in influence. The word marabout is indifferently applied to
death, and enjoys many privileges, and a vast degree of the year 647 Abdallah, the foster-brother of Oth-| the tomb or the saint after death.
try; but seldom has truancy been attended with the fierce usurper fought with a courage that such disastrous consequences to mankind. Both should animate only the bosom of a patriot ; in brothers joined the pirates of the Levant, and vain did he scatter his ill-gotten treasure on the Horuc, the elder and more determined villain of the banks of the Sinan, in the hope of arresting the two, soon learned how high a premium, bravery, steps of his merciless pursuers; Heaven could not when united with a total want of humanity and suffer the prolonged existence of such a monster ; principle, bore among those roving adventurers. and in dying the death of a soldier he experienced With wickedness sufficient to overawe, and with a fate far too lenient for his crimes. daring to fascinate, their comrades, the young Les- Hayraddin, his successor, known (as well as his bians gained rapidly in resources and influence ;-brother) by the soubriquet of Barbarossa, was less but, in all probability, would never have aspired cruel in disposition, and was an equally enterbeyond the command of a few privateers, had not prising commander. Finding himself unable to a fortunate conjuncture of circumstances opened to contend single-handed against Spain, he became a them a field for more permanent conquest.
vassal of the Grand Seignior in return for his proSpain, even before she sank to the condition of a tection; and so ingratiated himself with the Turkthird class state in Europe, was never remarkable ish court by his matchless skill in naval tactics, that either for the justice of her arms, or the liberality Solyman raised him to the dignity of a pasha, sent of her counsels. Not content with persecuting the him against the celebrated Genoese admiral, Anunhappy Moors with relentless fury, couched un- drew Doria ; and as he proved successful in his opder a pretended zeal for the furtherance of Christi-erations against this formidable commander, the anity, Ferdinand V., guided by his clever and am- grateful sultan assisted him to gain the neighboring bitious minister, the Cardinal Ximenes, pursued kingdom of Tunis by a maneuvre very similar to them even to their African retreats. In the year that which had wrested the sovereignty of Algiers 1505, he despatched to the coast of Barbary a from the family of Selim. The Bey of Tunis, powerful force, under Peter, Count of Navarre ; however, Muley Haschen, had the good fortune to who subdued Oran-a town which has given its escape from the clutches of Hayraddin, and make naine to one of three Regencies into which Algeria his way to Spain, where he claimed the assistance is at present divided, placed there a Spanish garri- of Charles V. His petition was successful ; for the son, and menaced the capital itself.
emperor, ambitious of the renown, which in those The Algerines in this extremity summoned to days attached to every expedition against a Mohamtheir assistance a prince of Arabian extraction, medan state, fitted out an immense armament to Selim Eutemi ; who enjoyed great influence among effect his restoration. the tribes of the desert. This chiestain accepted On the 16th of July, 1535, Charles sailed from the sovereignty they offered him, and for a while Sardinia with more than 30,000 troops on board enabled them to resist the efforts of the generals his fleet. The Goletta at Tunis had long been conof Ferdinand. But, in a few years, it was again sidered one of the strongest forts on the Mediternecessary to resort to foreign aid, and in an ill-ad- ranean, and Barbarossa had intrusted its defence to vised moment Selim begged succor from Barbarossa, Seiran, a renegade Jew, of unquestioned courage (to whom we have already alluded under his more and ability. But the numerical preponderance of proper name of Horuc,) who at that time had be- the Christian army was too overwhelming to allow come one of the most notorious of the Mediterra- of any prolonged resistance. The Golletta was nean corsairs. The pirate came; and the infatu- taken by a coup-de-main; and the tardy loyalty of ated Selim went with open arms to greet his the inhabitants of Tunis began to declare itself future murderer.
against the usurper. In this extremity, Barbarossa Barbarossa, on his arrival, took the command of risked all in a pitched battle. The impetuous onthe fleet and army, and spared no pains to ingra- sets of the Moors and Arabs, though led on by the tiate himself with the Algerines. A mixture of fierce janissaries of the sultan, failed to break cruelty and liberality was peculiarly attractive to a the serried ranks of Charles' veterans, and the sudpeople already predisposed to piracy; and when đen apparition of a body of Christian slaves, who Barbarossi caused Selim to be stabbed in his bath, had taken advantage of the confusion to free ihemand himself to be proclaimed king, he found no selves from their fetters, accelerated a victory that more serious opposition than a few subsidiary mur-| had hardly ever been doubtful; Barbarossa was ders, and the distribution of a few bags of sequins, compelled to abandon Tunis, and save himself, by were sussicient to extinguish.
a hasty flight, from the dungeons of Madrid. History has not failed to embellish this crime, This expedition, one of the nuost successful exin itself sufficiently treacherous, with the incidents ploits of Charles' eventful reign, levelled for a of romance.
It is said that other passions, besides time the power of Barbarossa to the dust. Ten that of ambition, impelled Barbarossa to shed the thousand Christian slaves spread the fame of their blood of his suppliant and his host. The innocent deliverer through every state of Europe, and Spain incendiary was Zaphira, Selim's Arabian bride, who, for once enjoyed the sweetest triumph a nation can on the murder of her husband, repelled with a taste ; that of having been the successful and disinnoble indignation the amorous overtures of the terested champion of humanity and legitimate warusurper, and—a second, but a purer Cleopatra — fare. But other engagements soon diverted the atpreferred death itself to rewarding his crimes with tention of Charles from the humbled pirates; and her love.
with a pertinacity peculiarly their own, they were But Barbarossa, though immediately successful soon bolder and more prosperous than ever. in his projects, had not gained possession of a quiet Barbarossa in person indeed no longer directed throne. The Spaniards, masters of the province of the affairs of his capital. His duties as the Turkish Oran, attacked him with European skill and East- high admiral detained him at the court of Solyman, ern perseverance; and the self-elected sovereign of but his place at Algiers was ably filled by Hassan Algiers found his piratical bands, however superior Aga, a Christian renegade ; and it was when comon their native element, totally unable to cope with manded by this general, that the pirates taught soldiers regularly disciplined. It was in vain that. Charles a lesson which deeply mortified that haughty prince, and amply revenged them for their Frenchmen resolved to win renown by reducing former disasters at Tunis.
this nest of freebooters with a single privateer. The occasion of this fresh invasion by the emper- Their expedition, though not so tragical in its teror was the atrocities committed by the pirates on mination as that we have just related, was not more the coast of Spain ; and the forces which he assem- successful. Its only effect was to leave in the bled were even more numerous than before. Every- minds of the Algerines a rankling enmity to the thing apparently conspired to its success. The French flag, which in time surpassed their herediaudacious Algerines had forgotten to spare the do- tary dislike to that of Spain. This feeling first minions of the pope; and his holiness promised openly displayed itself when, in the year 1652, a absolution to all who took part in the expedition, French fleet was forced by stress of weather into and the crown of martyrdom to those who should their harbor, and the admiral demanded the release fall. The chivalry of Spain, and many of the gal- of all his countrymen who happened to be confined lant knights of Malta, crowded on board the fleets in the town. A contemptuous refusal was the only as volunteers, and even ladies of birth and character answer vouchsafed by the pirates ; and the Frenchdid not disdain to share the hardships of the voyage. men retaliated this insult by carrying off in durance But as the army was disembarking, a violent storm the Turkish viceroy and his principal cadi. Madproduced that disorder which is fatal to an ill- dened by this abduction, the Algerines swept the arranged project; and the torrents of rain which coast of France with fire and sword; and a buccapoured for several days together, proved an im- neering warfare commenced between the two coasts portant auxiliary to the spirited sallies of Hassan. of the Mediterranean. Louis XIV. at length deDay by day the immense host became more demor- termined to chastise the insolence of the corsairs in alized and broken; the prestige of former success the most signal manner, and he announced his inwas dispelled ; and at length, without receiving any tention of laying Algiers in ashes. The reply of fatal blow, it melted insensibly away as “snow on the dey to this threat tells more for his humor than the mountain," and Charles, having lost all, not ex- his patriotism. “ Let him," quoth he," send me cepting his honor, was glad to reëmbark the shat-half the money it would cost him, and I will do it tered remains of troops that had conquered at for him more effectually.” The pirate's coolness, Pavia.
however, did not avail him, for the celebrated Du Very dolorous is the narrative of this ill-fated ex. Quesne, with the aid of bomb-vessels (which had pedition, which has been transmitted to us by the then been recently invented by Bernard Renaud, a pen of an English volunteer, Sir Nicholas Villag- young French artisan) found little difficulty in fulnon, who—while he extols the “high enterprise filling the threat of his sovereign; and the humbled and valeauntness" of the emperor-bewails “the and frightened inhabitants, after having endeavored myserable chaunces of wynde and wether, with dy- to atone for their resistance by murdering its proverse other adversities able to move even a stonye moter—a common expedient enough_in despotic hearte to pray to God for his ayde and succour. governments-obtained peace from France, and
The exultation of the pirates at their success leisure to recruit their coffers by depredations elseknew no bounds. With sarcastic profusion, an where. onion became the market price of a captive Span- It was not, however, only by the secular arm iard ; and the situation of Charles was such during that efforts were from time to time made to rescue the remainder of his reign, that he could make no unhappy Christians from Paynim bondage. The further attempt to redeem his lost laurels in Al- court of Rome exerted its influence in their cause, geria.
and, under her auspices, a society of monks—the But though unattempted by the government of Mathurin Trinitarian fáthers-established themSpain, such a fair field for chivalrous enterprise selves at Fontainebleau, from whence from time could not remain long unoccupied. John Gascon, to time they despatched bands of missionary traa young Valentian noble, was the next who volun- ders to traffic with the slave-merchants of Algiers. teered to break a lance for the security of travellers. Their design was humane, and it would be unjust His plan, though rash, was not ill-imagined. As-to sneer because the friars yearned after the acquisembling a few adventurous friends, he sailed sition of sequins, as well as of communicants. straight to Algiers, and, favored by the night, Philemon de la Motte is the Chaucer of these ambiapproached unchallenged the famous Mole-gate. dextrous pilgrimages, and he evidently considers Had his machinery been equally prompt with his the chance of reward for himself and his associates courage, he would have avoided his subsequent sate, in another world, as unaffected by the trivial circumand the questionable advantage of ranking amongstance of their having “made it answer” in the the martyrs of Spain. But gunnery and all the present. And perhaps he is right. arts subsidiary to it were at that period in their in- The immediate effect, however, of this philanfancy, and bad powder marred many hopeful de-thropic bartering was unfortunate ; for the Algersign, and sacrificed many a brave soldier. The ines found the traffic so much to their mind, that to fire-ships destined to blow up the Algerine fleet replenish their stock more rapidly than they could would not explode, and the chivalrous Gascon, do by casual captures on the sea, they commenced scorning to escape unperceived, struck his dagger again harassing the coast of Spain with marauding into the Mole-gate, and left it sticking there, in incursions ; and their spoliation became at length fatal derision of their careless sentinels. A race such a disgrace to the government of that country, for life or death followed ; but the long polaccas of that, in 1775, Charles IlI. resolved to give the whole the pirates gained rapidly on the Spanish vessels, piratical states of Barbary such a decisive blow_as though urged with all the energy of despairing would cripple their resources for the future. For men; and a torturing death, to which it would be this purpose a large fleet was fitted out, and the useless to do more than allude, ended the career of command entrusted to Count O'Reilly, an Irish adthe gallant but rash Valentian.
venturer of some reputation, in conjunction with The Quixotic attempt of John Gascon was not Don Pedro Castejon. But « Ferdinand Count the only one directed against Algiers by the prowess O'Reilly'' did not take Algiers. He landed his of individuals. In the year 1635, four young troops in disorder, kept them for some days in a
state of inaction, exposed to the harrassing attacks states of Barbary became once more the subject of of the Algerines, and then hastily reembarked them, remark and indignation. and returned home. The discomfited Spaniards England, which had just chastised, at such a tried to console each other, not only for dishonor, fearful cost to herself, the great arch-robber of but for "infinite loss," by alternately cursing the Europe, was not likely to permit the petty depreclimate of Africa, and the policy of employing dations of a few insignificant states to remain any a hot-headed and quick-footed soldier of fortune. longer unreproved. To her, as the constituted
Hitherto the states of Europe alone had been in- protectress of the civilized world, seemed naturally sulted by the corsairs, but we have now to recount to belong the office of exterminating this nest of their relations with a trans-Atlantic power. On robbers. Accordingly, in the year 1816, a disthe first appearance in the seas of the white stars cussion arose in parliament, on the motion of Mr. of the United States, the dey inwardly rejoiced, Brougham, as to the propriety of our compelling and promised himself and his associate thieves most the piratical governments of Algiers, Tripoli and thoroughly to despoil the infant republic then Tunis, to observe the conventionalities of the law struggling into existence. An American vessel of nations in their intercourse with other states. was soon captured, and with a coolness that recalls Up to this period our own relations with them had to the mind ihe grim politeness sometimes recorded been on the whole amicable. In the time of Elizaof the more civilized “ minions of the moon,” his beth, indeed, Sir E. Mansel had conducted thither highness consoled his captives, while superintend- an expedition, which he mismanaged so much as to ing the riveting of their manacles, with praises of weaken in some degree the influence of our flag; the “ immortal Washington," and conjured Con- and Admiral Blake still later had stormed the gress, in answer to its demands for their liberation, Goletta, at Tunis, in revenge for some insults to send him that general's portrait,“ that he might offered to vessels under our protection, and had always have before his eyes the asserter of inde- presented himself before Algiers, and demanded pendence and liberty."
satisfaction from that city also. The Algerines bid America, although in no mood for jesting, was him do his worst ; and Blake, after having “ curled at that time unable to resent this impertinence of his whiskers,” (his constant custom, it is said, Omar, son of Mohammed. Her contest with when irritated,) captured two of their vessels, and England had, indeed, proved triumphant; but compelled them to sue for peace. These misunderanother such victory would have been her ruin, and standings, however, had been only temporary; and she had emerged from the conflict crippled and re- in the reign of Charles I. a treaty had been consourceless. Though sorely against her will, she cluded with them, which was then still subsisting, was compelled to " eat the leek” proffered her by and had been adhered to on their parts with tolerthe insolent dey. Washington did not, indeed, able fidelity. Some, therefore, urged, that, under send his picture, but he despatched deputies with these circumstances, it was inconsistent with good plenary powers to purchase, at any reasonable faith on our part to commence hostilities; and it price, the captured Americans. But the bill was moreover suggested, that, waiving the queswas heavy, and made out with commercial ac- tion of right or wrong, success itself would be curacy:
doubtful; for it was by no means an easy exploit For 3 Captains at 6000 dollars each 18,000
to bombard a city in which all the houses were flat2 Mates at 4000
roofed, and built of stone, after the fashion of Ro2 Passengers at 4000
setta and Buenos Ayres. 14 Seamen at 1400
To these arguments, however, it was replied
with irresistible force by the promoters of the 53,600
Algerine expedition, that the pirates, by indisFor Custom 11 per Cent, 5,896
criminately attacking all nations they fancied
weaker than themselves, had become hostes humani Total, . 59,496
generis, and out of the pale of ordinary treaties ;
that we merely owed our own exemption from inThis was more than America could at that time sult to the salutary dread they entertained of afford, and several years elapsed before such of the British guns; that, as to the difficulty of the enterprisoners as had survived their treatment, were prise, it did not become those who had sustained liberated.
the hostility of Europe, to flinch from punishing Hitherto we have seen the wicked “ flourishing half-disciplined barbarians; and, finally, that it like a green bay-tree ;' but the climax is past; was not intended to interfere with their indepenhumanity reässerts her rights; and we are about to dence, but simply to compel their adherence to record the punishment.
those principles, in their foreign intercourse, which During the struggle between Napoleon and the humanity and justice rendered imperative on every allied powers, Algiers was but little heeded. In government. vain did the expectant pirates,
These considerations prevailed ; in the summer
of the same year, a fleet was placed under the com“Gaze where some distant sail a speck supplies, mand of Edward Pellew, Admiral Lord Viscount With all the thirsting eye of enterprise. Exmouth ; and that officer was directed to obtain
from the several states of Algiers, Tripoli, and For, under the policy of Bonaparte, commerce Tunis, if possible by negotiation, but failing that, languished almost to inanition--and at a crisis by force of arms : first, the unequivocal abolition when the liberties of Europe hung suspended in of Christian slavery ; secondly, the recognition of the balance, few vessels cared to cross the seas the Ionian Islands as possessions of our crown ; and unless guarded by the all-sufficient protection of an lastly, an equitable peace for the kingdoms of SarEnglish frigate. But, when the fall of Napoleon dinia and Naples. gave tranquillity once more to the world, and men The appearance of the English squadron off the began again to busy themselves with trade, and in coast of Barbary apparently sufficed to obtain all the pursuit of riches, the piracies committed by the these concessions. With regard, indeed, to the