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by the usual tenant, and soon showed that he had | interest, and though not the complete combustion the worst of the combat: so severely was he of water predicted by Sir Humphry Davy, is at treated, that he was taken up by the gardener, and all events, as every one must admit, an imporheld in his hand, where he lay struggling and pant- tant step in the right direction.— Chambers' Jouring for breath. The victor, however, was not thus nal. to be deterred from further wreaking his vengeance upon the intruder. He boldly flew and alighted THE “ GOVERNMENT CLASS" AT SYDNEY. upon the hand of the gardener; and forthwith pro-j“ It may be worth while here, suppressing names ceeded to peck the head of his victim, and buffet and dates, to give an instance of the feeling which him in such a manner that he would soon have put exists among what are called the 'free,' in oppohim hors de combat, had not the gardener carried sition to the government classes, now emancihim out, and turned him off at some distance from pated, and possessing the same political rights and the building.”

privileges with the others. Several attempts have

been made to conclude a treaty of alliance between BURNING OF WATER.-It was once remarked by failed before the invincible prejudices of hereditary

them, but in vain. All endeavors hitherto have a celebrated chemist, when speaking of the proba- virtue ; and there seems every possibility of the

; ble exhaustion of our coal-fields, that he had little fear for that event, as long ere then the progress is not as its neighbors are-sons and daughters of

permanent existence of a class which thanks God it of science would have enabled man to support the combustion of water. Extravagant as this opinion publicans and sinners. The prejudices entertained may appear to the unscientific, there is nothing against the black natives have been partially

overmore likely. Water is a compound of oxygen and come, by a matrimonial alliance at Swan River. hydrogen—two gases without which it would be

It was thought, therefore, that if a marriage beimpossible to eliminate a single phenomenon of them being of convict descent, were brought about,

tween persons of a distinguished position, one of combustion. Thus the gas which we burn in our houses is carburetted hydrogen ; that is, a com

a great slep would have been taken. A couple pound of carbon and hydrogen, which, on ignition, answering this description existed. The accomgives us light and heat only when in a medium plished and beautiful daughter of a man of wealth, containing oxygen-such as the

who had been one of the compulsory founders of

atmosphere. Here, then, hydrogen and oxygen play most im- the state, was betrothed to a young man glorying

in all the pride of honest blood. The marriage portant parts ; and could we resolve water into its elements

, which it is quite possible to do, all that took place; the bride was given away by the is necessary to produce heat and light is a little governor of the colony. The public looked on in carbon. But we are not left to speculate on this seeming approval; and as soon as the reluctance

of the matter; the thing has been so far done by M.

young wife to appear in public was overJobard ; and gas made from water, possessing come, she entered, leaning on the arm of her husdouble the illuminating properties of ordinary coa band, a ball-room filled with all the rank and

fashion of Sydney. gas, has been used both in France and in our own

A titter ran round; there was country. M. Jobard obtains his hydrogen gas by changing of glances, and lossing of heads, and

shaking of fans, and rustling of gowns, and exthe decomposition of steam in vertical retorts filled with incandescent coke, and unites this gas, at the whisperings. Suddenly every kind and charitable moment of formation, with hyper-carburetted gas, and in a few minutes all the rank and fashion of

lady rose from her seat, the dance was broken up, produced by the distillation of any hydro-carburet Sydney had disappeared ; and even the hostess; --as oil, tar, naphthaline, and other products at who had magnanimously issued the invitation, awed present rejected by our ordinary gas-works. It is of no moment whence his hydro-carhurets are pro- advance to console the confounded' and weeping

by this expression of public opinion, dared scarcely duced ; indeed, the substances which are rendered

cause of all this confusion ! useless and injurious to the manufacture of the gas,

“ Another instance will exhibit the state of feelby the present mode of operating, are precisely ing among the reprobates themselves. They have those which are the richest in illuminating proper- been taught to caricature the feelings of the free. tics. M. Jobard's process and its details have been submitted, since its invention in 1833; to several Because these will not associate with the descendcommissions of inquiry both in Belgium and France, who are not descendants of rogues. A public din

ants of rogues, those will not associate with any and the reports of these have been uniformly favorable both as to its cheapness and the higher illumi- ner was given by this class, to which the doctor nating power of the gas so produced. In a recent Great was the joviality among these sinners, and

who took care of their bodily health was invited. number of the “ Bulletin du Musée d'Industrie, the inventor gives a full account of his

toasts of all kinds were drunk. Our medical friend

, which is about to become public property; and got on his legs, to answer for his profession ; when mentions that it has been used in a manufactory descent were undoubted, and insisted that, because

suddenly a man arose, whose claims to Newgate near St. Etienne, in Dijon and Strasburg, partially the son of Æsculapius was a white sheep, he could in Lyons and Paris, and by private individuals in Dublin and London. He modestly concludes his not be heard. No sooner was this hint given, than paper by observing, that he will not be accused of divers significant glances were cast on the worthy exaggeration when he states " that there is some

doctor, who stood almost overwhelmed by the imvalue in a process, the principle of which is to deputation. At length, mustering courage, he recompose water, a substance of no value, by means denied the purity of his descent, and, for fear of

pelled the charge of his honorable friend,' of coke, which is of very little value—as under this falling a victim to the exclusive dealing system, process one pound of oil

, which costs a halfpenny, actually proved, by a long genealogical deduction, will supply a burner giving a light equal to ten his relationship with some notorious convicts.” candies during twenty hours. M. Jobard's is certainly a discovery of great

Foreign Quarterly Review.

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SlighT CIRCUMSTANCES.- -Sir Walter Scott, phur, is fastened with an air-tight cover, which walking one day along the banks of the Yarrow, has a small tube, into which a small hose, conwhere Mungo Park was born, saw the traveller nected with a bellows, is inserted. The pan is throwing stones into the water, and anxiously held by an upper and a side handle. The night watching the bubbles that succeeded. Scott in- before it is used the field is surveyed, and all open quired the object of his occupation. “I was think- mouse-holes are trodden close. In the morning, ing,” answered Park,“ how often I had thus tried such as are reöpened indicate those which are to sound the rivers in Africa, by calculating how tenanted, and one being selected, the lower part of long a time had elapsed before the bubbles rose to the pan is pressed against it, and the bellows being the surface." It was a slight circumstance, but set to work, the smoke issues from the orifice near the traveller's safety frequently depended upon it. the grating, and penetrates into the runs and In a watch, the mainspring forms a small portion galleries that connect the holes. A number of of the works, but it impels and governs the whole. assistants are required to tread the crevices close So it is in the machinery of human life-a slight through which the smoke is seen to escape ; and circumstance is permitted by the Divine Ruler to if all due precautions be taken, great numbers of derange or to alter it : a giant falls by a pebble ; a these diminutive enemies may be slaughtered, and girl at the door of an inn changes the fortune of an at the same time buried, in their subterranean empire. If the nose of Cleopatra had been shorter, holds.-Banfield's Industry of the Rhine. said Pascal in his epigrammatic and brilliant man

ner, the condition of the world would have been different. The Mohammedans have a tradition,

WE MUST INVADE IRELAND.-Ireland was Peel's

Ireland will be Russell's that when their prophet concealed himself in difficulty: he said so. Mount Shur, his pursuers were deceived by a who shall attempt to govern her peaceably: she is

difficulty. She will be the difficulty of everybody spider's web, which covered the mouth of the Luther might have been a lawyer, had his becoming even a difficulty to O'Connell; thanks

small thanks>to Mr. Smith O'Brien. friend and companion escaped the thunder storm at

The fact is, as we have heard many respectable Erfurt ; Scotland had wanted her stern reformer, if the appeal of the preacher had not startled him old gentlemen declare, that Ireland is not yet conin the chapel of St. Andrew's castle ; and if Mr. quered; and conquered she must be. We there Grenville had not carried, in 1746, his memorable fore plainly and plumply, without mincing the mat

ter, recommend an invasion of Ireland. resolution as to the expediency of charging “ cer

Not from the vain wish to parade our skill in tain stamp duties” on the plantations in America,

purest patriotism, the western world might still have bowed to the strategy, but from motives of British sceptre. Cowley might never have been a

do we propose the following arrangement of the poet, if he had not found the Faery Queen in his invading forces :mother's parlor ; Opie might have perished in the 1st Life Potatoes, who are to shower the effec

The van is to consist of grenadiers, to be called mute obscurity, if he had not looked over the tive missile they take their name from on the quarshoulder of his young companion, Mark Oates, ters where it is most needed. while he was drawing a butterfly ; Giotto, one of the early Florentine painters, might have continued Bread and Meat Brigade ; troops that may be de

The right wing is to be formed of the Household a rude shepherd-boy, if a sheep drawn by him upon pended upon for giving the enemy a bellyful. They a stone had not attracted the notice of Cimabue as he went that way.—Asiatic Journal.

are to be instructed to give no quarter, except the quartern loaf. The left shall be constituted by the

Meavy (Barclay's) Dragoons, who will have formed MICE IN GERMANY.—A plague peculiar to the a junction with Guinness' regiment at Dublin. dry districts along the Rhine is found in the mice, These stout fellows will soon drench all their adverwhich, in a fine season, swarm in such myriads, saries. In the centre shall be stationed the Light that whole fields are devastated where no energetic Eatables and Drinkables. The old Coercion Commeans are adopted for destroying them. It is true pany is to be disbanded as useless, even as a forlorn that the winter frosts and spring floods cleanse the

hope. fields, to all appearance, thoronghly of this nui

The whole army is to be flanked by a squadron sance ; yet, if the month of May be fine, they of schoolmasters, who are to form a corps de reserve, appear in August with undiminished force. In to act only when the victory is decided, in order to various villages, the remedies attempted are differ- complete and secure it. For, till the operations

Sometimes a reward in money is offered per of the Provisional Battalion have been successful, one hundred skins, and the youthful population is the services of the scholastic force will be unavailencouraged to exert its skill and passion for the ing. The former, however, having broken the enchase on the modern hydra. All such efforts emy's line, his utier route and discomfiture by the prove, however, ineffectual to keep down the num- latter is inevitable.—Punch. bers of the general fue, whose paths across a cornfield are nearly as broad as those trodden by single foot-passengers,

while the hoard abstracted from New Sign of Death.—The following discovery his crop is estimated by the farmer from the num- may be of great service in cases of suspected death. ber of straws nibbled off at a short distance from the communication was lately made to the Royal the ground, the ears from which have disappeared Academy of Sciences, Paris, by M. Ripault, who, in within the subterranean labyrinths, that often directing the attention of members to the discovery, repay the labor of digging up. In the neighbor- observed, that it consisted in perfect faccidity of the hood of Jülich a mode of smoking out the mice has iris when the globe of the eye is compressed in two been introduced from Belgium. °An iron pan, two opposite directions. If the individual be living, the feet high, has at bottom a grating supported by pupil retains its circular form, notwithstanding the a pin. On the grating, some charcoal is laid, and and the circular forin is lost.

compression ; if dead, the aperture becomes irregular, the pan, when filled with rags, leather, and sul

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From the Athenæum. Kingdom, you are for the first time assembled in SIXTEENTH MEETING OF THE BRITISH ASSO- tion of the authorities and inhabitants of Southamp

the southeastern districts of England, at the solicitaCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF

ton. Easily accessible on all sides to the cultivaSCIENCE.

tors of science, this beautiful and flourishing seaSOUTHAMPTON, SEPT. 9.

port is situated in a district so richly adorned by

nature, so full of objects for scientific contemplaGeneral Committee.

tion, that, supported as we are by new friends in The committee assembled in the town hall, at England, and by old friends from the farthest reone o'clock, and the chair was taken by the presi- gions of Europe, we shall indeed be wanting to dent, Sir John Herschel.

ourselves, if our proceedings on this occasion should The secretary read the report of the council; not sustain the high character which the British which congratulated the association on the success

Association has hitherto maintained. of the application made to her majesty's govern

For my own part, though deeply conscious of ment for carrying into effect the recommendations my inferiority to my eminent predecessor in the respecting magnetic and meteorological observa- higher branches of science, I still venture to hope tions adopted at the Cambridge meeting, (Ath. No. that the devotion I have manifested to this associa922.] Sir R. Peel had recognized the importance tion from its origin to the present day, may be of having these observations regularly made at the viewed by you as a guarantee for the zealous exeBritish observatories, and in the colonies; and the cution of my duties. Permit me, then, gentlemen, East India Company had given directions for their to offer you my warmest acknowledgments for continuance at Fort William, Bombay, and Ma- having placed me in this honorable position ; and dras. They are to be continued, also, at Toronto to assure you, that I value the approbation which it and St. Helena ; and arrangements are in progress implies as the highest honor which could have been for establishing them at Paramatta and the Cape bestowed on me—an honor the more esteemed from of Good Hope. The magnetic survey of the East its being conferred in a county endeared to me hy India seas is in progress; and so is that of Hud- family connexions, and in which I rejoice to have son's Bay—which will connect itself with Sir John made my first essay as a geologist. Franklin's survey of the northern parts of Ameri

The origin, progress, and objects of this our ca. Through the Earl of Aberdeen, application“ parliament of science” have been so thoroughly was made to foreign governments for the commu

explained on former occasions by your successive nication of such observations as had been made presidents, particularly in reference to that porunder their directions, and favorable answers had tion of our body which cultivates the mathematical, been received. Her majesty's government had chemical, and mechanical sciences, that after briefpromised a favorable consideration to the applica- ly alluding to some of the chief results of bygone tion made by the association and the Royal Socie- years, with a view of impressing upon our new ty, conjointly, that a premium should be offered for members the general advances we have made, I itaprovements in the construction of magnetic and shall in this discourse dwell more particularly on meteorological instruments; and the Royal Society the recent progress and present state of natural had given the sum of £50, from the Wollaston history, the department of knowledge with which fund, for the construction of a self-registering in my own pursuits have been most connected, whilst strument of this kind, at the association's observa- I shall also incidentally advert to some of the protory at Kew.

ceedings which are likely to occupy our attention On the motion of Sir Roderick Impey Murchi- during this meeting. son, the president elect, seconded by the Marquis

No sooner, gentlemen, had this association fully of Northampton, it was resolved that his royal established its character as a legitimate representahighness Prince Albert having signified his inten- tive of the science of the United Kingdom, and by tion to visit the association and attend the opening the reports which it had published, the researches meeting, the association do elect him their sole which it had instituted, and the other substantial honorary member. The motion was carried by ac

services which it had rendered to science, had seclamation.

cured public respect, than it proceeded towards the fulfilment of the last of the great objects which a

Brewster and a Harcourt contemplated at its founThe business of the sections-seven in number to important national points of scientific interest.

dation, by inviting the attention of the government --commenced in the morning ; but we shall post- At the fourth meeting, held in Edinburgh, the aspone our report of their proceedings till our next sociation memorialized the government to increase publication, for the purpose of coming at once to the forces of the Ordnance Geographical Survey of the opening general meeting and the president's Britain, and to extend speedily to Scotland the address. The expected visit of H. R. H. Prince benefits which had been already applied by that Albert attracted a large assembly; and on his ar- admirable establishment to the south of England, rival, a little after eight o'clock, Sir John Herschel Wales, and Ireland. From that time to the presopened the proceedings by announcing that he was about to vacate the chair, and make room for the isters of the day to every great scientific measure

ent it has not scrupled to call the notice of the minpresident elect, Sir R. I. Murchison. In doing so, which seemed, after due consideration, likely to he congratulated the association on the bright pros: promote the interests or raise the character of the pect before them of a most successful meeting at British nation. Guided in the choice of these apSouthampton. Sir R.I. Murchison then delivered plications by a committee selected from among its the annual address, as follows.

members, it has sedulously avoided the presentaThe President's Address.

tion of any request which did not rest on a rational

and our rulers, far from resisting such apGENTLEMEN,–After fifteen years of migration peals, have uniformly and cordially acquiesced in to various important cities and towns in the United ( them. Thus it was when, after paying large sums

12

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CXXVIII.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. XI.

from our own funds for the reduction of large there constructed, that I earnestly hope it may be masses of astronomical observations, we represent- sustained as heretofore by annual grants from our ed to the government the necessity of enabling the funds, particularly as it is accomplishing consideraastronomer-royal to perform the same work on the ble results at very small cost. observations of his predecessors which had accu- Our volume for the last year contains several mulated in the archives of Greenwich, our appeal communications on physical subjects from eminent was answered by arrangements for completing so foreign cultivators of science, whom we have the important a public object at the public expense. pleasure of reckoning amongst our corresponding Thus it was, when contemplating the vast acces- members, and whose communications, according to sion to pure science as well as to useful maritime the usage of the association, have been printed enknowledge to be gained by the exploration of the tire amongst the reports. In a discussion of the South Polar regions, that we gave the first impulse peculiarities by which the great comet of 1843 was to that project of the great Antarctic expedition, distinguished, Dr. von Boguslawski, of Breslau, has which, supported by the influence of the Royal So- taken the occasion to announce the probability, ciety and its noble president, obtained the full as- resting on calculations which will be published in sent of the government, and led to results which, Schumacher's " Astronomische Nachrichten, of through the merits of Sir James Ross and his com- the identity of this comet with several of a similar panions, have shed a bright lustre on our country, remarkable character recorded in history, comby copious additions to geography and natural his- mencing with the one described by Aristotle, which tory, and by affording numerous data for the devel- appeared in the year 371 before our era : should opment of the laws that regulate the magnetism of his calculations be considered to establish this fact, the earth.

Dr. von Boguslawski proposes that the comet The mention of terrestrial magnetism brings with should hereafter be distinguished by the name of it a crowd of recollections creditable to the British “ Aristotle's comet.” This communication conAssociation, from the perspicuous manner in which tains also some highly ingenious and important conevery portion of fresh knowledge on this important siderations relating to the physical causes of the subject has been stored up in our volumes, with a phenomena of the tails of comets. view to generalization, by Colonel Sabine and Dr. Paul Erman, of Berlin, father of the advenothers; whilst a wide field for its diffusion and turous geographical explorer and magnetician who combination has been secured by the congress was one of the active members of the magnetic conheld at our last meeting, at which some of the gress at Cambridge, has communicated through his most distinguished foreign and British magneticians son some interesting experiments on the electrowere assembled under the presidency of Sir John dynamic effects of the friction of conducting subHerschel

stances, and has pointed out the differences beIt is indeed most satisfactory for us to know, that tween these and normal thermo-electric effects. not only did all the recommendations of the associa- Baron von Senftenberg (who is an admirable extion on this subject which were presented to our ample of how much may be done by a liberal zeal government meet with a most favorable reception, for science combined with an independent fortune) but that, in consequence of the representations made has published an account of the success with by her majesty's secretary of state for foreign af- which self-registering meteorological instruments fairs to the public authorities of other countries have been established at his observatory at Seuwhich had previously taken part in the system of tenburg, as well as at the national observatory at coöperative observation, the governments of Rus- Prague. sia, Austria, Prussia, and Belgium have notified Of our own members, Mr. Birt has contributed a their intention of continuing their respective mag- second report on atmospheric waves, in continuanetical and meteorological observations for another tion of the investigation which originated in the disterm of three years.

cussion by Sir John Herschel, of the meteorologiIn passing by other instances in which public lib. cal observations which, at his suggestion, were erality has been directed to channels of knowledge made in various parts of the globe, at the periods which required opening out, I must not omit to no- of the equinoxes and solstices, commencing with tice the grant obtained from our gracious sovereign, the year 1834. of the royal observatory at Kew, which, previously In a communication to the meeting of the assodismantled of its astronomical instruments, has been ciation at York, Colonel Sabine traced with great converted by us into a station for observations pure-clearness (from the hourly observations at Toronto) ly physical, and especially for those details of at- the effect of the single diurnal and single annual mospheric phenomena which are so minute and progressions of temperature, in producing on the numerous, and require such unremitting attention, mixed vapors and gaseous elements of the atmosthat they imperiously call for separate establish- phere, the well-known progressions of daily and

In realizing this principle, we can now yearly barometrical pressure. To the conclusions refer British and foreign philosophers to the obser- which he then presented, and which apply, perhaps yatory of the British Association at Kew, where I generally, to situations not greatly elevated in the have the authority of most adequate judges for say- interior of large tracts of land, the same author has ing they will find that a great amount of electrical added, in the last volume, a valuable explanation of and meteorological observation has been made, and the more complicated phenomena which happened a systematic inquiry into the intricate subject of at- at points where land and sea breezes, flowing with mospheric electricity carried out, by Mr. Ronalds, regularity, modify periodically and locally the conunder the suggestions of Prof. Wheatstone, to stitution and pressure of the atmosphere. Taking which no higher praise can be given than that it for his data the two-hourly observations executed at has, in fact, furnished the model of the processes the observatory of Bombay by Dr. Buist, Colonel conducted at the royal observatory of Greenwich. Sabine has succeeded in demonstrating for this loThis establishment is besides so useful through the cality a double-daily progression of gaseous pressure, facilities which it offers for researches into the in accordance with the flow and re-flow of the air working of self-registering instruments which are from surfaces of land and water which are unequally

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effected by heat. And thus the diurnal variation sal-ammoniac may daily be collected at the single of the daily pressure at a point within the tropics, establishment of Alfreton, where the experiments and on the margin of the sea, is explained by the were made ;-thus leading us to infer that in the same reasoning which was suggested by facts ob- iron-furnaces of Britain there may be obtained from served in the interior of the vast continent of North vapor which now passes away, an enormous quanAmerica.

tity of this valuable substance, which would mateAmong the many useful national objects which rially lessen the dependence of our agriculturists have been promoted by the physical researches of on foreign guano. It is indeed most gratifying to the British Association, there is one which calls observe, that in pursuing this inquiry into the gasfor marked notice at this time, in the proposal of eous contents of a blazing furnace of great height, Mr. Robert Stephenson to carry an iron tube, or our associates traced out, foot by foot, the most suspended tunnel, over the Menai Straits, to sus- recondite chemical processes, and described the tain the great railway to Holyhead. This bold fiery products with the same accuracy as if their proposal could never have been realized if that researches had been made on the table of a laboraeminent engineer had not been acquainted with the tory. great progress recently made in the knowledge of Weighed, however, only in the scales of absothe strength of materials, and especially of iron ; lute and immediate utility, the remarkable results such knowledge being in great measure due to in- of these skilful and elaborate experiments give vestigations in which the association has taken and them a character of national importance, and justly is still taking a conspicuous share, by the devotion entitle the authors and the body which has aided of its friends and the employment of its influence-them to the public thanks. investigations which have been prosecuted with After this glance at the subjects of purely physigreat zeal and success by its valued members, Mr. cal science treated of in the last volume of our Hodgkinson and Mr. Fairbairn.

Transactions, let us now consider the domains of Whilst on this topic I may observe, that in the Natural History :-and, as one of the cultivators recent improvements in railways the aid of scientific of a science which has derived its main support investigation was called for by the civil engineer, to and most of its new and enlarged views from natuassist him in determining with accuracy the power ralists, let me express the obligation which geoloto be provided for attaining the high velocities of gists are under to this association, for having aided fifty and sixty miles an hour; and it was found so effectively in bringing forth the zoological reand admitted by the most eminent engineers, that searches of "Owen, Agassiz, and Edward Forbes. the very best data for this purpose, and indeed These three distinguished men have themselves the only experiments of any practical value, were announced, that in default of its countenance and those which had been provided for some years ago assistance, they would not have undertaken, and by a committee of the British Association, and never could have completed, some of their most published in our transactions. The Institution important inquiries. Agassiz, for example, had of Civil Engineers thus gave testimony to the not otherwise the means of comparing the ichthyopractical value of our researches by adopting their lites of the British isles with those of the continent results.

of Europe. Without this impulse, Owen would However imperfect my knowledge of such sub- not have applied his profound knowledge of comjects may be, I must now notice that the last vol- parative anatomy to British fossil saurians ; and ume of our Reports contains two contributions to Edward Forbes' might never have been the exexperimental philosophy, in which subjects of the plorer of the depths of the Ægean, nor have redeepest theoretical and practical interest have been vealed many hitherto unknown laws of submarine elucidated, at the request of the association, by the life, if his wishes and suggestions had not met with labors of its foreign coadjutors.

the warm support of this body, and been supported That some substance of a peculiar kind every- by its strongest recommendations to the naval auwhere exists, or is formed in the atmosphere by thorities. electrical agency, both natural and artificial, had These allusions to naturalists, whose works have long been suspected, especially from the persist- afforded the firmest supports to geology, might lead ency of the odor developed by such agency, and me to dilate at length on the recent progress of this its transference by contact to other matter. Prof. science ; but as the subject has been copiously Schönbein, to whom I shall hereafter avert as the treated at successive anniversaries of the Geological author of a new practical discovery, is, however, Society of London, and has had its recent advances the first philosopher who undertook to investigate so clearly enunciated by the actual president of that the nature of that substance; and though the in- body who now presides over our geological section, vestigation is not yet complete, he has been enabled I shall restrain my “esprit de corps” whilst I briefly to report no inconsiderable progress in this difficult advert to some of the prominent advances which and refined subject of research.

geologists have made. When our associate ConyA request from the association to Prof. Bunsen, beare reported to us, at our second meeting, on the of Marburg, and our countryman, Dr. Lyon Play- actual state and ulterior prospects of what he well fair, coupled with a contribution of small amount termed the “ archæology of the globe,” he dwelt towards the expenses involved in the undertaking, with justice on the numerous researches in different has produced a report on the conditions and pro- countries which had clearly established the history ducts of iron furnaces, which is of the greatest of a descent as it were into the bowels of the earth value in a commercial view to one of the most im- -which led us, in a word, downwards through portant of our manufactures, and possesses at the those newer deposits that connect high antiquity same time a very high interest to chemical science with our own period, into those strata which supin some of the views which it develops. On the port our great British coalfields. Beyond this, howone hand, it exhibits an entirely new theory of the ever, the perspective was dark and doubtful— reduction, by cyanogen gas as the chief agent, of iron from the ore : on the other it shows, that in

Res altâ terrâ et caligine mersas. addition to a vast saving of fuel, about two cwt. of Now, however, we have dispersed this gloom; and

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