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cast themselves without reserve upon the ruler of switch has brought back from St. Petersburg a
the great Sclavonic empire. Thus, he tells them, matured and settled plan for the redemption of
if they cannot command their own destiny as a corvées and all other rents and services in kind,
political body, they may find a new one as individ- and that it will be speedily put in operation.
uals of the same race, and have their share in the Posen is perhaps even more full of the Russian-
greatness of that union of all the Sclaves which izing ferment than any other part of Poland.
the atrocities of the stranger will have served to Nicholas thinks he acts the part of a good brother-
expedite. “ Let us begin,” he says, " to choose in-law in preventing Frederick William, by fair
freely what we have hitherto endured. As soon as means or by foul, from entangling himself in con-
we shall have ceased to bear ourselves as slaves, stitutional engagements; and therefore he is glad
our master will, in spite of himself, be our brother." to alarm and busy him on the side of Posen. The
Nothing can be more welcome to the Czar than Emperor's agenis were extremely numerous and
sentiments such as these. To say nothing of the active there, (on behalf of the common interests
prospects of territorial aggrandizement which they of the Three Great Powers, as they alleged,) until
encourage, (a temptation to which Russia was the cabinet of Berlin took 'umbrage at their pres-
liever indifferent,) they offer Nicholas a means ofence and obliged them to withdraw. From that
effacing the Gallicizing tendencies of his Polish moment, the country began to be agitated with
subjects, and of setting up on his western frontier rumors favorable to the designs of Russia.

". The an effectual barrier against the inroads of the con- Poles ought to look to Nicholas as their deliverer stitutional contagion.

and leader ; Nicholas was a Sclave, and none but It is only just now they have begun even in Ger- a Sclave could regenerate all Poland ; Nicholas many to reflect on the peculiar attitude assumed by Emperor of the Sclaves would be quite a different the Russian government during the massacre of personage from Nicholas Emperor of Russia." It Gallicia. When the Russian soldiers entered Cra- was stoutly asserted the other day that the Czar cow, they were received with delight by the towns- would soon abdicate in favor of his son, and that he people, because they delivered them from the de- intended to erect for himself an independent kingtested Austrians. Several of the persecuted Gal- dom, including Poland, and extending from the lician nobles obtained refuge in the Russian terri- Bug to the Oder. Ridiculous as was the story, its tory; and the peasants who ventured to pursue effect was such that the Prussian ministry thought thein over the frontier were all sent to the mines or it necessary to refute it formally in their official executed. The same just policy was observed in journal.- Spectator, 5th Sept. the kingdom of Poland ; where certain peasants, having attempted, in imitation of their neighbors, to lay hands on some of the landowners whom they

ELAND Hunt.-A few elands were observed ; chose to consider rebels, were almost instantly put and, these valuable creatures not having been as to death by the authorities. All this has produced frequently met with as we could have wished, we an impression in Austrian Poland highly favorable pursued them, hoping to lay in a good supply of to Russia ; the Czar is now exceedingly popular in fat. Gallicia.

Four of them fell to our rifles, and we returned A vailing himself of these propitious circum- in high spirits. Pearson had a bad fall, his horse stances, Nicholas has taken some bold steps to coming down in rocky ground, but was not matericonciliate his own Polish subjects likewise, 'The ally hurt, although his gun-stock was broken in German papers were full lately of his visit to

half. The scene at one period of the pursuit is Warsaw, where they say he walked about the worthy of description, though words can but inadstreets without an escort. This may be a court equately convey it to the reader's mind. The fiction; but it has had its effect in the quarters for elands were crossing an extensive plain, the horses which it was intended. Certain significant phrases by the side of the huge bulls looking no - larger were also seasonably set afloat: the Czar is re- than donkeys ; each horseman having selected his ported to have said, that his people of Poland were victim. Intent upon chasing the ponderous creabeginning to put confidence in him, and that he tures, whose sides and dewlaps reeked with perwould make them a great people. The police spiration, we did not perceive the advance of two were enjoined to relax their severity—though it rhinoceroses till they were close upon us, one on was found necessary at the same time to enlarge each side within one hundred yards ;-they were the prisons, as there was not room in them for the in a very excited state, while some troops of the numbers arrested. Above all, certain very desira- blue gnoo, quagga, and sassaybie, dashing past, ble reforms were taken into consideration, and increased their astonishment and indignation ;scem likely to be accomplished. Among these are they ploughed the soil with their horns, and charged the abolition of the line of custom-houses between through the dust at everything which came near Poland and Russia ; a measure which would be them, their ugly heads looking too large for their highly beneficial to the people, and useful in many bodies. It was amusing to see with what utter disways to the government; and a scheme for improv- regard the other animals, conscious of their supeing the relations between the landlord and the rior fleetness, treated the rhinoceroses.-Life in the peasant. It is the Austrian policy to sow enmity

Wilderness. between the Gallician peasant and his lord, by retaining and augmenting every means by which the latter can be made to appear to the former in the week in si. Katharine's Dock, has brought the first

The brig Marquis of Chandos, which arrived this character of a harsh taskmaster and public func- importation of beef from Russia. She brings 24,822 tionary. Russia is eager to establish the broadest packages from Tavanrog: each package is enclosed contrast in this respect between her own conduct in a tin case, the contents weighing from 8 pounds to and that of Austria. The Augsburg Gazette of 10 pounds each ; and the beef is pronounced, by good the 27th August announces, that Prince Paske- / judges, to be of excellent quality. --Spect.

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From the Church of England Quarterly Review. sented to us as an object of faith, needs no human Description of the Skeleton of an extinct Gigantic ingenuity nor research to make it the more credi

Sloth; with observations on the Osteology, Natu- ble: it is quite sufficient that the divine word has ral Affinities, and Probable Habits of the Mega- revealed it to secure our belief of it; nor is it contherioid Quadrupeds in general. By RICHARD sistent with faith in the word of God to scrutinize OWEN, F. R. S., &c. S Van Voorst.

that word under the plea of verifying it, which is

often only a pretext of infidelity: the simple scripIt is not our purpose to undertake an examina- tural declaration that such a

as the deluge has tion of this splendid volume, the title of which we happened being verification and proof sufficient to have placed before our readers. All whom it render worse than needless the addition of any facts would interest must already know that, like all the to the testimony of revelation. Perhaps, simple other works of the same distinguished anatomist, it faith ends on such subjects whenever critical inneeds no commendation from us, and is beyond the quiry begins ; for it would seem to be inconsistent reach of our censure. But we refer to the first with faith to be caring about proofs of those facts, work in its class—to the very highest authority—to as the Scriptures have revealed. We therefore a work the correctness of which we fully admit, in disclaim, at the outset, all intention or desire of order to show that, while we admit the value of all offering a single observation for any such purpose the researches which are making into the natural as the confirmation of our faith in the scriptural achistory of the earth, and acknowledge the bearing count of the deluge : that account is infallible truth, of these researches upon the fossilized remains of a and has no need whatever of human observations former world, we do not admit that these remains and calculations to make it more credible. But were deposited before the creation of man ; and do there is a peculiarity in the scriptural account of not admit that the strata in which they are found the deluge which seems especially to court inquiry render the Mosaic account of the deluge inadmissi--that account being singularly full and minute in ble ; because we maintain that the deluge, as it is its details: therein the dimendescribed by Moses, was most certainly supernatu- sions of the ark are most acral; while the geologists have most unaccountably curately given, and the dates assumed that it was brought about by natural causes. of all the chief circumstances

The great sagacity and unrivalled precision of connected with it are minuteOwen have rendered his facts incontrovertible; and ly recorded. We are told we are as certain of the osteology and natural af- directly what it could contain, finities of many of these extinct species as we are and indirectly what it did of the forms and propensities of living animals. contain ; and both when it The question, however, still remains—how these was filled and when it was fossils acquired their present appearance and position emptied. Now all these facts, in the earth? Was it by natural—was it by super- and dates, and figures, were natural agency? We assert that the deluge bears, given to us, not accidentally on the very face of things, indubitable proofs of its but designedly: it might be being brought about by supernatural agency; and to encourage the further inthis, therefore, will carry with it evidence to decide quiry of the admiring and the other question, and afford the means of showing adoring believer, or to chalby what kind of supernatural agency the fossil re- lenge the researches and quesmains may have been brought into the condition and tionings of the caviller. Here situation in which they at present appear.

numerous facts stated, The deluge, and its preparatory and concomitant clear dimensions given, and circumstances, is therefore the question to which all the required data supplied, we shall, in the first instance, direct the attention by which every one who has of our readers; professing, however, to do little doubts or unbelief in his heart more on this occasion than to bring the subject may make the appeal to his under the consideration of our readers, to sug- judgment : and, if he is ungest thoughts upon it for their reflection and able to disprove the stateexamination, and to supply a few reasons for a ments placed before him, and more diligent inquiry into some of the circumstan- yet will not believe them, God. ces connected with the deluge than has yet been but vindicates his own rightgiven to them. Great coolness of judgment should, eousness in announcing to all however, be exercised upon it, and much varied and ch a judgment upon unbeextensive information brought to the consideration lief. of it.


- Jength, three hundred cu“God said unto Noah, Make thee an ark of bits—breadth, fifty-height, Gopher-wood : rooms shalt thou make in the ark, thirty; and as the length of and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. the cubit was unquestionably And this is the fashion thou shalt make it of: the 21.888 inches, the length of length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the the Ark will be five hundred breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty and forty-seven feet-breadth, cubits. A window shalt thou make to the ark, and ninety-one feet-height, fiftyin a cubit shalt thou finish it above; and the do four feet. The form of the of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof: with ark, therefore, and its

proporlower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it. tions, will be represented by And thus did Noah ; according to all that God the following outline, which commanded him so did he."

is on the scale of one inch to Now, this plain statement of a fact, which is pre- the hundred feet:





The Ark,

The Nelson.

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In contrast with this we place the outline of the it-not a ripple could have been broken against it hulk of a first-rate ship of warm-the Nelson, of one —not a breath of wind could have blown upon it, hundred and twenty guns, with the length of two nor could the currents have drifted it; the ark hundred and five feet-breadth, fifty-height, floated, and merely floated, on the smoothest watwenty-four.

ters, at a time when the ocean was heaving and swelling and rolling onward furiously upon the land at the rate of one hundred and seventy-six feet additional in depth each day for one hundred and fifty days together. Around the ark, how

ever, those ocean waves found a barrier impossible And, also, the outline of the British Queen steam to be passed : it was as if the finger of the Alship, the length of which is two hundred and forty- mighty had drawn a line upon the waters around three feet-breadth, forty-height, twenty-nine.

it, and had then said to the ocean what he declared to Job he did once say to it: “Hitherto shalt thou come,

but no further; and here shalt thy proud waves be stayed,” (Job xxxviii. 11:) and the Psalmist would seem to have alluded to this sub

ject in Psalm xcii., where he says—“ The floods Their stems would show thus :

are risen—the floods lift up their waves : the waves of the sea are mighty, and rage horribly; but yet the Lord who dwelleth on high is mightier ;” and certainly his might was shown on this occasion; for, raging as the ocean then did, and as it never since has done, and pouring its mighty body of waters, every succeeding wave gaining in height upon the

preceding, the fiat of the Almighty turned them all The British Queen, aside to hasten onward elsewhere to their work

and mission of destruction, and the ark remained as The proportions of these vessels will thus be : motionless and undisturbed as though resting on The Ark—The breadth is one sixth of the length, of the ark had not made such a conclusion inevita

dry land. And if the very peculiar construction and the depth one tenth. The Nelson-The breadth is one fourth of the ble, the purpose for which it was built would have length, and the depth short of one ninth.

proved that such was the fact; for, had the ark The British Queen—The breadth is one sixth of pitched in the least from the swell of the waves, or the length, and the depth more than one eighth. I of the wind, which, from its great length and litle

rolled at all from side to side under the influence Now, as it is clearly impossible that a vessel of width, it must most distressingly have done, the the length and breadth of the ark could be oth- whole world of animals therein contained could not erwise than a floating vessel, designed entirely for have kept their footing : of very necessity, thereperfectly still waters, we have supposed it to be fore, a dead calm must have prevailed around the flat-bottomed and straight-sided ; both as making it ark during the whole of the one hundred and fifty the more buoyant and as giving to it the greatest days that it was floating on the waters. capacity. It was devoid of all sailing properties ; The dimensions of the ark being given, it would had neither rigging nor rudder; its build was sim- not be impossible so to plan out its supposed conply that of a huge float, to all outward appearance struction as to determine with tolerable accuracy wholly at the mercy of the winds and the waves, the quantity of timber it would require. A practiliable to be drifted or driven about according as cal ship-builder would be able, by a close and carecurrents or winds for the time prevailed; but, as sul calculation, to ascertain it with something like we shall show, the ark could not, for a moment, a tolerable approximation to the truth. As to the have been subjected to the influence of either timber itself, it was of no value; but the labor of winds or tides. The extraordinary length of the collecting it together and preparing it must have ark proves, at once, the miraculous power that been very great, and no more was used, we may was, at every moment, in exercise for its preserva- reasonably suppose, than was essentially necessary tion : since no vessel of the ark's proportions could for its construction. We have therefore calcunaturally live for an hour in disturbed waters; the lated for the vessel the quantity only of timber that very first wave that rose would inevitably break its seemed indispensable, and have supposed in the back and rend it entirely asunder; nor, with all calculation that the ark was divided into three stoour experience in ship building, would it be possi- ries and was roofed over, and that to two fifths of ble to construct a vessel of the ark's proportions its height it was doubly boarded with a layer of and to navigate it from Dover to Calais in rough asphalte between, and that a portion of the hold weather-the least swell of the ocean, by raising of the vessel was in like manner boarded for the one end and depressing the other, would break it safe keeping of the fresh water; and without dein the middle and cause it to founder ; nor could tailing the general plan, or working out the many any possible contrivance or ingenuity of construc- details and measurements of its several parts, our tion prevent this consequence, and the clear and calculation would give about 245,000 cubic feet of just conclusion therefore is, that the ark floated in timber for the complement that would be required : perfectly still waters; and, that whatever might this at fifty feet per load would give 4,900 loads ; be the agitation of the great deep when its foun- and as the largest trees would be the easiest worked tains were broken up, or whatever the force of the and were then in the greatest abundance, under currents as the seas kept advancing and gaining on five hundred trees of ten load in each would be the the land, yet must the waters around the ark, and whole quantity needed. However, it would seem for a considerable distance, of necessity have been to be impossible to build the ark without raising a calm and still ; not a wave could have rolled near scaffold around it; this could not be less than fifty

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Width :.

91. 11




feet high, por less in length when measured round lately so little was known, there are now known than 1,300 feet, and would probably require 28,000 and classed 100,000!—and it is supposed that this cubic feet, or 600 loads of timber : thus the ut- is scarcely a tenth of the whole number actually most of the builders' needs might not exceed 550 existing. The subject indeed seems exhaustless, trees.

and would appear to defy all our powers to grasp Again : from the dimensions of the ark being so it; the discoveries of to-day overthrow all our calaccurately given, we are able to calculate with tol- culations and conclusions of yesterday; and did we erable correctness its actual capacity, deducting need anything perfectly to convince us of the from the

worthlessness of all merely human speculations Length of 547ft. 47ft. for partitions &c., leaves 500ft. clear space. upon such subjects, it would be the difficulties

which surround us at this, the first stage of it. We Height . . 54 . 4 . for joists &c.

ask the question, for what was the ark prepared ? 500 by 80 by 50=2,000,000

And we quote from Scripture the answer, “ For Thus, though the ark occupied a space equal in the twos and the sevens of all flesh wherein is the iis external measurements to 547 by 91 by 54 = = breath of life''-and there ends our knowledge of 2,687,958 cubic feet, yet the actual internal clear the subject. What those twos were, and what space for stowage would be only 2,000,000 cubic those sevens were, we cannot say; so far as the feet.

Scriptures have revealed facts, just so far do we The capacity of the ark being thus ascertained, make our proofs good; but where they cease to the next proper subject for inquiry would be, what explain, there we cease to comprehend; and the did it contain? But the question is undoubtedly more we search into this subject, and the more that one which is the most difficult to answer of all earnestly we strive to understand it, the more certhat are connected with the subject, since to an- tainly are we forced to the same acknowledgment swer it aright requires a perfect knowledge of the of the Psalmist, and to say, “ Such knowledge is habits, the size, and the food of every creature that too wonderful for me, I cannot attain to it!"! exists of every beast, bird, and reptile that now Where was the ark built? lives on the earth.

No direct answer would seem possible to this: Nor would even this knowledge be sufficient; question : nor, from our dearth of facts, have we for so multiplied are the variety of the genera in any other resource than to surmise and speculate almost all the orders of aves and mammalia, that and conjecture. Had but the site of Eden been the most discriminating judgment is necessary to perfectly known to us, all the probabilities would distinguish what was the parent stock-the origi- have tended to direct our attention to the district. nal species of the whole family; and to this must where Eden was; for it seems reasonable and natube added the fullest and most correct information ral that the children of Seth should have remained of the kind and the quantity of food every living in the neighborhood of their grandfather Adam, thing would require for a whole year's subsistence, and that Adam himself should have wandered no It is evident that knowledge to this extent is in no further from Eden than stern necessity compelled man's possession : by possibility the day may come him. Of Cain, we are expressly told that he did' when the greater part of all these facts will be withdraw from the neighborhood of his father, to koown; but that day is not yet come. Every year, the land of Nod, which was eastward of Eden ; indeed, adds something to our information on the and as nothing similar is recorded of Seth or his subject-every year new animals are met with, and descendants, that they also went out from the presespecially in every new land discovered ; but the ence of their father, and as we can imagine no mo-habits of many that have long been classed are still tive with them for any distant migrations, it seems : but very inperfectly known, and our whole knowl- most reasonable to conclude that all Seth's descendedge is far too deficient and imperfect for our pres- ants, until Noah's time, did remain in or near to the ent purpose, which is to prove what animals must district of their father Adam, wherever that was.. have entered with Noah into the ark.

The site of Eden, therefore, could it be correctly There are many perplexing circumstances, also, ascertained, would greatly aid us to a right deciin connexion with the present location and distribu- sion of this question : but ascertained it probably tion of particular animals, those of the new world never will be, since there seems to be no spot in being almost entirely of different families to those the world answering to the description which the: in the old ; those in New Holland having not the Scriptures give of it; and if it was not one among slightest resemblance to any found elsewhere many other purposes of the deluge to destroy, to such for instance as the ornithorhynchus and the make desolate, or to render it impossible to recogoppossum; the first named is a quadruped covered nize the site even, of the garden of Eden, yet its with fur and suckling its young: yet it is web- destruction seemed to be an almost inevitable confooted, has a bill like a duck, and is oviparous. In sequence of the deluge; before, therefore, we could vain shall we look for a type of this creature in any offer even a rational conjecture as to the locality other country, and yet other countries have their of Eden, it would seem necessary to consider what own pecaliar and distinct races as exclusively to changes the flood might or must have produced on themselves. It seems, consequently, hopeless to the earth's surface. expect that a subject so extensive and so difficult Two agencies were in operation to produce of attainment should ever perfectly be cleared up: great changes : first, the weight of water, miles in thousands of years have passed away since the ark depth upon land that had never before been subpoured forth iis living thousands to replenish the jected to a greater pressure than that of the atmosearth, and yet we know not to this day what the phere ; and secondly, the continual current of such ark preserved-all is with us on this subject wild an accumulation of oceans that for months together and vague conjecture : the knowledge of the last rolled in upon the land. As to the first of these, century would be called ignorance in this; 500 two consequences would follow from the weight birds were classed by Ray, and 5,000 since by La- and pressure of the ocean ; the earth would be tham; the once known 5,000 fishes are now in- thoroughly saturated, so far as what is called its creased to 8,000; and of the insects, of which until surface was concerned ; from its long continued

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