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heavier, and the might throw it the farther. The other young girls chofe, without malice, the flowers they preferred: one brought a ranunculus, another a cowflip, and a third a lily of the valley. As for Elmina, fhe went into a little wood in fearch of an eglantine, which was the flower the loved beft. She found a bufh all in bloom; but for some reason or other the modeft Elmina chofe the lighteft and the leaft.
The moment they threw up their flowers to fee which would go the highest, a gentle zephyr arofe, and wafted the eglantine in the air; it was fhort, however, of the height of the blue-bottle, when a pretty butterfly flitted about it, and carried it away.→ The young girls were delighted at this little miracle; they crowned Elmina, and began to adorn her as the beauty of the ring: this was an eafy talk, for Elmina was very handfome: they had a great many flowers, and if they had not enough there was a brook just at hand. The Princess being dreffed and crowned, was placed on a little throne of turf; her companions began to dance round her, finging at the fame time the following fong:
Fillettes, qui, fur le gazon,
Cueillez les violettes; Fillettes, qui, fur le gazon,
Venez danfer en rond; Jonez, chantez, innocentes fillettes; Pendant votre jeune faifon
Venez danfer en rond.
Pendant votre jeune faifon
Jouez, chanter, innocentes fillettes;
The fport would have continued longer, but it was interrupted by a noife that "was heard in the wood; a little old woman came out of it and approached our pretty dancers. The girls were at firft very much terrified, and wished to run away; but the affable air of the old woman, and the foftness of her voice, gave them courage. She had a green gown, a rush hat of the fame colour, ornamented with a chaplet of green leaves; her gloves allo were green, and he held in her hand a green pot, in which was a little green
It was from this verdant appearance that she was called by those who knew her
Verdurina. "My children," faid the "I have interrupted your mirth, but I heard Elmina fing of a flower that never fades; I faw her gather an eglantine in the wood, and from her choice I judge her to be worthy of the valuable prefent I am going to make her. My child," continued the, addreffing the young Princefs, who heard her with astonishment, "take this ftalk, on which there are four flowers and two buds; it is the flower that never fades; and I make you a prefent of it. Cultivate it with care; but know, my child, that it is not by watering it that you can preferve it.-Look at this flower, which is of fo fine a vermillion, it is called the flower of modefty. As long as your cheeks are of this lovely colour, it will retain all its luftre. The fecond flower is of the purest white; it is called the flower of virtue, and it will be foiled the moment you fail in your duty. The third is of a fplendid yellow; it is called the flower of beneficence: if you are always good, it will be always beautiful. The fourth is of a fine celestial blue; it is the flower of gentleness: whenever Elmina lofes her temper, or is angry, this charming flower will droop. This bud which begins to open," continued the old woman, "will produce the flower of the mind: it will blow in proportion to the knowledge you acquire, and will thus mark your improvement. The other bud contains the flower of the graces: it will open without your thinking of it, and will give a luftre to all the other flowers."
"Ah! Madam," cried the Princefs as fhe took the flower, "what return can I make for fo valuable a gift? I entreat you to go along with me: Lidoriana will prove to you both her gratitude and mine."
"My child," faid Verdurina, "you cannot better teftify your gratitude than by fhowing me one day the flower I leave you in all its freshness. I will return in three years, and if it be then pure, you and the flower will remain fo for ever."
As the faid this, Verdurina approached the other damfels, and gave them alfo fome flowers from her enchanted tree; to one five, to another four, according to the good difpofitions the faw in them to cultivate her gifts. It is affirmed that the Princels Malinette received only a bud; and that he could never make it blow. I speak however from report only; for as this young lady had a very bad character, no one has undertaken to write her history.
The fairy (for it was plain that Verdurina was one), having diftributed her
gifts, ran into the wood and disappeared. The young maidens were all astonished at this apparition; they abandoned their fports and the flowers they had gathered, to think on those which they had received. Every one was eager to fhow them to her relations; and the young Elmina, as foon as the returned home, placed her inestimable flower in a fine china jar, and related to Lidoriana every thing that had happened. Lidoriana appeared to be very much astonished at the adventure: it has fince, however, been difcovered, that Lidoriana and Verdurina were the fame fairy.
her heart: but the flower of a celestial blue it was much more difficult to preferve. Elmina was of a lively temper, and on the leaft anger, the most trifling impatience, the flower of gentleness never failed to languish and upbraid her with her faults. The Princefs repaired them in the best manner the could; for the knew that not to repair a fault, was as bad as to come. mit it.
As to the white flower, it is faid to have always preferved its purity. It is true that Elmina faw one day a little spot upon it, but a tear which the dropped upon it totally effaced it Nor is it known of what little weak nefs the had been guilty, for every body is ready to forget a fault over which they have feen the perfon who committed it shed tears.
The bud inclofing the flower of the mind grew larger every day. Whenever the Princefs had been docile and attentive to her leffons, fhe always confulted it, and commonly found that it had thrown out fome new leaf. This flower was the moft furprifing of all, as it encreased dur-ing
Elmina went to bed very happy, but her mind was full of the objects that had occupied her during the day, and all night long fhe could dream of nothing but meadows, garlands, fairies, and enchanted flowers. Her first care when the awoke was to examine if her flower had undergone any change; the ran to the jar in which he had placed it; but as the approached the window the heard a noife in the street, and faw a crowd of boys hoot ing and tormenting a poor woman.Their tricks and their gibes amufed the Princess, and made her laugh: it was not till they were out of fight that the withdrew from the window to examine her flower.-Good God! how great was her furprife and grief to fee the flower of beneficence drooping, and the flower of modefty lofing its beautiful vermilion. Lidoriana entered, found the Princefs dejected, and asked her the reason. “Ah!” faid Elmina," look at my flowers, and yet I have done nothing to occafion it."
Elmina was in reality innocent; for the perceived not that there was any harm in what had excited her laughter; but the flower of modefty had reason to be tarwished, and the flower of beneficence to droop its head, because a young lady ought never to fhew an indiscreet curiofity, and ftill lefs to laugh when any perion is fcoffed at and ill treated.
It was thus that Lidoriana explained the circumftance to the Prince's. Elmina confeffed her fault, and was fo amiable, that before the clofe of the day the flowers became more beautiful than ever. This little leffon rendered Elmina more attentive and circumfpect, and enabled her in a manner to judge how much care and affiduity it required to preferve the flower that never fades. Meanwhile, after this event, it coft her but little to keep the yellow flower in all its brilliance. Elmina was fenfible and good: to be beneficent, she had only to liften to the fuggeftions of
the whole life of Elmina. Nothing could be more various than the form and colour of its leaves. Upon one you faw pretty little landfcapes; upon another, plans of rich embroidery; upon a third, reprefentations of hiftory or geography; and upon many a golden lyre, or an ivory harp; in fhort, there were emblems of whatever could adorn the mind of a young lady.
As to the flower of the graces, it flourished, as Verdurina had foretold, almost without its being perceived. Elmina had even occafion to remark, that if the attempted to haiten its ripenefs, by giving herself airs in her looking-glafs, or ellewhere, this fingular flower immediately clofed up; and it opened not again till the thought no more of it. It had only three leaves, but they were fo beautiful, so graceful, that by fome ftrange charm they com municated a fplendor to all the other flowers that made them ftill more captivating.
You may well fuppofe that Elmina, poffeffing the flower that never fades, and cultivating it with fuch care, became the moft accomplished Princefs of her time. The report of her amiable and excellent qualities ipread everywhere: for you must know that there is a little fairy called Renown, who goes about the world telling every thing the knows good or bad of people, and efpecially of young Princeffes. Renown then did not fail to publish the virtues and graces of Elmina, and all the nations of the earth wished to C 2
have for their Queen fo accomplished a Princefs. The fon of the King of the Roxalans, heir to the largest empire in the univerfe, came a great way to fee her, and to ask her of Lidoriana in marriage, Lidoriana confented, not because he was heir to a vast empire, but because this amiable Prince had alfo cultivated the flower that never fades: for there is a flower for young men alfo, and which is nearly fimilar to the one we have defcribed,
The Princess could not quit a place that was fo dear to her, without first vifiting the wood where fhe had received the precious gift that had been the caufe of all her felicity. She hoped to find Verdurina there, that the might again thank her. It was precifely three years fince the made her appearance. Elmina then put the flower that never fades in her bosom, and went to the wood: but how great was her astonishment on her arrival to find,
inftead of Verdurina, Lidoriana, whom she had left at home,
"I am," said the fairy, "the perfon you feek. It was I who gave you the flower under the figure of Verdurina, and it is I who have aflifted you in cultivating it under that of Lidoriana. My talk is happily fulfilled. The flower will be always fresh, and Elmina will always be amiable, and always beloved for the virtues of the heart and the graces of the mind are charms that nothing can efface." The Prince's threw herself at the feet of her benefactress, and the fairy tenderly embraced her dear Princefs: the then affumed an aerial form and disappeared.
Elmina, overcome with affection and grief, ftretched out her arms and entreated her to return. The Prince flew to her fuccour, confoled her, and conducted her to his empire, where they lived all their lives happy together.
To the EDITOR of the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE. SIR,
Some Objections to Archdeacon Paley's Sentiments in his Moral Philofophy appear ing in your Magazine for June laft, all of which did not appear fufficiently conclufive fo as to authorize their admiffion in oppofition to thofe fentiments, I have undertaken to answer them.-I have not a defire to enter into a controverfy, nor indeed to defend all that Mr. Paley has delivered to the world in his System of Moral Philofophy, and for that reafon fhall not reply in cafe I am attacked; but rest satisfied in what I have faid, and leave the iffue in the hands of your numerous readers.
Some OBJECTIONS to ARCHDEACON PALEY's OPINIONS answered.
EVERY work that is ushered forth to
public infpection, whether intended as a rule for religious or moral conduct, is, and indeed ought to be fubject to the ftricteft fcrutiny; for as fuch a work is confidered a general line of conduct for individuals, the good of Society will induce us to remove any error that may have crept in, either through the prejudice or mifinformation of the author, which by its wrong tendency may affect the manners of thofe for whom it is intended as a guide, and thereby the good of Society be diminished but at the fame time, it behoves us to be careful that our objections be not frivolous, but founded upon juft principles, thote which are the refult of intuitive truths, and confequently eftablifhed by general affent. On this fcore I fhall endeavour to obviate fome of your Correfpondent's objections; for though I efteem it our duty to Society to examine thofe productions, as I have before said, with the fearching eye of criticifm, which are intended for its rule and guidance;
yet, I think, gratitude to an induftrious author will induce us to meet thofe objections which are apparently not well founded, and which might tend to diminifh that celebrity he has juftly acquired,
Mr. Paley fays, that in cafes of extreme neceffity a man has a right to the property of another, fo much as is neceffary to his exiftence, with an obligation to reftitution when in his power,
The general intention of Providence is, no doubt, that the produce of the earth fhould be for the ufe of Man. It is alfo no lefs true, that it is his intention, that Man fhould exift; it follows then, that the prefervation of this existence is according to God's intention and how is this proved? Because this existence of an indi vidual is for the benefit of Society, excepting where the greater good of the Society demands his removal. Herein then, in my opinion, confifts the right of a man's preferving his own exiftence, though at the expence of another's property. Property itfelf is fubfequent and adven
titious to this first law of nature; and how ever it may be the will of God that the produce of the earth should become the property or right of exclufive poflethon of an individual; yet it seems to me, that a prior obligation to an antecedent law, conftitutes it in this cafe to be the inherent right of every one to fo much property of another, as may be actually neceiiary to his existence.—It is a maxim in moral philofophy, that every fort of actions which ultimately conduces moft to the good of fociety is right: the good arifing to mankind from the prefervation of the life of an individual, is more than the harm accruing from the lofs of fo much property as is abfolutely neceffary to his existence, or the general bad confequence fuppofed to happen to Society from fuch a violation. Let us confider the general confequence. Suppoling a man is killed in endeavouring to fecure fo much as is neceff...y to his exiftence, what is the confequence? An individual is loft to Society. But it would have been the cafe if he had perifhed through want, and the chances are in his favour that he would not be killed in endeavouring to obtain what was neceffary to keep him alive; for his appearance in this extremity would juftify the dreadful claim, and the owner in this cafe would be totally devoid of humanity were he to refufe it: nor do I think the example would influence much, for it would be a difficult matter to find a person who would ftarve himself to that point for the fake of trying the experiment. If there were not a difficulty of determining who are real objects in this cafe, it would have been fixed as a law of nature, that a man in this extremity might make ufe of another's property. But as it is thus difficult to determine, let the law that provided for the fecurity of property take its courfe, and let punishment enfiue for the invafion. I think there are hardly any laws exifting in any country fo fevere, as that a man fhall futter death for taking fo much of another's property as is abfolutely neceffary to the preferving of his life; in fhort, the general confequence feems to authorize fuch a proceeding: it is clearly fo in the cafe mentioned by Mr. Paley, of pulling down a house in cafe of fire. Therefore, if a man have an inherent right to accomplish thofe actions which are ultimately moft conducive to the good of Society, in which is included the general confequence, I think he will be juftified in the right of keeping himself from ftarving. These diftinctions which property has introduced among men feem then
to cease, and he reverts to an antecedent claim, the natural rights of mankind.
A lie is the undertaking to mifinform another with an intention to deceive.Therefore where there is no intention to deceive, it may be a falfehood, but not to be confidered as a lie, and hereby public credit will not at all be affected: in the cafe, therefore, of the fervant's denying his maf ter, there is no intention to deceive, nor is there a deception, for it is not determinate, feeing it is the fame term expreffing two different ideas; and take which you will, they are either of them fufficient for your purpofe, and upon this fcore not at all injurious to fociety; as I will endeavour to thew.
When it once becomes an established cuftom, that if any one does not wish to be feen, the fervant is to inform the vifitant his mafter is not at home; I fay, when this is generally allowed (admitting that the first perfon, and many others perhaps before it was established, told an abfolute lie), it cannot be faid that fuch vifitant is deceived: for reafoning upon the matter it appears thus: If my friend is not at home, the general term applied to the idea makes it true without any apparent equivocation; and if he be at home, I know the fame terms are intended to convey the idea that he does not wish to be feen; each of which are fufficiently conclufive, and the perfon goes home fatisfied. It might be urged, that the neceffity of the cafe would make it neceffary that he fhould be feen; but this is obviated by the vifitant's having it in his power to convey his with by letter. All that can be faid then is, that it is another or rather new mode of expreffing the idea, that a perfon does not chufe to be feen; only there is a feeming mifapplication, in ufing terms which fignify contrary ideas. Words themfelves are perfectly infignificant, excepting as they are fymbols of our ideas, whether fimple or complex; therefore whatever term thall by general aflent, or by particular affent, in a particular place be determined upon to convey any idea, fuch term may be ufed without general confidence being at all affected thereby; in the cafe before us for inttance. It is now in mott large towns generally agreed to, that when a perfon does not wish to be seen, he is not at home. This is the expreflion intended to convey the idea, and, thus generally agreed to, and grown into a cuftom, may be ufed; and fo far, in my humble opinion, from weakening general confi
dence in the mode it is used, may be confi
dered as veracity itself. It feems to have arifen from that delicacy of conduct which peculiarly distinguishes polished Society; and excepting that at its first institution it was to be confidered as a breach of veracity, was dictated by an honourable fentiment, the fear of offending, which invented a mode to foften the harthness of
an abrupt refufal to be feen: and it is a matter of doubt, whether the direct truth would meet with fo favourable a reception; for people then would be too apt to dwell upon the reafons for their nonadmittance; a circumitance which would probably be productive of disagreements among friends. July 15. (To be continued.)
To the EDITOR of the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE.
Looking over the life of Lord Barrington in the Biographia Britannica, I was furprised to find that the Editors of that Work had not availed themfelves of the information concerning his Lordship they might have derived from the funeral fermon preached by Mr. Mackewen on his Lordship's death. The authenticity of Mr. Mackewen's Memoirs adinit of no doubt, and therefore I recommend them to the notice of those who are engaged in the Biographia, when a new volume of that Work thall make its How appearance.
June 17, 1791.
HE E was defcended from worthy ancestors, eminent for their virtue and zeal for the caufe of liberty, feveral of whom ferved the Kings of England with honour, as commande:s in the wars of Normandy, when Normandy was annexed to the crown. He had a graceful perfon, a happy constitution, and an extraordinary genius, improved by a pious and liberal education; and, if I am not mistaken, it will hereafter be accounted an konour to Utrecht, where he finished his academical ftudies, to have contributed to the forming to great a man; for he was a person of almoft unequalled abilities, and many excellent and uncommon virhis great judgement, extensive knowledge, acute fagacity, and intenfive application, rendered him, perhaps, upon the whole the most finished character in life.
"His principles of christian and civil liberty were rational, demonftrative and immoveable; and his happy faculty of communicating his thoughts upon any fubject made his converfation extremely agreeable and inftructive to men of fente and taite. Such admirable talents could not long be hid; and therefore he had an early and ftrict friendship with feveral perfons of the greateft rank, learning, and virtue, which he never fought; was made a Commiffioner of the Cuitoms in virtue of a promile he never afked; and had feveral employees of honour and profit
I am, &c.
offered him, which he declined to accept whift the Occafional Act was in force. He was adopted without his knowledge by two gentlemen of good eftates and the greatest worth, Francis Barrington, of Tofts in the county of Effex, Eiq. purfuant to whofe fe tlement he took the name of Barrington; and John Wildman of Becket in the county of Berks, Efq. ; from a just persuasion of his inflexible attachment to the intereft of religion and virtue in general, and the religious and civil liberties of his country, was chofen into Parliament by the town of Berwick upon Tweed without a bribe; and was created a Peer of Ireland by the bounty of King George the Firt, against his will, for his eminent fervices and unfhaken loyalty to the illuftrious House of Hanover, and the British conftitution; the support of which, with the extenfion of liberty and rational religion, was the noble and conftant end of his thoughts and actions; and therefore he was prevailed upon, contrary to his inclinations, and in apparent prejudice to his health and affairs, to be a candidate at the late election, and might have been chofen, would his principles have permitted him to have given a bribe of forty pounds; but he had too ftrict a regard to the laws and interest of his country to countenance corruption, and trifle with the facredness of oaths. This may be ridiculed by a fort of men; but it will be a lalling honour to his me
* The Shutes,