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and the increasing reports of fire arms were heard. retribution, the implements, the proper use of The superior officers standing in the embrasures of which had been destroyed by the ordonnances, the windows, witnessed the turns of the day with were thus converted into offensive engines directed attentive ear and changing features.

against the agents employed to enforce these When M. Arago entered, presenting his well- ordonnances. known colossal figure, his commanding bust, and The marshal paced the room with hasty and ardent look, there was a movement of agitation agitated steps, his internal struggles being maniamong the royalist officers. He was surrounded fest in his visage. “ Reinforcements !” said he, and addressed with expressions of fear by some, with impatience, to the aid-de-camp—“I have no of menace by others. A Polish officer in the reinforcements to send them. They must get out . French service, M. Komierowski, placed himself of the scrape as best they can.” at his side, and declared that if a hand were raised The officer departed with despair in his looks. against him, he would plunge his sabre in the Arago resumed his persuasions. bosom of him who should attempt such a violation "Well, well,” said Marmont, we shall see of a person so sacred ! Conducted to the presence -perhaps in the evening”. of Marmont, the marshal on seeing him, started on “In the evening !" rejoined Arago. “In the his feet, extending his arm to forbid his approach. evening it will be too late. Think how many "Make no

to me,” he exclaimed, mothers will be left childless, how many wives, " which can tend to my dishonor as a soldier." widows-how many thousand families will be

" What I come to propose to you,” replied plunged in mourning before evening! This evenArago, " will, on the contrary, redound to your ing, depend on it, all will be over, and whatever be honor. I do not ask you to turn your sword the issue of the struggle, ruin, certain, inevitable against Charles X., but I tell you to decline this ruin awaits you. Vanquished, your destruction is odious command, and leave instantly for St. Cloud, sure. A conqueror, who will pardon you for the blood lo surrender your commission."

of your fellow-citizens which will have been shed ?" “How !'' returned Marmont, “ shall I abandon Marmont was moved, and seemed to yield. the command which the king has entrusted to me? “Must I say more," continued Arago—“ must Shall I, a soldier, yield to a band of insurgents? I tell you all. As I passed through the streets, I What will Europe say to see our brave soldiers heard among the people your name repeated with retreat before a mob armed only with sticks and terrible references to past events— So they fire on stones? Impossible !—impossible! It cannot be the people, they cried— it is Marmont who is You know my opinions well

. You know whether paying his debts." these cursed ordonnances had my approval. No, Arago's efforts were fruitless. my friend, a horrible fatality weighs upon me. My Not long after the revolution, science lost in destiny must be accomplished.”

Cuvier one of its brightest ornaments. The chair " You may successfully combat this fatality," of perpetual secretary to the Institute was thus replied Arago ; means are offered 10 you to esface vacated in 1832, and the choice of a successor to from the memory of your countrymen the recol- the illustrious naturalist fell upon Arago. lection of the invasion of 1814. Depart—depart, We have hinted that the place which Arago without delay, for St. Cloud."

holds in the estimation of men of science is not so Arago referred to the long and bitterly-remem- elevated as that to which the popular voice has bered conduct of Marmont, in being the means of raised him. It may perhaps, therefore, be asked, surrendering Paris to the enemy, on the first inva- how so high a situation, depending solely on the sion by the allies.

votes of members of the Institute, should have At this moment their conference was interrupted been conferred upon him. by an officer, who rushed in with disordered looks, The office of perpetual secretary demands pecustripped of his coat, and wearing the common liar qualifications. It is one for which a Laplace round hat of a civilian. The attendants alarmed, or a Lagrange would have been ill suited, eminent were about to seize him, when he exclaimed, as these savans were. The perpetual secretary, throwing off the hat, “ You do not recognize me, the organ of the Academy of Sciences, has daily then ? Behold the aid-de-camp of General Quin- duties to discharge which demand great versatility, sonnas." He had cut off his moustachios, thrown a ready fluency of speech, a familiarity with lanoff his coat, and changed his hat, to enable him ta guages ancient and modern—in a word, a certain make his way in safety through the excited popu- amount of literary acquirement, in addition to an lace to the head quarters. He came to announce almost universal familiarity with the sciences. that the troops posted in the Market of Innocents Arago has been called the “most lettered of had already suffered much, and that a reinforce- savans. If he had not assumed a place in the ment was necessary.

Académie des Sciences, he would have held a dis“But have they not cannon ?" thundered the tinguished one in the Académie Française. * His astonished marshal.

style of writing and speaking is remarkable for its “Cannon!” returned the aid-de-camp, “but simplicity and clearness, as well as for great force how, Monsieur le Duc, can they point cannon in of language, great felicity of illustration, and a the air ? What can cannon do against a torrent of most enviable power of rendering abstruse reasonpaving stones and household furniture which are ings familiar to minds which are not versed in the poured down on the heads of the soldiers from the sciences. The promptitude and fluency of his exwindows and roofs ?

temporaneous addresses is also a quality to which Scarcely had he uttered this, when a lancer he is indebted for much of his popularity. He entered, who had been unhorsed in the Rue St. unites to the accomplishments of a classical scholar, Honoré. This wretched soldier had his uniform torn and covered with blood. His open jacket

* The Institute consists of several academies, the first showed his naked breast, in which a handful of of which is called the Académie Française, 'which is

charged with the preservation of the French language in printers' types was buried-the loading of a gun its purity, and is that to wbich men of literature are which had been fired upon him! By a singular more specially attached.


an intimate familiarity with modern literature, and ness of life, and often occupied in daily toil, cannot especially those of France and England.

sit down to familiarize their minds with the techniIt may well be imagined that such a combination calities of science ; nor can they approach its truths of qualifications rendered him eminently fitted to by the severe paths marked out for the rigorously discharge the duties of perpetual secretary to the disciplined students of academies and universities. Institute. In seniority, and in the depth of his A new style of instruction, written as well as oral, physical knowledge, and the extent of his original by printed books as well as by spoken lectures, researches, Biot had higher claims; but in other was, therefore, called into existence. Mechanics' respects his qualifications did not bear comparison institutions took the lead in this intellectual revoluwith those of M. Arago.

tion. At first those who lent themselves to the The reputation of scientific men, so far as it innovation were regarded with a sinister look by rests upon the estimation of their colleagues, is their learned colleagues. The great leaders of the determined almost exclusively by their original re- scientific corps stood aloof. The intrinsic utility searches. The discovery of new laws or unob- of the thing, and the irresistible character of the served phenomena of nature, is admitted as giving public demand for it in every country holding any them a claim to the highest grade in the corps of degree of advancement, forced forward the imscience. Had Newton only discovered the law of provement; and at length some of the most emigravitation, he would have left to posterity an im- nent names were found amongst the laborers in this perishable name. The discovery of electro-mag- new field of scientific distinction. netism placed Oersted in the highest rank. The First and most honored stands the name of demonstration that the earths and alkalis are com- Henry Brougham. In establishing the “ Library pounds, having metallic bases, registered the name of Useful Knowledge,” and affording an example of Davy in the category of those to whom mankind and a pattern at once for the works which were to is most deeply indebted for the knowledge of compose it, in his beautiful " Discourse upon the nature.

Objects and Pleasures of Science," he gave the Secondary to discovery, but still affording a high first great impulse to the movement. This was claim to distinction, is the production of systematic soon followed by the publication of Dr." Lardner's works, in which the body of natural laws and phe- Cabinet Cyclopedia,” the scientific section of which nomena, resulting from the original researches of was designed on a similar plan, but with somewha: discoverers, are arranged, expounded, developed, an higher aim. Among the volumes that were and pursued through their more immediate conse- produced in this miscellany, the work of Sir John quences.

Herschel, entitled “A Preliminary Discourse on It is uncertain whether Euclid ever discovered a Natural Philosophy,” formed an era in this kind geometrical truth. It is certain that the chief part of composition, and an event in the progress of of the propositions which composed his “ Elements scientific literature, which can never be forgotten ; were known to his immediate predecessors, and this work, which the venerated Mackintosh prothat some of_them were ancient, having been nounced the most remarkable philosophical treatise brought from Egypt and the East, by Pythagoras which had appeared since the death of Bacon. and others. No one, however, can deny the gen- In examining the pretensions of M. Arago, and uineness of the fame which has surrounded the arriving at a just decision on the question raised name of the immortal author of the celebrated between those whose idol he is, on the one hand, “ Elements."

and those who would reduce him to the lowest Had Laplace never brought to light any of the rank in the community of science, on the other, it great general laws of physics, which enter into the is necessary to keep in view these distinctions. composition of the "Mecanique Celeste,” yet that In original research, in observation and experiwork itself would have been a bequest to succeed- ment, that highest field of scientific labor, M. ing generations, which would have registered the Arago, say his detractors, “ has done nothing.' name of its author in a high rank of philosophers. This statement is easily confuted. We have al

As the printing-press and the steam-engine have, ready related his early labors on the measurement by their combined power, tended to elevate the less of the meridional are in conjunction with M. Biot. informed classes of every civilized people, by mul- It may be admitted that in this there was nothing tiplying the means for the diffusion of knowledge, more than a fair promise in a young savant, which and by giving immensely increased facility, cheap- was appropriately and sufficiently rewarded by the ness, and expedition to the interfusion of all classes, distinction immediately conferred upon him. thus imparting, by mere social contact, the eleva- In the year 1829, however, the Royal Society tion of the more enlightened to the less informed, of London conferred upon him the Copley medal, an and without lowering the former, raising the latter, annual mark of honor, which is granted by that new intellectual exigencies have arisen ; philoso- society to persons who by their original researches phers have more varied calls on them. Their fel- promote the advancement of physical science. It low-men ask them for the blessings of instruction was conferred on M. Arago for his discoveries conin such form and measure as the duty of their nected with the development of magnetism by rotaavocations allow them to receive it. They knock tion ; an inquiry in which he was immediately folat the gates of the temple of science, and suppli- lowed by the labors of Babbage and Herschel. cate that they may be thrown open to the world, His countrymen esteem this mark of distinction to and that all be admitted to worship and fall down have brought with it more than usual honor, from in the “ intima penetralia."

the consideration that M. Arago had frequently In a word, the public within the last half cen- rendered himself conspicuous by his efforts to wrest tury, have called aloud for a system of adult in- from British savans the merit claimed for them as struction, more especially directed to the develop- inventors and discoverers, an example of which is ment of the laws and phenomena of nature, and to adduced in his researches into the early history of their most prominent applications to the uses of the steam-engine, in which he is regarded in France life.

as having proved that that machine is of French But adult learners, engaged in the active busi-J invention. Those, however, who better know the

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feelings which animate the council of the Royal equals—no superior. In the scientific essays of Society in the distribution of scientific honors, are Lord Brougham there are many qualities unfolded aware how utterly groundless such ideas are. which exhibit the same character of genius. In

M. Arago was associated with Gay Lussac in deed, between these two illustrious men there are conducting the series of experiments by which the many analogies sufficiently striking.

Both are table exhibiting the relation between the pressure gifted with the same fluency, ease, simplicity, and and temperature of steam was extended to the clearness. Both have the rare facility of renderhighest practicable degrees of tension.

ing simple that which is complicated ; of shedding Besides those we have just mentioned, may be the light of their mind on that which is obscure; found a few other instances of original research of clearing to the uninitiated the thorny paths that scattered through the proceedings of the Institute, lead to the temple of scier.ce. Both have been and scientific periodicals.

the ardent apostles of the diffusion of knowledge, Admitting to these all the credit that can be and have stimulated others in the prosecution of fairly claimed for them, when it is considered that that holy labor, by precept and example. Both forty years have now elapsed since the labors of have combined the character apparently incompatithis savant commenced ; that he is a member of the ble, of the politician who rushes into the conflict Institute of thirty-seven years' standing; that at of the chambers and mounts the rostrum of the the head of the Observatory, and in the laboratory popular assembly, with that of the grave instructor, and cabinets of the Polytechnic School, he had who unfolds the laws of the physical universe, means of experimental inquiry and observation on reads to his astonished auditors what has been an unusually large and liberal scale at his absolute going on in the heavens for countless ages gone by, command, it cannot be maintained that there is and foretells what will happen there for countless anything in these labors and researches to form the ages to come. foundation for the widely-extended reputation which As a savant, we find many points of resemblance he enjoys.

between Arago and Sir John Herschel. The M. Arago is not the author of any systematic celebrated discourse on Natural Philosophy exwork in any branch of science.

hibits, in the felicity of its style of exposition and In the two departments of scientific labor which illustration, those endowments which have contribare considered as giving a title to the highest rep- uted to raise Arago to so high a pitch of popuutation, M. Arago has therefore done nothing in larity. any degree proportionate to the fame and populari- As an oral teacher, Faraday exhibits, though in ty which surround his name.

an inferior degree, the qualities which annually In those labors which are directed to popularize attract such crowds to the astronomical lectures and diffuse science—to bring it to the doors of the delivered at the observatoire. man of the world—to adorn it with the graces of Though not deficient in some familiarity with the eloquence, Arago stands forward preëminent. This pure mathematics, M. Arago has not acquired that is the source of his popularity, and the foundation profound knowledge of them which his scientfic of his fame.

position is considered to demand. That he is not It has been the laudable practice of the Institute ignorant, as some of his detractors have said, of to commemorate each of its most distinguished this branch of science, is proved by the chair he members, after their decease, by a public eulogy or filled for so many years in the Polytechnic School. “ eloge,” which is read at one of its meetings, and But that he has not, on the other hand, prosecuted published in its transactions. These eloges are these studies so as to avail himself of them to any biographical sketches, in which the things which considerable extent, is equally certain. have been done or written for the advancement of It has been objected, that nothing contributing science by the departed member, are explained and materially to the advancement of practical astrononarrated with that encomium which such an occa- my, has issued from the observatory under his sion requires.

directorship ; that he is neither an observer himIn the composition of those eloges, Arago has self, nor has he the power of turning the observaobtained a great celebrity. No one living, per- tions of his assistants to profitable account. haps, combines so many eminent qualifications for Notwithstanding that it cannot be denied, that such a task, and accordingly these essays have been such animadversions may be to some extent justiheard and read with the greatest manifestations of fied, the friends of M. Arago reply, that no savant enthusiasm, and have received marks of unqualified ever displayed more activity and untiring industry. admiration. It is usual to adapt such essays not to “ Ask,” say they,“ his assistants and colleagues scientific men only, but 10 the world in general It in the observatory respecting his course of life. is, therefore, necessary, in explaining the works They will relate to you, with unaffected astonishfrom which the deceased member has derived dis- ment, the incredible amount of mental labor which tinction, to divest the exposition of the technical he undergoes ; that he esteems that man idle who language and symbols of science, to exhibit them toils less than fourteen hours a day; that with with simplicity and clearness, and to clothe them himself, days of this kind are days of comparative in the language of eloquence and poetry. Con- rest ; they will tell you of the pile of correspondscious of his power, Arago cagerly seizes this op- ence, memorials, and petitions which daily load his portunity of displaying it, and executes his task table, relating to politics, physics, chemistry, mecon amore. Like the chisel of the sculptor, amor-chanics, astronomy, natural history, and even phious of the forms of beauty and grace which are losophy and literature ! They will tell you of his developed under its edge, the pen of Arago dwells correspondence with every part of Europe ; with with undissembled delight on the sentences of those Asia, with America, north and south ; they will charming compositions. All who are interested in tell you of the uncounted committees on politics, the literature of science, will recall the pleasure science, and the arts, of which he is an active produced by the perusal of the eloges of Volta, member; they will tell you of the plans which he Fresnel, Ampere, and Watt.

has daily to examine and report upon, of the meIo didactic eloquence, M. Arago has had few moirs he has to analyze, and of his weekly work,

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as perpetual secretary and man of all work of the volume. The tact shown in the selection of the Institute, and they will then ask you, is not that topics for the “notices" is not less striking than the enough to earn his reputation ?".

felicity of the style in which they are composed. With all these calls on his attention, no one is That a reputation has resulted from them, considermore accessible than M. Arago. The government, ing its extent and universality, altogether disproporthe municipality, public and private establishments tionate to their claims as scientific compositions, is connected with industry and the useful arts, find in undeniable; and that the reaction produced thus, him an adviser always ready and disinterested. among the scientific community, should give rise to Yet in the midst of duties so absorbing, and calls hostile strictures and depreciating animadversions so various, there is no one seen in the salons of on the author is natural. The “notices” will nevParis who shares more freely, and enjoys more ertheless be read, and the name of the writer echoed intensely the pleasures of society.

in places where these strictures shall never be heard, Arago is ambitious. He shares, in a large and at times when they shall be forgotten. measure, that love of glory which is the peculiar The convulsions which attended the Revolution attribute of his countrymen. This passion fills his of July did not suddenly terminate. They were soul. Had he been a soldier, he would have been followed from time to time by popular outbreaks in a marshal of France, the victor of an hundred Paris, in which the civil force and the militia of the fights, He seeks fame, but is not satisfied with National Guard were called upon to act. The that remote fame which comes when the bones of government itself was unsettled, and the counsellors its owner crumble in the dust. He loves immedi- of the crown, with new functions and uncertain reate honor, and thirsts for popularity. This he sponsibilities, were distracted and divided—the more courts in science, in letters, in politics ;—in the so, because, although the principle of the royal observatory, in his closet, in the senate, and at the irresponsibility was adopted in the constitution, the hustings.

personal character of Louis Philippe, not less than Arago is of an impetuous temper. A violent the exigencies and well-being of the state, did not political partisan, he carries into science and letters permit that monarch to assume the position of the Lay the spirit which' animates him in the tribune, and Figure, to which the sovereign is reduced in Engallows his estimates of the merits and claims of his land. In these emeutes, M. Arago was ofter. contemporaries to be biassed by the hostilities or the called to appear either casually, or by his office as partialities produced by their respective political a deputy, or as an officer of the National Guard. opinions. Filled with the aspiring ambition so pe- In the events which resulted in the pillage and culiar to his country, he claims for it the first and destruction of the archbishop's palace in February, highest place in everything which can elevate its 1831, and which menaced the metropolitan church fame. There is no invention in art, or discovery in of Notre Dame, he appeared as colonel of the science, which he will not strain every sinew of his twelfth legion of the National Guard. During the mind to claim for France. If he notices the steam- night of the 14th, the populace in several quarters engine, he is sure to prove that admirable machine had committed violences, which presaged the proto be of French origin ; according to him, the Phil-ceedings of the morning. At the break of day, adelphian experiment of drawing lightning from the groups had assembled in the streets around the clouds, which all the world believes to be due to Palais Royale. These avenues, however, were Franklin, is in reality due to a Frenchman. efficiently guarded, and mysterious leaders appeared

If it could be assumed that France might have among the people, who artfully directed their course existed before Paradise, M. Arago would demon- towards the Pont Neuf, and thence to the precincts strate, beyond the possibility of dispute, that Adam of Notre Dame. On the alarm being given, the and Eve were made, not as is commonly believed, drums beat to arms, and the National Guards of the by God, but by a Frenchman.

twelfth legion assembled, under the command of M. In his capacity of astronomer royal, M. Arago Arago, in the quarter of the Pantheon, whence they delivers each season, at the observatory, a course marched to the river, and crossed by the bridge near of lectures on astronomy. These are exquisite the cathedral. The adjutant of the battalion, the models of popular didactic eloquence. Notwith- Comte de Clonard, in passing the crowd, unintenstanding the inconvenient locality of the observatory, tionally struck, and mortally wounded, one of the and the inconvenient hours at which they are given, people. The bleeding man was carried on the the theatre is filled with an audience of seven or shoulders of the mob to the precincts of the church, eight hundred persons of both sexes, and of every amid shouts of vengeance. Meanwhile the Comte class, who hang on the lips of the lecturer with escaped. M. Arago, following the sufferer, had inute and unrelaxing attention—the most grateful him brought to the hospital (Hotel Dieu) near the homage to his genius.

bridge, and left him in proper medical care. He As a member of the Board of Longitude, M. had scarcely, however, reäppeared at the gate of Arago directs the publication of the “ Annuaire,” the hospital when he was surrounded by the popuan almanac issued at a low price for general use, lace, who, accusing him of the murder, dragged him by the French government. As an appendix to to the quay-wall, from which they were about to this work, notices on scientific subjects, written in a fling him into the Seine. To his courage and popular style, have for many years appeared. The presence of mind, and perhaps also to his general notices of “ The Steam-Engine, Comets,” popularity, he was indebted for his safety. “ Artesian Wells," “ Thunder and Lightning, M. Arago, returning to the head of his troop, led “Eclipses,” will be fresh in the memory of all them round the cathedral to the archbishop's palace readers. The form of its publication, the utility adjacent to it. Here a scene presented itself which of its contents and tables, and its extreme cheapness, baffles description. The iron balustrades around (it is sold in France at one franc, equal to ten- the palace had been torn down, and bent like wax pence,) have combined to give it an enormous cir- under human force. The rich apartments were culation throughout every part of the world. filled with the populace. Every window was Nothing has so largely contributed to the universal thrown open, and the demon of destruction raged diffusion of M. Arago's name as this little annual | within. Rich candelabras, paintings, costly marbles,



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ornamental tables and chairs, carved wainscoting, was in a great degree quelled. Admitted to the splendid mirrors, rare books, priceless manuscripts, cabinet of Louis Philippe he received them with his rich crucifixes, pontifical robes of cloth of gold, usual frankness and cordiality. They represented missals, were showered from every window into the that now that the victory was gained, the time for surrounding court and streets, amidst a storm of the exercise of clemency approached; that the bravos, shouts of laughter, and cries of fury. The occasion was favorable for the correction of past destroying angel seemed to fly through the build- errors ; that the moment at which the law triumphed ing.

over disorder was a fitting one for a change of sysThe ninth legion of the Guard had arrived before tem, the necessity of which was generally admitted ; Arago, and had entered both the palace and the that the popularity of the crown had been comprochurch. They were paralyzed by what they beheld, mised, party hatreds excited, civil discord awakened ; and wandered through the rooms passive spectators all which were consequences of the system of vinof the scene, without order or discipline.

dictive rigor which had been pursued. With a force inadequate to quell the emeute, M. The answer of the king vindicated the policy of Arago was compelled to look on and behold losses, his advisers, and threw on the factious, and on the irreparable to art and science, inflicted by a blind opposition themselves, the blame of the evils which and infuriate mob. He despatched one of his sub- ensued. Arago replied in language not to be misalterns (a brother of M. Montalivet) to represent at taken, that his resolution was taken not to accept head quarters what was going on, and to demand a any office under such a government. Odillon Barreinforcement. No reinforcement came, and Arago rot was uttering a like declaration when the king, became assured of what he had previously suspected, interrupting him, and striking him, with a friendly that the emeute was connived at by the government gesture, on the knee, said, “M. Barrot, I do not for sinister purposes. He was still more confirmed accept your renunciation of office.”

in this impression when he was told that distin- On the departure of the deputation the king ob3. guished persons were seen in the neighborhood dis- served to one of his intimate friends, who waited in

couraging the National Guards from interfering with an adjoining room_"M. Barrot was sententious the people. He was assured in particular that M. and gentle; M. Lafitte, solemn; and M. Arago, Thiers, then one of the under secretaries of state, extremely petulant." was seen walking round the ruins with a gratified M. Arago was elected for the first time to the look, and a smile on his lips.

Chamber of Deputies, in 1831, by the electoral colThe cathedral itself was now menaced. Some lege of his native place, Perpignan. He immedipersons had got upon the roof, apparently with the ately took his place among the party of the extreme intention of knocking down the stone cross with left, which represented opinions as republican as which it was surmounted. Meanwhile a part of the was compatible with a seat in the chamber. When mob had come round to the front gate, which they this party, before the following general election, were in the act of forcing, with the view of destroy- issued the manifesto to the electors, since known by ing the contents of the church, and attacking a the name of the “comte rendue,” which was folparty of the ninth legion which occupied it, under lowed by the dissolution of the party, Arago, who M. de Schonen. M. Arago, seeing the impending had signed that document, ranked himself with his ruin, and trembling for the precious objects of art friends, Dupont de l'Eure and Lafitte, in irreconciland relics of antiquity within, left his troop, which able enmity with the government, to which he has was stationed in an adjacent street, and traversing ever since offered the most persevering and untiring the crowd, whom his tall form overtopped by the opposition. Among his parliamentary speeches, head, rushed amongst the foremost and pointing at one of the most remarkable and successful was that the cross, exclaimed :—“Behold that cross which directed against the fortifications of Paris, and more shakes under the blows of the destroyers! Its especially against those detached forts which have height alone makes it seem small. It is in reality been erected outside the fortifications, in such posian enormous mass of stone. Would you await its tions as to command every egress from the city. fall in the midst of you, bringing with it, as it will, In 1837, when a coalition was attempted between the stone balustrade below it? Away, away, or I different sections of the opposition in the Chamber swear to you that to-night your children and your of Deputies, and an effort was prepared to resist the wives will have to weep your loss !” Saying this, corrupt influences of government at the elections, he himself suddenly retreated, putting an appearance Arago was, by common consent, associated with of fright in his looks.

Lafitte and Dupont de l'Eure to represent the deThe crowd, infected with the fear they saw man- mocratic party. The combined weight of these three ifested by one whose courage they did not doubt, names was relied on as a tower of strength. The and whose knowledge they respected, precipitately dynastic opposition was to be invited to a coalition. fled in every direction. In a moment Arago led his If it should accede, a party would be formed against troop into the place they deserted, and occupied which no ministry could stand. If not, no opposievery approach to the church.

tion could prevail which should be deprived of these On the occasion of the disturbances which took names. A committee was ultimately formed to act place in Paris on the 5th and 6th June, 1832, a upon the elections through the press, of which Armeeting of the members of the opposition was held ago was a leading member; and although the at the residence of Lafitte, at which it was resolved fusion of the two sections of the opposition was to send a deputation to the king at the Tuileries, found impracticable, much was done to augment the charged with representing to him that the existing Liberal party. Arago obtained a double return, disorders, and the blood of the people, which then being elected by two separate colleges. flowed in the streets of the capital, were the miser- The ultra-radical part which Arago has played able consequences of the policy adopted by the gov- in the chamber, and the unrelaxing and virulent ernment ever since the revolution of 1830, and to spirit of his opposition to government have, in some supplicate him to change his counsels. Thís depu- measure, impaired the benefits which the nation and tation consisted of Arago, O'dillon Barrot, and La- the government might have derived from eminent fitte. Before their arrival at the palace, the revolt (talents. His speech on the establishment of rail


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