« ElőzőTovább »
the intervention assume a lasting aspect. One could maize is not to be a redundant luxury, a pure adscarcely wish it otherwise. Lord John Russell said dition to the cottier's bill of fare: it is therefore to that the people of Clare—where the destitution was displace the potato. most severely felt-had never before been so well Granting the truth of the propositions, still more provided at the bad part of the year, and the cases startling ulterior conclusions must be admitted as of fever were fewer. Mr. Henley declared that inevitable. If by means so cheap as less than half there is as yet no prospect that the potato disease a million yearly, Ireland can be saved from starvawill be extinguished, and he demanded permanent tion and disease, will statesmen venture to reconsign measures for the relief of Ireland. Sir Denham her to those periodical scourges? If wages are Norreys alluded to the natural resources” of the substituted for conacre, the cottier system is doomed, country, and its mines of wealth, as things which and a recasting of estates will be inevitable. If it is incumbent on the government to cultivate. Mr. the Irish are in future to feed on the foreign imported Labouchere, in supporting Lord tahn Russell's grain maize, the potato-grounds will be thrown out proposal to give employment as an indirect means of use—thrown on the landlords' hands, and must be of providing subsistence, floundered into repeating converted to other purposes-no doubt, better puruntimely and doubtful tales about abuses in the poses, but still involving a change in the system distribution of employment, with over-sage free- of agriculture. We observe that already the Irish trade strictures on the demoralizing tendencies of papers report meetings of the poorer class, at official intervention. Lord Lincoln rose to give Mr. which the hint has been thrown out that the failure Labouchere, the Irish secretary young in office, of the potato-crop will prevent tenants from paying some advice as to the expediency of not trusting too their rent, and that in lieu of paying it they should implicitly to such tales from Ireland ; and he denied cede their potato-grounds to their landlords. Truly, that there had been any demoralizing influence : on it appears that “social revolution” is not too sweepthe contrary, he said, the employment offered by ing a phrase for the notion that vaguely fluated in government tended to wean the Irish people from the minds of the debaters on Monday. reliance on cropping for sustenance, and to accustom It does seem “cool” to put these ideas in words, them to subsist on wages. Moreover, he claimed especially to those who hold that all social changes for government the credit of having introduced a should be the slow and natural growth of events. trade in maize, which is "likely to be permanent.” But the state of Ireland is not “natural:" it is raLord John Russell talked of maize in a similar ther so monstrous that it appears impossible for its strain--as a kind of food which, when prejudices immediate offspring to be anything but monstrous against it are overcome, would recommend itself as too, unless sume outward power interpose. Nor both cheap and nutricious. Mr. Charles Wood is it to be presumed that because the juncture is said
calculated to cause anxiety, therefore it is without • By the evidence of the blue book which then hope. On the contrary, we firmly believe that the lay on the table of the house, it was proved that position of Ireland, within the bounds of authentic had it not been for those very measures the people history, was never more hopeful than it is at this of Ireland would have been subjected to the great moment. It is a time of urgent opportunity. est distress. He did not hesitate to say, that in It is to be desired that all the inevitable consemany parts of the country the existence of families quences both of the calamity and of the measures was owing to the measures of the government; taken to avert it should be distinctly seen and reand not only was the existence but the peace of cognized. As it stands, the whole case appears to those people to be attributed to the same praisewor- involve several ulterior measures which do but thy exertions. And with regard to the food which faintly show themselves behind the hints of the had been introduced into that country by the gov- deliberating legislators. If we assume the premernment, he believed it had caused a new state of ises indicated by the speakers of Monday night, things in that country. If honorable gentlemen read among the most obvious consequences is the hated the papers, they would find that, in consequence of practice of “ clearances ;" since it will be imperathe Indian com that was continuously poured into tively necessary to convert the small holdings into the country, the country had received an incalcula- larger farms suited to a different style of agriculble amount of good. Indian corn was cheaper and ture ; only a population depending on wages would more nutricious food than potatoes—it was cheaper neither need nor heed the now dreaded and avenged than oats; and he confessed that he was sanguine ejectment. Such a change, were it to occur, in the expectation that the substitution of Indian and to be duly improved simultaneously with its corn for potatoes would produce a complete revolu- occurrence, might go far to solve the perplexed tion in the social condition of the people of Ireland.” question of land tenures; though auxiliary meas
Let us extract some of the more obvious propo-ures might still be desirable. While changes resitions involved in the sayings which we have cited. specting land were astir it would be most unwise Setting aside doubts as to the continuance of the to neglect two cognate subjects—the best purpose disease, which is a matter of fact to be determined to which the now vacant potato-lands might be by the event, we find these views enunciated. The devoted; the proper use to which waste lands in measures taken have already had the most blessed general might be appropriated. Truly, if the Irish influence in mitigating the scourges of Ireland population were a race subsisting on wages instead sufficiency has been substituted for destitution, and of conacre, and if that better spirit were to grow the fever that waits on starvation has been checked. up which Lord John Russell notes as the immediThe Irish have begun to depend for subsistence on ate fruit of English assistance—and which Mr. wages instead of conacre. A trade in maize has Dillon Browne embodies in the declaration that been introduced, with every prospect that it will Lord John's speech tended to supersede the wish be permanent. Progress has already been made for repeal-capital would not long be excluded from in substituting the excellent grain maize for the bad working the mines of wealth." But, whether root potato ; and the “social revolution” has com- to facilitate the change or to regulate the condition menced. Indeed, the last proposition is implied in of a people living on wages, it would no longer be the permanence of the maize trade; for, of course, | possible to refuse that long delayed measure, a real
poor-law for Ireland. Perhaps, if there had been each particular branch of traffic, but the income
ning the chance of travelling antipodes-fashion,
loading, and put in trains not particular about colAn old quarrel between railway companies and lisions, then charged on a par with pig-iron and some of their customers has been revived Various coke. Nay, hotel-keepers might make up parties, enactments are attempted to prevent the packing of or rather parcels, and send whole innfuls of guests small parcels in one large package, so that the car- goods.” It might indeed become a question riage shall be charged upon the bulk instead of fall- whether mauvais sujets and naughty boys could be ing upon each parcel. The form of the enactment
goods ;'' but railway companies would does not greatly matter; it is the substance, which find some difficulty in regulating their tariff on a we have stated, that forms the real subject of dis- moral scale. pute. The railway companies insist upon the right Those who argue that the companies must shut to charge separately for small parcels collected from their eyes, open their vans, and take what carriers different senders or transmitted to different receivers. bring them, make a great fuss about “ cheapness” The law has been construed against them, and they as the result of competition. Competition has not endeavor to obtain the privilege by statute. We been the screw that has produced the most striking think that upon the whole they are justified. instances of progressive cheapening in railway traf
The chief opponents of the claim are certain per- fic, but it has been a more direct and simple motive sons in the carrying trade ; but they are backed by of self-interest; which competition has sometimes the booksellers and publishers of London. Among disturbed in its operation, not advantageously for the latter class a distinction must be made. All the public. Competition between the Grand-Junction periodically send parcels to their agents in the and Manchester-and-Birmingham lines occasioned country. With some the primary object is merely a raising of fares to support the contest; amalto send their own publications or wares to their gamation resulted in a lowering of fares. This is agents : the goods are intended for ultimate distri- only one out of many instances. On the other bution, no doubt, but not more so than cotton cloth hand, the mere desire to obtain as large a revenue carried from the manufacturer to the retail dealer, as possible induced the Brighton Company to lower or goods carried from the warehouse to the shop: fares in order to take in a wider class of customers : These packages ought unquestionably to be charged the result led to further reductions, with the most in bulk. Other booksellers not merely convey the surprising success; the public and the railway both packet of a stranger in their large parcel, as a per- profiting. The same process is at work in other sonal favor, but make a trade of that accommoda- departments. The conveyance of live stock has tion : in so far as they do that, they belong to the increased, and will increase more rapidly, to the class of carriers, and their case may be considered immense saving of the grazier's loss in the condiwith that of the professed carriers.
tion of the cattle, to his great gain in the facility of The claim of the carriers is this. Formerly they passing from market to market until he finds the collected parcels, conveyed them to the place of best, and to the great profit of railways. At first, destination, and distributed them; the journey be- indeed, railway managers checked that traffic hy ing slow and expensive. Other parties have laid imposing too high charges : the charges have been out large sums in the construction of railways; and lowered, and the results outstrip calculation. No the carriers claim to use those railways for the pur- doubt, the same influences will tell on the carriage pose of carriage, according to a mode of payment of parcels, and we shall soon have a parcels-delivfixed by themselves. It is true that the railway ery” all over England at least, even though the companies can effect the transit of goods in bulk at post-office should persist in repudiating that traffic. a cheap rate; but it is not fair to split up the Some one suggests that “the principle of the accounts, and force a particular business on the penny postage” should be applied to parcels : very railway at an arbitrary rate because that business well, but none can apply it so well as railway coniwill show a profit. Railway companies necessarily panies; and in order to enable them to do it successview their outlay and income in the broadest way: fully—that is, with such profit as to engage their their original expense is enormous; the revenue is self-interest in promoting the traffic—they must most productive if they afford the greatest amount have the power of charging the smallest possible of accommodation to the public; and in order to do sums on the largest possible number of separate that, they do not too nicely consider the profit on / parcels.-Spectator.
have consented to give her hand to Don Fran-mas. Poor young woman, she has been forced to cisco.
live in just such an artificial world as those pages How can a union begun so disastrously produce present! What a nursery tale were hers! For happy results ? The notion that, though bad for the revolutions of the times had always correspondher, it is good for the state or for the people, is ing ones in her closet. Poor little being ! called a self-evidently absurd : a nation can derive no bene- queen before she could know what it meant—when fit from driving the chief of its virgins to such a her mother or her ministers provoked to an intolernuptial couch.
able degree the resentment and disgust of the MadBut it may be said, that if no positive good is rid people, little Isabella was always brought forth obtained, evil results of other unions are avoided— as a peace offering, and her infant countenance had dangerous political alliances. No more unsubstan- the desired effect. Even Spanish frenzy was aptial dogma rules that world of shadows, diplomacy, peased at the sight of the “ innocent Isabel.” than this notion of dangers from matrimonial alli- One of the first nursery revolutions must have
Nations are no longer mere estates with been that of Lieutenant Munoz coming to instal the live stock on them, given and taken as mar- himself as her father-in-law. Then Zea, turned out riage-portions; but they have their own substan- by the clamors of the liberals; subsequently the tive history, to which that of the reigning house is revolution of La Granga, when the queen-mother subordinate. As to the fear lest clever intriguers was forced by the soldiers to dismiss her minister ; should obtain high place, it is as gratuitous as any. -the infant queen saw all this ;—and finally at No one is so dangerous in power as a fool. Put a Valencia, saw her mother forced to quit her chilgun into the hands of a villain, and he may com-dren and the kingdom ; the good mother consoling pass the death of his enemy; into the hands of a herself by carrying off all the palace plate, and foul, and ten to one he fires it off into the midst of leaving her royal daughter to feed with a pewter a crowd. Any process by which to improve the spoon. From the hands of the old court dowagers, breed of the royal population in Europe, to make Isabella was then handed over to the keeping of her princes cleverer and more sagacious, would Mrs. Mina, a woman who knew less of a court than be most useful. In the west, the power of the she did of a fish-market. By her, the royal presovereign is rapidly becoming too much limited to ceptors in dancing and in French were superseded permit mischief from a clever man; but nothing by philosophic pedagogues of the choice of Arcan forearm you against the incalculable mischiefs guelles. It is needless to say that in the midst of derised by folly. There is no country at this day these changes the innocent Isabella became, ere she that would profit by having a duller man at its was in her teens, the most perfect mistress of dishead. Frederick William of Prussia by no means simulation. This was seen in the course of events does all that his people wish ; but exchange him which followed Espartero's expulsion ; when the for a Nicholas, and the Prussians would soon find Moderados and the old restored courtiers, not out what a safeguard they had lost in the cultivated knowing how to get rid of Olezaga, who had acconscience, and above all in the intelligence, of tually brought them in, tutored the queen, and their present monarch. He knows too much, to forced her to exaggerate an innocent act of minisdo what a barbarian would not hesitate about: forterial dictation into nothing less than high treaignorance is the real parent of cruelty, and intelli- son. The very first act of the French party gence alone teaches how to sacrifice the present to when restored, was to bring the little queen before the future. Louis Philippe, astutest of princes, is the nation with a monstrous falsehood in her mouth, serving his own ends, and compassing them on all which might have sacrificed the life of Olezaga, had sides ; but how well he manages to keep France he not escaped. The falsehood, however, cannot quiet-how well he knows that a publicly virtuous be laid to the child's charge, but to those of her inrule can alone conduce to his own interests! He famous advisers. may be mean, hypocritical, selfish, tricking, swin- What an eternal scene of squabble and intrigue dling Europe out of its respect by conduct that has the palace presented since, between the queenlooks patriotic while it is carried on solely with an mother, the sanguinary and blustering soldiers who eye to business; but his public acts must be benefi- upheld her power, the French family ambassador, cent, conducive to the material interests of the peo- and the Infante's party, represented whilst she ple subject to him, or he and his vast schemes are lived by the Princess Carlotta. The care of this ruined. No one suspected Charles the Tenth of amiable knot of people was to cashier the Cortes, pieculiarly artful or personally selfish intentions; or get it to unvote the fundamental article of but his dull folly drove his people to rebellion. the charter, which gave to the national assembly Had Ferdinand of Spain been a shrewder and a the disposal of the queen's hand. Yet, when they bolder man, letting alone virtuous intentions, how had obtained this power, they were unable to use much blood and misery would have been saved to it, unable to conclude an alliance worthy of the Spain! If a little Orleans cleverness were infused young qneen. The first thought (always the case into the royal blood of that country, how much bet- in Spain) was how to link a loan with the marriage, ter her chance of future political advancement. or some financial operation that would enrich all The sapient meddlers of diplomacy, however, have concerned. For this purpose England was applied done their best to perpetuate the breed of Ferdi- to and coquetted with ; but Lord Aberdeen told the nands, on the pretence of saving danger to Spain Spanish loan-hunters to go-where incivility sends and Europe !
knaves. And France had thenceforth the ball in her hands.
France then suggested the Trapani marriage, which, it was hoped, would mollify Austria, and
produce the recognition of the queen by the eastern The efforts and intrigues, pour el contre, occa- power; the Duc de Montpensier at the same time sioned by the marriage of Queen Isabella in Spain, being to be betrothed to the queen's younger sister. would make a pretty little romance in forty vol- To regulate and deprive this last match of its umes, if spun out by the able hand of Sue or Du- danger was the effort of Mr. Bulwer, and it was
From the Examiner.
arranged in the meeting of Pampeluna, that the The SPANISH MATCH.-All the jewellers and young queen should espouse Count Trapani, and goldsmiths of Paris are at work on ornaments for the French prince the Infanta as soon as the queen the marriage of that poor little victim the Queen of had offspring As the infanta was but twelve Spain, doomed to be executed to her cousin. The years old at the time, delay could not be objected | finery is spoken of, by competent judges of such to.
matters, as being very superb. The diamonds are Austria, however, would not desert Don Carlos, said to be as bright and almost as numerous as the and the Neapolitan prince would not occupy a tears shed by the bride, and the gold trinkets almost throne unsanctioned by the church and the eastern as heavy as her sighs. Her hymeneal manacles, powers. These objections were felt insulting to though they may gall her to the bone, will at least the Spaniards and their queen, and Trapani became be magnificently chased. No Hindoo widow was impossible. The discovery and the admission that ever burned with greater splendor than will attend the Trapani match was impossible was, however, the Spanish bride to the altar. She will be sacriinade by many statesmen long before Christina and ficed to marriage like a queen. And when she has the French would admit it. Mon and the party of given her hand to her cousin and promised to give the Moderado Cortes declared against it first. her heart, the spirits of hypocrisy, and guile, and Even Narvaez gave it up one day, to revive it the fraud (especially invoked for the solemnity) will next. And these vacillations gave rise to quarrels, chant an epithalamium expressly composed for the which convulsed the cabinet and agitated the pal- occasion by that great master of domestic discord, ace. Despairing of a financial operation built on a the parent of all falsehood. An amnesty will, it is marriage, several of those worthies undertook specu- said, be granted, and all political offences forgiven, lations based on their knowledge of coming events. on the marriage of the queen. Poor thing! She Munoz was enticed into the scheme ; and he lost herself may forgive her enemies, but, as the Italian such a sum of money that Christina became indig- says, “ it is not ordered that we should forgive our nant against the gamblers, and a series of quarrels friends ;” and Isabella may bitterly remember that took place, which ended in the expulsion of Nar-exception and privilege.-Punch.
Since that event, civilian ideas and less passion
RUSSIAN PROPAGANDA IN POLAND. ate council have prevailed at the court of Madrid. And the French envoy, however powerful, has not WEAK, culpable, and abortive as was the late been permitted to remain absolute dictator. The Polish insurrection, it seems likely nevertheless to inability of France to effect the Trapani marriage, be followed by strange and important results affector procure the consent of the eastern powers, low- ing the three great despotic powers of Europe, and ered French influence. And the queen, disgusted for one of them at least-Austria-replete with and affronted, once more applied to England, and the most formidable perils. It was with painful declared for a Cobourg alliance. Lord Aberdeen, incredulity that western statesmen at first received we know, turned the same deaf ear to this, as to the reports of the deeds done with the sanction or all other overtures. The plan failed; but the cir- connivance of the government in Gallicia; and cumstance so alarmed the king of the French, that even now they can hardly shake off the stupor of he, too, became rational in the Spanish business, amazement into which they have been cast by the and consented to fall in with the popular idea of the monstrous guilt and folly of the Iinperial policy in queen's marrying her cousin, the son of the In- that province. To find the most ancient, the most fante.
methodic, cautious, and timorously conservative Then came the question, which son? The court throne in Europe, suddenly adopting the counsels voice, as well as the popular one, pointed out the of Asiatic barbarism, and plunging with deliberate young sailor, Don Enrique, whom Narvaez had purpose into fierce, desolating anarchy, was sometreated brutally to please the French court, but thing which philosophy might explain, but for whom the French court was now quite willing to which our modern experience had not prepared us. accept and to win. But the sailor prince would Equally novel and unexpected is the retribution listen to no flattery, enter into no terms, fors wear which is following fast on the heels of the crime. neither principles nor friends; and after a sojourn A little while ago, who would have thought to see in Paris of a week, Don Enrique was declared by the Polish patriots throw themselves into the frathe French court to be dangerous and impracticable. ternal embraces of Russia, and hail the Emperor His elder brother, a great slob, was therefore fixed Nicholas as the destined saviour of their race and upon, and the betrothal took place.
nation, the avenger of the blood of their brethren This betrothal, too, seems to have taken place shed by Austria ? Yet so it is. A reaction of precipitately. It is said the French court in- this kind is setting in rapidly and intensely : Russisted on the simultaneous bétrothal of the Infanta sia is meeting it with prompt, skilful, and energetic to the Duc de Montpensier, making the queen's encouragements ; Austria and Prussia are acutely marriage dependent on the Infanta's. On the other sensible of the danger, but know not how to guard hand, Mr. Bulwer no doubt insisted on the observ- against it. Such are the fruits of Prince Metterance of the stipulations of Pampeluna ; and some nich’s vaunted statecraft. rather sharp correspondence has been interchanged A pamphlet lately published in France, and purbetween the courts of Madrid and St. James on the porting to be A Letter addressed by a Nobleman of one hand, and of the Tuileries on the other. The Gallicia to Prince Metternich respecting his Circudifference, however, cannot be very serious ; for it lar Despatch of 7th March, 1846, may be considered is not likely that the whigs should object altogether as the official manifesto of the new school of Poto a marriage to which their predecessors had con- lish politics. It is known to be regarded in that ditionally consented; and Pampeluna condi- light in the diplomatic circles of Berlin and Vienna. tions the king of the French cannot be so unrea- The author calls upon his countrymen to break forsonable as not to observe ; since, if wise and ne- ever with the juggling statesmanship and the delucessary in 1844, they cannot be less so in 1846. sive popular sympathies of western Europe, and