and covering with a funereal fplendour the countries which the had already rendered frightful by devastation and ruin. This fpectacle did not fail to be majestic in the midst of its horrors. The frequent contraft of light and fhade, occafioned by the fhadow of the neighbouring mountains, attracts the eye along its variegated labyrinth, and suggests to the awakened imagination a notion of the ancient chaos. The dead filence around me admirably blended with the monuments of deftruction beneath me, while the ftillness of foul it excited was interrupted at returning intervals by the hollow roaring of the caverns of tna. I cannot exprefs the revolution I experienced at thofe moments, nor defcribe the fingular effect these shocks, which may justly be called electrical ones, produced on all my fenfes. I could not, however, refrain from laughing when, at one

of those inftants that Etna roared the loudeft, a Monk, who was by my fide, feizing me with a trembling hand, forced me, in spite of myself, within the door of the convent, repeating at the fame time in a tremulous voice,

"Horrificis juxta tonat Etna ruinis.” The Monks of Catania ufually fend a lay brother to the convent, under whose direction the harveft is gathered, and the different fruits dried. We had forgotten to bring with us letters of recommendation to him, which did not, however, prevent him from receiving us cordially, and treat ing us with the utmost hofpitality. We flept from eight o'clock in the evening till eleven, when we were to depart, that we might be able to reach the fummit of the mountain early enough to behold the magnificent view which the rifing fun offers. The road we had to pafs confifted of dry fand and steep rocks; fometimes leading to an iminente height, fometimes defcending frightful precipices. We were confiderably terrified, and the more fo as the moon had juft fet. We lighted fome torches; but the wind, which began to blow with violence, extinguished them every moment. The darkness of the night was dreadful; the road, however, was no longer through precipices, but it was flippery and uneven, full of deep ruts, which fcarcely permitted our mules to continue an instant on their legs: for my own part I alighted from mine, and walked as long as my strength would permit me. To this parched and ftony country, in

general unproductive and trewed with afhes, fucceeded an immenfe foreft. We were elated with joy to find ourselves upon ground on which we might travel without apprehension.

We experienced a very different climate from that we had quitted; the fuffocating heat which had fo much incommoded us at the foot of the mountain, gave place to a temperate air, more refreshing than warm. The foreft protected us from those dreadful hurricanes, which, all the way from Nicolo d'Arena, had incommoded us, burying us, as it were, in clouds of afhes. This contraft, from one extreme to the other, was complete; from a barren defert we were tranfported to a delicious garden. By the light of our flambeaux we examined the objects around us, and we perceived, with a kind of rapture, grafs, flowers, aromatic fhrubs, and here and there fome fruit-trees, whose fragrant exhalations were the more agreeable, from the fulphurcous air we had before breathed. From Catania, by the forefts, the way is flforter than if we were to afcend the mountain on the fide of Taormina; it is, however, only in the latter route that the large chefnut-trees, fo much celebrated, are to be feen; refpecting which the learned do not agree. The point in difpute is, whether they have one or a number of trunks. Recupero, who affirms that he examined them with attention, fays, that they have but one trunk, the circumference of which measures twenty-eight Neapolitan rods, or 224 feet. I did not fee thefe gigantic trees, my friends in Catania having affured me, that it was not worth my while to go fo far as a day's journey out of my road for the purpose. The oaks in thefe forefts are of a fingular form, but more remarkable for their fize than their height. When I compare them with the ancient oaks of my country, ours are lofty giants, while thofe of Ætna resemble mishapen dwarfs, whom the climate and foil have ftinted in their growth: the foil. indeed will permit the roots neither to fpread nor entwine, fo that those by which the tree derives its nourishment, are scarcely below the furface of the earth, and fometimes totally expofed. At the extre mity of the forett we found the famous Cavern of Goats (Grotta di Caprioli). This cavern, formed probably by a torrent of lava, is large and deep: the road that leads both to it and the major part of

* The whole Mountain is divided into three diftinct regions, called, La Regione Culta, or Piedmontefe, the Fertile Region; La Regione Sylvofa, or Nemorofa, the Woody Region; and La Regione Deferta, or Scoperta, the Barren Region.-Brydone, Vol. I. p. 166.


the environs, is a very narrow and fandy path, which, as we could frequently perceive, was formed, like all the reit, by lava. This grotto is in form exactly fimilar to the vomitoria of the ancient theatres, except that it is bounded, and leads to no object. Various caverns are to be seen in the neighbourhood of the fame kind, but of less extent.

flept two hours, when our trufty Piedetto awaked us; and though the ways we had to clamber were difficult, and the cold and wind feemed to have confpired against us to defeat our design of reaching the highest fummit of the mountain, we perfevered in fpite of this open war, and arrived at length to the top of Etna - Immediately by the fide of the frightful cavern I have mentioned, begins what is called the Snowy Country. Hitherto, however, I had not feen the fmallett trace of any fnow. The darknels of the night and the violence of the wind made the height we had to climb very difficult, and the more fo as our torches were blown out every moment. We fell every five or fix fteps, and were obliged to clamber on our hands and feet in order to reach the defired fummit. Our mules were fo fatigued, that it was with the utmoft difficulty we could make them go on. At length we difcovered a plain, thickly ftrewed over with black afhes, and furrounded with a rampart of burning foam; a hideous fpectacle, which I can only compare to a conflagration that has been extinguished. Enormous masses of lava frequently interrupted our paffage, and the continual roarings of the Volcano, the terrible darkness of the night, theimpetuofity of the winds, which feemed to be let loose upon us, all contributed in no fmall degree to infpire us with terror. (To be concluded in our next. )

The people of this country, who in general are extremely fuperftitious, affirm, that the Cavern of Goats is the abode of had angels and evil fpirits, inhabitants of the entrails of Etna: they add, that thefe wicked genii never quit their gloomy abode but to become the fcourge of the hunan fpecies, and to fhed the horn of defolation on the inhabitants of thofe parts of the country in particular which are already the most ruinous. I am of a contrary opinion. I call these fpirits the tutelary angels of weary travellers, and their caverns a fafe and commodious afylum. Our guide obferved to us, that the night was very dark, that the wind began to blow ftrong, that the cold was piercing, and that we had better warm ourselves and take fome refreshment. We followed his advice, made a good fire, feated ourfelves upon a bed of leaves, and brifkly attacked the basket that contained our provifions. Having made a good fupper we repofed ourselves; but we had fcarcely


SIR, BETWEEN twenty and thirty years ago the late SIR CHARLES WHITWORTH put forth Proposals for the publication of his relation LORD WHITWORTH'S STATE PAPERS. As the work has never been heard of fince, I fuppofe it did not meet with fufficient encouragement to purfue the defign. Along with the Proposals, he printed feveral LETTERS as fpecimens, which, I think, ought not to be loft to the world, and therefore I tend them for publication in the European Magazine. It may not be improper to add, that CHARLES LORD WHITWORTH, the perfon to whom they were addreffed, was the fon of RICHARD WHITWORTH, Efq. of Blower Pipe, in Staffordshire, who, about the time of the Revolution, had fettled at Adbafton. He was bred under that accomplished Minifter and Poet Mr. STEPNEY, and having attended him through feveral Courts of Germany, was, in the year 1702, appointed Refident at the Diet of Ratisbon. In 1704 he was

It is here that the detail of my Journey begins to differ materially from the account which M. Brydone has published of his. He fays, that after leaving the Cave of Goats, he wandered for the space of two hours in the forests of Æna. He fays alfo, that this Cave is fituated in the middle of a wood. His defcription of the environs of the Volcano is in like manner very inaccurate.-Though his account of his Journey to Ærna is a chef d'œuvre of beautiful compofition, I have my fufpicions that the Author afcended no one fummit of the Volcano; and I have been confirmed in my opinion by what was told me upon this fubject at Catania, as well as by the report of fome English travellers, who, foon after M. Brydone's returu, were conducted by the fame Piedetto who had accompanied him, and who declared to them, that our Author did not even afcend the leaft fteep of the Mountains of Ærna.


named Envoy Extraordinary to the Court of Petersburg; as he was fent Ambaffador Extraordinary thither on a more folemn and important occafion in 1710. In 1714 he was appointed Plenipotentiary to the Diet of Augsbourg and Ratisbon; in 1716 Envoy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the King of Pruffia; in 1717 Envoy Extraordinary to the Hague; in 1719 he returned in his former character to Berlin; and in 1721 KING GEORGE I. rewarded his long fervices and fatigues, by creating him BARON WHITWORTH, of GALWAY, in the kingdom of IRELAND. The next year his Lordship was intrufted with the affairs of Great Britain at the Congress of Cambray, in the character of Ambaffador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. He returned home in 1724, and died the next year, at his house in Gerard-street, London. His body was interred in Weftinin#ter-Abbey.

I am, &c.

C. D.




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21 Sept.

2017. 1708. I HAVE received the favour of your letter of the 16th int. concerning the extraordinary affront of your Ambailador in London, but having at large answered Count Golloffkin's letter on the fame fubject, I fhall only add fome few confiderations to you, with the fame freedom and fincerity I have always profeffed. I də affure you, yourlelf could not be more fuiprifed or concerned at the rude and brutal attempt offered him, than I was; but, I own, I never expected Mr. Matueoff would have been to violent in his reprefentations, or have endeavoured to blacken the fact, which of itfelf is ill enough,

*The tranfaction which is the subject of this and the succeeding letter was as follows: M.da Matueoff, the Czar's Minister in London, had been arrefted in the public freet by two bailiffs at the fut of fome tradesmen to whom he was in debt. This affrent had like to have been attended with very ferious confequences. The Czar, who had been abfolute enough to civiliza favages, had no idea, could conceive none, of the privileges of a nation civilized in the only rational manner by laws and liberties. He demanded immediate and fevere punishment of the offenders. He demanded it of a Princefs whom he thought interefted to affert the facredness of the perfons of Monarchs even in their reprefentatives; and he demanded it with threats of wreaking his vengeance on all English merchants and fubjes established in his dominions. In this light the menace u as formidable; otherwife, happily, the rights of a whole people were more facred here than the perfons of Foreiga Ministers. The Czar's Memorials urged the Queen with the fatisfaction which she had extorted herself, when only the boat and fervants of the Earl of Manchefter had been infulted at Venice. That State had broken through their fundamental laws to content the Queen of Great Britain. How noble a picture of government, when a Monarch that can force another nation to infringe its conftitution, dare not violate his own! One may imagine with what difficulties our Secretaries of State must have laboured through all the ambiges of phrase in English, French, German, and Rufs, to explain to Mufcovite ears, and Muscovite understandings, the meaning of indictments, pleadings, precedenis, juries, and verdicts; and how impatiently Peter must bave listened to promites of a hearing next Term! With what aftonishment must he have beheld a great Queen engaging to endeavour to prevail on her Parliament to país an A&t to


though, with all poffible difobliging circumitances; whereof, I am hitherto perfunded, fome are not just, and very little agree with the two letters Mr. Secretary Boyle wrote him on this occafion; and the profellions the Ambaffador made, that he would mollify the matter in his relations as much as he could.

It might eafily be imagined, the Czar would be extremely concerned at this indignity: I will affure you, on the word of an honeft man, the Queen was as much; but while the is endeavouring to give all poffible fatisfaction, and employing all proper means to convince you of her indignation against her fubjects who have offended, and her real friendship for the Czar, he will be extremely furprised to fee hertelf treated with fuch coldnefs, as if the had countenanced the fault; fatisfaction demanded in a threatening manner; and peremptory terms fet, without which her friendship will be rejected. I leave to your mature reflection, whether your Ambaffador could have acted otherwife, or your office ufed any other style, if he had feemed to refuse reparation; and whether this be a proper way to forward the affir, and win the friendship of her Majesty, who is in a condition not to be obliged to any thing, befides what her own generous temper and love of juftice will fuggett; in which I appeal to all the world, whether the has yet ever been found backward; and the letters fent by her order to Mr. Artemonowitz fufficiently fhew, that it is not to be apprehended now. As to the reprifals threatened, I fuppofe that is meant on us here; but if ever it thould come fo far (as I am fully perfuaded the Czar's own inclinations and your prudence will never fuifer it), I mult affure you we are much too inconfiderable a part of her

fubjects, that the fhould alter her measures in the least on our account, and we fhall undergo with cheerfulness, for her fervice, whatever our destiny may have provided for us. I only defire you to confider, whether you could do your enemies any greater fervice than to occafion a breach between our principals, or even a coldness which might give them countenance in the prefent conjuncture: but as I have always employed myfelf to improve the friendship of the two empires as much as poffible (which, I am convinced, is for the advantage of both), fo I fhall take contrary measures to Mr. Matueoff, and do all I can to foften this proceeding, and prevent its ill effects. As to the manner of fatisfaction, I will be anfwerable that all reparation fhall be made you which our laws will allow, and that it fhall be fo great and fignal, as fully to clear his Czarish M jelly's honour in the eye of the world, and give undeniable proofs of the Queen's friendship; but you know our government is not ablolare, nor can I tell whether it be in her Majesty's power to proceed fo far as you delire agamft the criminals: however, I will give an ac count of it, and urge the doing all that is poffible, and I hope you will not infift on more; for afking a fatisfaction impoffible, or denying to receive any, is the fame thing, and will look as if you were weary of our friendflip, and only fought an occafion to leffen it; whereas I am fure, by a moderate and prudent conduct, you might make a more noble and advantageous ufe of the prefent unlucky accident. You define fatisfaction may be given; the fooner the better; that fail be done. You fee how far they have proceeded in London already, and when they know what you demand, I do not question but

prevent any fuch outrage for the future! What honour does it reflect on the memory of that Princefs, to fee her not blush to own to an arbitrary Emperor, that even to appease him the dared not put the meanest of her fubjects to death uncondemned by law ! "There are," fays the, in one of her dispatches to him, "infuperable difficulties with respect to the ancient and fundamental laws of the government of our people, which, we fear, do not permit fo fevere and rigorous a fentence to be given, as your Imperial Majesty at first seemed to expect in this cafe; and we perfuade ourself that your Imperial Majesty, who are a Prince famous for clemency and for exact juftice, will not require us, who are the guardian and pretedress of the laws, to inflict a punishment upon our fubjects which the law does not empower us to do." Words fo venerable and heroic, that this broil ought to become history, and be exempted from the oblivion due to the filly fquabbles of Amballadors. See Walpole's advertisement prefixed to "Lord Whitworth's Account of Ruffia." 8vo. 1758.-" Moreley's Life of Peter I." Vol. II. 57. 67.-" Blackstone's Commentaries." On this occafion Lord Whitworth went to Ruffia, to make the apology. When he had compromised the rup ure, he was invited to a ball at Court, and taken out to dance by the Czarina. As they began the minuet she squeezed him by the hand, and faid in a whisper, "Have you forgot betle Kate "


further progrefs will be made. In my letter to Count Golloffkin, you will find, that I have offered to wait on his Majesty, or you, whenever you will naine a time and place I am perfuaded it may be to the common advantage and difpatch of this business, and then, when it has been thoroughly difcuffed, I will fend a courier to her Majefty with the refult. I own, I hould be very glad to wait on you on this

occafion, which even, when known in the world, will let them fee, we do not treat it negligently. In the mean time, I heartily recommend to your prudence the using all poffible means to moderate the refentment of your Court, and do affure you, your good offices will be very agreeable to her Majesty the Queen, whereof I thall not fail to give her a just relation, and to let you fee the real effects of her efteem for you. (To be concluded in our next.)





[Continued from Vol. XIX. Page 428. ]

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"With their own phantoms fcare his "gen'rous breaft,

"And every fway, except their own, "deteft;

"Thefe, whilft eternal justice rules this ball,

"Thefe, thefe, by Heav'n's own high
"beheft, fhall fall,

"In endlefs ruin and confusion hurl'd,
"A dread example to a wond'ring

The difcovery of America is faid to have been predicted in fome of Seneca the Tragedian's Verfes; and the emancipation of America, with the causes of it, is to be met with in fome lines of Sir Thomas Brown's, written a century before that happy event, for this country at least.

MADAME, MOTHER TO THE REGENT, though a good woman, was fo indolent, that fome one wrote on her tomb, "Cy gift l'Oliveté"-" Here lies Idleness perand other writers as difgufting the perions fonified." She is mentioned by Duclos about her by her complete inattention to their feelings or fituation. Being able herfelf to ftand upon her feet for ten hours what it was to have been ill, the never together, and having never known herfelf others; and from this fingle circumstance confidered any delicacies of conftitution in indifpofed perfons against her who in reality wished her well.

"Elle ne cherchoit point à plaire," fays Duclos, “elle ne vouloit être aimée que de ceux qu'elle eltimoit. Elle aimoit fort fa nation, et il fuffifoit d'être Allemand pour en être


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