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over, and the calm entirely restored, he returned again to the Univerfity of Edinburgh, and purfued his ftudies there for fix years more. The fecond edition of his poems was published by him there, in the beginning of the year 1754, very much improved and enlarged; and they might have been much more numerous than they were, had he not fhewn a great deal more nicenels and delicacy than is ufual; and kept feveral pieces from the prefs for reafons which feemed much stronger to himfelf, than they did to his friends, fome of whom were concerned at his excefs of fcrupulonfnefs, and much wifhed not to have had him deprived of fo much more reputation, nor the world of fo many poetical beauties as abounded in them.
Dr. Blacklock during his ten years ftudies at the University not only acquired," as Mr. Hume wrote to a friend, ་ a great knowledge in the Greek, Latin, and French languages, but also made a confiderable progrefs in all the fciences;" and (what is yet more extraordinary) has attained a confiderable excellence in poetry; though the chief inlets for poetical ideas were barred up in him, and all the vible beauties of the creation had been long fince totally blotted out of his memory. How far he contrived, by the uncommon force of his genius, to compenfate for this vast defect; with what elegance and harmony he often wrote; with how much propriety, how much fente, and how much emotion, are things as eafy to be perceived in reading his poems, as they would be difficult to be fully accounted for. Confidered in either of thefe
points, he will appear to have a great Thare of merit; but if thoroughly confider. ed in all together, we are very much inclined to lay, (with his friend Mr. Hume)" he may be regarded as a prodigy."
Of his moral character Mr. Hume obferved, "that his modefty was equal to the goodness of his difpofition, and the beauty of his genius ;" and the author of the account prefixed to his works, speaking of the pieces which Dr. Blacklock would not fuffer to be printed, and which, he said, abounded with fo many poetical beauties that nothing could do him greater honour, correcting himself, added, " yet I must ftill except his private character, which, were it generally known, would recom
mend him more to the public esteem, than the united talents of an accomplished writer."
Among his particular virtues, one of the firft to be admired was his eafe and contentedness of mind under to many circumftances, any one almoft of which might be thought capable of depreffing it. Confidering the meanness of his birth; the lownefs of his fituation; the defpicableness (at least as he himself fo ipoke of it) of his perfon; the narrownels and difficulties of his fortune; and, above all, his fo early lofs of his fight, and his incapacity from thence of any way relieving himielt under all thefe burthens; it may be reckoned no fmall degree of virtue in him, even not to have been generally difpirited and complaining.
Each of thefe humiliating circumftances he spoke of in fome part or other of his poems; but what he dwelt upon with the moft lafting cait of melancholy was his los of fight, which in one place carries him on in a deploring ftyle for above fifty lines together. But at the fame time it ought to be confidered, that this is in a piece written when his fpirits were particularly depreffed by an incident that very nearly threatened his life *; from which he had but juft efcaped with a great deal of difficulty, and with all the terrors of fo great a danger, and the dejection occatoned by them just fresh upon his mind.
It is in the fame melancholy Poem that he expreffed his dread of falling into extreme want, in the following very frong and moving manner :
Dejecting profpect!-foon the hapless hour May come-perhaps, this moment it impends!-
Which drives me forth to penury and cold, Naked, and beat by all the ftorms of Heav'n,
Friendlefs, and guidelefs, to explore my
See the beginning of his Soliloquy, p. 153; a Poem (as he there fays) occafiored by his escape from falling into a deep well; where he must have been irrecoverably loft, if a favourite lap-dog had not (by the found of its feet upon the board with which the well was covered) warned him of his danger.
of light fall in upon his mind, and recovered himself enough to exprefs his hopes that the care of Providence, which had hitherto always protected him, would agun interfere, and diffipate the clouds that were gathering over him.
Towards the clofe of the fame piece, he thewed not only that he was fatisfied with his own condition, but that he could ditcover fome very great bleflings in it; and through the general courfe of his other poenis, one may dicern fuch a juítnefs of thinking about the things of this world, and fuch an eaty and contented turn of mind, as was every way becoming a good chriftian and a good philofopher.
This was the character given of our Author by Mr. Spence, who in the year 1754 took upon himfelf the patronage of Dr. Blacklock, and fuccesfully introduced him to the notice f the public. In that year he published a pamphlet, entitled, "An Account of the Life, Character, and Pocus of Mr. Blacklock, Student of Philofophy in the Univerfity of Edinburgh" 8vo. which, with fome improvemnis, was prefixed to a Quarto Edition of Dr Blacklock's Poems published by fubtcription. By this public tien a confiderable tum of money was obtained, and foon after our Poet was fixed in an eligible
fituation in the Univerfity of Edinburgh In 1760 he contributed fome Poems to a Scotch collection published at Edinburgh in that year, and being there ftyled the Rev. Mr. Blacklock, it appears he had then entered into Holy Orders. About 1766 he obtained the degree of Doctor of Divinity; and in 1767 published " Paraclefis; or, Confolations deduced from Natural and Revealed Religion, in two Diflertations," 8vo. In 1768 he printed "Two Difconfes on the Spirit and Evidences of Chriftianity," tranflated from the French of Mr. James Armand, and dedicated to the Rev. Moderator of the General Affembly," 8vo. ; and in 1774 produced " The Graham; an Heroic Ballad, in four Cantos 4to. In 1776 appeared "Remarks on the Nature and Extent of Liberty as compatible with the Genius of Civil Societies; on the Principles of Government, and the proper li mits of its Powers in Free States; and on the Justice and Policy of the American War; occafioned by perufing the Obfervations of Dr. Price on theie Subjects," Svo. Edinburgh. This we have been allured was written by our Author, who at length, at the age of 70, died during the courfe of the prefent month.
CHARACTER of the late Dr. CULLEN, from a WORK of Dr. TROTTER.
THE hiftory of this great man's opinions forms an important epoch in medicine and philofophy; not merely becaule his doctrines atchieved a revolution in medical fcience; but "nullius indicus jurare verba magiftri," he taught us how to think for ourie vcs, pointed out a methed of investigation unknown to our predec flors, and feems to have been the fut physician that received nothing gratui toutly, or what was not fupported by rational induction.
Poffeffed of a genius quick of apprehenfion, original and univerfal, he foomed formed by nature for the fudy and practice of an art, that must for ever in i me degite be conjectural, where fo large a field is left for incnuity to explore, and for the knowledge of which a thorough acquaintance with the auxiary benches of fcience is fo highly neceffary.
A mind fo richly endowed, foon perceived the imperfections of the reigning fyftems of phyfic, and his firft clinical lectures in the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh ftaggered
the faith of thofe phyficians and profeffors who thought that the doctrines of Boerhaave could neither be refuted or admitted of improvement.
This arduous task he lived to accomplith. Hoffmann had before iaid, that univerfal pathology was to be more certainly and eafily explained "ex vitio motuum microcosmicorum in folidis, quam ex variis affectionibus vitiorum humorum,” on which Dr. Cullen founded his princrples; and hence the overthrow of the humoral pathology.
It was left to him to finish the work, ta beautify the whole, and to polish it into fyftem; and while the difciples of the Boerhaavian fchool were accumulating fuppofitions on lentor and acrimony, and ftraining facts to confirm the doctrines of their matter, the fpirit of CULLEN arofe. Bold, acute, penetrating and comprehen five, fraught with all the refources of originality to correct prejudice, develope error, or enlighten difcovery, he trod beneath him the dominion of authority that
In his Dedication of the Second Part of "Paraclefis" to Mr. Spence, he says, "It 3 to your kind patrosage that I owe my introduction into the republic of letters, and to your benevolence in fome meature my prefent comfortable fituation,”
fubdued the energy of enquiry: not like the plodder in fcience, he felected only from the labour of ages what was fuited to the dignity of his fubject, and the greatnefs of his purpofe; and finally, he turned the tide of fearching for the proximate caules of difeafes from the fanciful hypothefis of a depraved state of the fluids, to its proper channel-the more rational and refined investigation of a vital principle, and the primary moving powers in animals. Before he came to the practical chair, he had been profeffor in all the other branches of medicine; and what he fays of Boerhaave, may be well applied to him. felf: "he excelled in each, and was certainly a candid and genuine eclectic.”In the exercife of a profeffion where genius alone can be fuccessful, and which no rules can fupply, the vigour of his judgement and folidity of his understanding were fingularly confpicuous :-it was that accurate collecting of fymptoms, that acuteness of apprehenfion, which, as if by intuition, catched the leading features of his patient's conftitution and difeafe, that in forming a prognoftic, fo often the bane of medical reputation in private practice, he was seldom mistaken. But amidst all thefe fplendid talents and tranfcendant abilities, the philanthropy of his heart, and the urbanity of his manners, will be long remembered by his numerous pupils. As
long as his health permitted, a day in the week was fet apart for converting with students; and in this perhaps we fee an exalted character in the molt amiable point of view, when the uterity of the precep. tor is laid afide to communicate know. ledge through colloquial fociety. He ftu died the profeilion, as he faid, " con amore," and he rejoiced to inculcate the love of it in others. By thefe means he became the favourite profeffor and darling among ftudents: witness the affectionate addreffes froin the different focieties when he refigned the practical chair, and the eulogies on his character to be found in the inaugural differtations of his pupils.
In medicine, changes and revolutions may be progreffive, but the outlines of his fyftem will remain, whatever may be added by the induction of fresh facts and experiments: the love and ardour of the study which his example has excited, will be long preferved in the Royal Medical and Phyfical Societies, and will defcend to pofterity. The tyro in the art, will there find his labours encouraged, and ftimulated by the freedom of debate; and the young phyfician who delivers his opinions with candour and modetty, will be heard and approved, in spite of the captious petulance of his fenior; who, grown grey in error, too often despises conviction from a youthful opponent.
The following LETTER has appeared in the public Papers, and is faid to be genuine. —It is addressed to the Conductors of a Parifin Print entitled "The Republican." GENTLEMEN,
M. DUCHASTELET has mentioned to
me the intention of fome perfons to commence a work under the title of "The Republican."
As I am a Citizen of a Country which knows no other Majefty than that of the leople-no other Government than that of the Reprefentative Body-no other Sovereignty than that of the Laws, and which is attached to France both by alliance and by gratitude, I voluntarily offer you my fervices in fupport of principles as honourable to a nation as they are adapted to promote the happiness of mankind. I offer them to you with the more zeal, as I know the moral, literary, and political character of those who are engaged in the undertaking, and find myself honoured in their good opinion.
As the Public has done me the unmerited favour of recognizing me under the appellation of "Common Senfe," which is my ufual fignature, I fhall continue it in this publication, to avoid mistakes, and to prevent my being fuppofed the author of works not my own. As to my political principles, Ith ll endeavour, in this Letter, to trace their general features in fuch a manner as that they cannot be misunderstood.
It is defirable in most instances to avoid that which may give even the least fufpicion with respect to the part meant to be adopted; and particularly on the prefent occafion, where a perfect clearness of expreffion is neceffary to the avoidance of any poffible mifinterpretation. I am happy therefore to find, that the work in queftion is entitled "The Republican. This word expreffes perfectly the idea which we ought to have of Government in general-Res Publica-the public affairs of a nation.
As to the word Monarchy, though the addrefs and intrigue of Courts have rendered it familiar, it does not contain the lefs of re
But I must at the fame time observe, that from my ignorance of the French language, my works muft neceffarily undergo a tranflation. They can of course be but of little utility, and my offering must confist more of wishes than fervices-I must add, that I am obliged to pafs a part of this fummer in Eng-proach or of infult to a nation. The word, in land and Ireland. its immediate and original fenfe, fignifies the abfolute
abfolute power of a fingle individual, who may prove a fool, an hypocrite, or a tyrant. The appellation admits of no other interpretation than that which is here given. France is therefore not a Monarchy; it is infulted when called by that name. The fervile (pirit which characterizes this fpecies of Govern. ment is banished from France, and this country, like America, can now afford to Monarchy no more than a glance of disdain.
Of the errors which monarchic ignorance or knavery has spread through the world, the one which bears the marks of the most dexterous invention, is the opinion, that the fyftem of Republicanism is only adapted to a fmall country, and that a Monarchy is suited, on the contrary, to thofe of greater extent. Such is the language of Courts, and fuch the fentiments which they have caused to be adopted in Monarchic countries; but the opinion is contrary, at the fame time, to principle and to experience.
The Government, to be of real ufe, fhould poffefs a complete knowledge of all the parties-all the circumstances-and all the interefts of a nation. The Monarchic fyftem, in confequence, instead of being suited to a country of great extent, would be more admiffible in a small territory, where an individual may be supposed to know the affairs and the interefts of the whole. But when it is attempted to extend this individual knowledge to the affairs of a great country, the capacity of knowing bears no longer any proportion to the extent or multiplicity of the objects which ought to be known, and the Government inevitably falls from ignorance into tyranny. For the proof of this pofition we need only lock to Spain, Ruffia, Germany, Turkey, and the whole of the Eaftern Continent-countries, for the deliverance of which I offer my moft fincere wishes.
On the contrary, the true Republican Syftem, by Election and Reprefentation, offers the only means which are known, and in may opinion the only means which are poffible of proportioning the wifdom and the information of a Government to the extent of a country.
The fyftem of Representation is the strongest and moft powerful centre that can be devifed for a Nation. Its attraction acts fo powerfully, that men give it their approbation even without reafoning on the caule, and France, however diftant its feveral parts, finds itself at this moment an subole in its central Reprefentation. The citizen is affured that his rights are protected, and the foldier feels that he is no longer the flave of a Defpot, but that he is become one of the nation, and interested of courfe in its defence.
The States at prefent ftyled Republican, as Holland, Genoa, Venice, Berne, &c. are not only unworthy of the name, but are a@ually in oppofition to every principle of
Republican Government, and the countries fubmitted to their power are, truly fpeaking, fubjected to an Aristocratic Slavery !
It is perhaps impoffible in the first steps which are made in a Revolution, to avoid all kind of error, in principle or in practice, or in fome instances to prevent the combination of both. Before the fenfe of a Nation is fufficiently enlightened, and before men have entered into the habits of a free communication with each other of their natural thoughts, a certain referve-a timid prudence feizes on the human mind, and prevents it from attaining its level with that vigour and promptitude which belongs to Right.-An example of this influence difcovers itself in the commencement of the prefent Revolution. covery has been made before the Conftitution was completed, and in time to provide a remedy.
But happily this dif
The Hereditary Succeffion can never exist as a matter of right; it is a nullity-a nothing. To admit the idea is to regard men as a fpecies of property belonging to fome individuals, either born or to be born! It is to confider our defcendants, and all poste. rity, as mere animals without a Right or a Will! It is, in fine, the moft bafe and humiliating idea that ever degraded the human fpecies, and which, for the honour of humanity, should be destroyed for ever.
The idea of Hereditary Succeffion is fo contrary to the Rights of Man, that if we were ou felves to be recalled to existence, inftead of being replaced by our poterity, we fhould not have the right of depriving ourfelves before-hand of thofe Rights which would then properly belong to us. On what ground then, or by what authority do we dare to deprive of their Rights those children who will foon be men? Why are we not ftruck with the injuftice which we perpetrate on our defcendants, by endeavouring to tranfmit them as a vile herd to masters, whose vices are all that can be foreseen.
Whenever the French Conttitution fhall he rendered conformable to its Declaration of Rights, we shall then be enabled to give to France, and with juftice, the appellation of a Civic Empire; for its Government will be the Empire of Laws founded on the great Republican Principles of Elective Reprefentation, and the Rights of Man.—But Monarchy and Hereditary Succeffion are incompatible with the basis of its Conftitution.
I hope that I have at prefent fufficiently proved to you that I am a good Republican -and I have fuch a confidence in the truth of these principles, that I doubt not they will foon be as univerfal in France as in America. The pride of human nature will affitt their evidence, will contribute to their establishment, and men will be ashamed of Monarchy.
I am, with refpect, Gentlemen,
Your Friend, THOMAS PAINE.
To the EDITOR of the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE.
THE following Tale was written for the PRINCESS WILHELMINA, eldest daughter of the reigning DUKE of COURLAND, by Mr. MASSON, of BLAMONT, whole fifter is Governess to the young Princefs. It is in my opinion, for fimplicity and moral beauty, not inferior to the admirable "TALES of the CASTLE" of the COUNTESS DE GENLIS, and I have no doubt that it will find a place in your Magazine. ELMINA; or, THE FLOWER THAT NEVER FADES. A TALE FOR YOUNG LADIES.
HERE lived a long time ago, and in
a very diftant country, a young princefs whofe name was Elmina. She was very handiome and very lovely: youth and innocence are always fo; but innocence frequently vanishes with infancy, and lovelineis takes wing at the fame time. The young Princels was an orphan; and a beneficent fairy, whose name was Lidoriana, undertook the care of her education. Elmina did not know the was a fairy; but the loved Lidoriana as a friend, and honoured her as her mother.
The Princess had one day permiffion to amufe herself with her companions in a neighbouring meadow. They were prefently feen running by the side of a rivulet, pursuing butterflies, and gathering
When they had gathered a great quantity, they feated themfelves under a fhady tree, to make them into crowns, garlands, and nofegays; and while they thus amused themselves, fome prattled and others told tales: it is well known that young girls love to prattle and relate ftories, becaufe they remember every thing they hear. Elmina, lefs curious and lefs talkative, fung as the arranged her flowers. Her friends were filent to liften to her; and this was her fong: it was the fairy, I believe, who had taught it her.
Fleur de nos prés, touchante image
11 eft une fleur immortelle :
Toujours brillante, toujours belle,
Ce n'eft violette, ni rose,
Fleur de champs, ni fleur de jardin
Pour que l'on vous aime fans ceffe,
Elmina was filent; all the garlands were finished, and her companions role up. "What shall we do?" faid they; "we have a great many crowns and garlands, let us play at the Maid in the Ring." It was one of the fports of the little girls of that country: they were to chufe the most beautiful, to decorate her with flowers and a crown, and then to fing and dance round her. But among fo fplendid a company of young ladies, to fix upon the handsomest was a very delicate talk, and which I fhould not have wifhed to undertake. Many were defirous of crowning Elmina, but he was too modeft to fuppofe herself the most beautiful, and she saw that many of her companions were lovely for the felt no jealoufy at the beauty of others. "My friends," faid fhe to them,
idea comes into my head, by which we may fix our choice. Let each of us gather a favourite flower, and place it in our hats we will then throw our flowers into the air, and the maiden whose flower fhall go higheft, the fhall be the beauty of the ring." They all approved of the plan, and they difperfed to gather their flowers.
Among the companions of Elminawas a young Princess called Malinette, who was very mischievous and very proud. She ran to a neighbouring field, and plucked a bluebottle, which he placed in her hat, having firft adroitly twilted the ftalk round a imall pebble.
It is eafy to guess why the little cheat did fo: by this ftratagem her flower was heavier,