carriage. It will describe a circle round a point, therefore may be turned round on its own length of ground, and in a sharper angle than any other carriage can. Either end may be used as the fore end at pleasure, by merely shifting the pole or shafts, therefore all obstructions and stoppages are avoided. This carriage is admirably calculated for timber, as the line of draught is straight forward in all positions; the timber will be carried forward nearly half its length in the act of turning any angle, therefore such timber may be turned on this carriage where no other can. It is also well adapted for the conveyance of siege artillery or pontoons, as in case of necessity (which often occurs abroad, where such carriages, &c. must be long delayed, or perhaps abandoned to the enemy), the pole or shafts may be shifted in one mi

nute, and the carriage retreat in safety. Fig. 8 is the ground plan of an expanding axle-tree, adapted to various purposes in agriculture. I is the pole; 2 the wheels; 33 two bars of wood that cross the square frame, and extend and join to 4, which is a harrow, rake, or drill, with two joints 10, 10, which move both ways, so that when the carriage is in use the harrow, &c. not only expands with the carriage, but will let its ends fall downwards, so as completely to embrace any ridge of land however convex; also when the carriage is contracted, those arms and joints will cause and permit the harrow to contract at the same time. 5 is a chain or rope which is attached to the square frame at the point or angle next to 5, and extends under the axle-tree to 6, where there is a ring fixed to the said chain or rope. 6 is another ring fixed to the point or angle at 6. By fixing the horse to the ring of the rope - OT cr chain, the carriage will with great ease be progres'sively expanded for use, and kept in that state. By fixing the horse on the ring 6, the carriage will in like manner be contracted, and kept so. Any other width may be had by a bar from 11 to 11. The square frame is com+osed of four pieces of wood, of such a length as to admit of an expansion of the intended width; they are fixed to each other by a bolt at all the angles marked 8, as are the two bars marked 33; so that every point of contact has a free motion. The whole frame is fixed to the axle-tree at 7, 7. By this frame, &c. the carriage may be expanded or contracted with ease and at pleasure to answer any road, or to cultivate any given width of ground at once going over. The driver is to ride, and the horses and wheels to go in the furrows; thus do much more work, and in a better manner, with less injury to the soil and grain than by any method now in use. This invention may be applied to a one horse chaise, taxed cart, &c. where the roads are bad, as such chaise, &c. could contract or expand so as to run within or without the old ruts; for which purpose the frame might be made circular, which would be a more pleasing form, and as slight as possible.

I am, Gentlemen,
Yours, &c.


Description of an Apparatus to secure Persons from sins. ing in Water, or to act as a Life Preserver when shipwrecked. By Mr. F. C. DANIEL, of Wapping. - . * With an Engraving. From the TRANSActions of the Society for the Encouragement of ARts, MANUFACTURES, and CoMMERCE.

The Gold Medal of the Society was voted to Mr. DANIEL for this Invention. . . A, Fig. 2 (Plate XIII.) represents the body of the machine, which is double throu ghout, made of pliable waterproof leather, large enough to admit its encircling the body of the wearer, whose head is to pass betwixt the two fixed straps, B B, which rest upon the shoulders; the armsofthe wearer pass through the spaces on the outside of the straps; one on each side, admitting the machine under them to encircle the body like a large hollow belt; the strap, C, on the lower part of the machine, is attached to the back of it, and by passing betwixt the thighs of the wearer, and buckling at D, holds the machine sufficiently firm to the body, without too much pressure under the arms. The machine being thus fixed, is inflated with air by the wearer blowing in from his lungs through the cock E, a sufficient quantity of air to fill the machine, which air is retained by turning the stop-cock. The machine, when filled with air, will displace a sufficient quantity of water to prevent four persons from sinking under water. Mr. Daniel recommends his life preservers to be prepared as follows: viz. To select sound German horsehides, and to cut a piece six feet long, and two feet six inches wide, free from blemish or shell; it is first to be curried, and then rendered water-proof by Moller*... . . . . ~~~~ stein's stein's patent varnish, of Osborn-street, Whitechapel, which preserves the leather more supple, and admits it to be easier inflated than any other water-proof leather *. . The leather is nailed on a board, and the varitish applied upon it; it is then to be passed into an oven several times, the varnish being each time repeated, till the leather is completely covered; it is then cut out in the form of a jacket, as above described, and neatly and firmly stitched; the seams and stitches are afterwards to be perfectly secured by the following black elastic varnish. R.—Gum asphaltum, two pounds; amber, half a pound; gum benzoin, six ounces; linseed-oil, two. pounds; spirits of turpentine, eight pounds; and lampblack, half a pound; united together in an earthen vessel with a gentle heat. - , -. The machine, when properly made according to th drawing and description, resembles a broad belt, or circular girdle, composed of two solds of pliable leather attached together, and perfectly impervious to water. When used, the wearer introduces his head and arms within the circle, the stop-cock in front, the two fixed straps E E rest one upon each shoulder, to prevent the belt from sinking down; the lower strap C, is then brought between the thighs, and buckled in front, which prevents the machine from being forced back; the machine is then inflated by the application of the mouth to the stop-cock in front, and when properly filled, the turning of the cock retains the air in the machine, and expands it so much as to displace a quantity of water so great, as to sustain the wearer, and a further weight, if necessary, buoyant in the water.

* See the specification inserted in the seventh volume of the present series, page 165.

* - - The

The following Letters in Commendation of the Life Preserver have been received by Mr. DANIEL.

Copy of a Letter from Mr. GeoRGE Willers, late Surgeon of the Alert Private Ship of War, lost off the Western Islands, Sir, I am happy in having it in my power to say, I owe my life to your invaluable invention, the life preserver; and the circumstances relative thereto are as follow :— I shipped as surgeon on board the Alert private ship of war, mounting 18 guns, and 98 men, commanded by James Desormeaux, esq belonging to Messrs. Wright and Birch, Walbrook. We sailed for Falmouth, April 1805, and, after cruising five months, on the 22d of September we unfortunately struck on a rock in the Western Islands, and the ship went to pieces in five minutes; at that time we had eighty-four men on board: I witnessed the loss of every officer, six in number, and sixty-four foremast men; thirteen of the crew were saved, by clinging to pieces of the wreck, spars, &c. which drifted from the wreck; and I have the happiness to say, by possessing one of your life preservers (though I cannot swim,) I was supported for some time, the sea running mountains high, but providentially a large Portuguese boat put off to my assistance, being then near a mile from the shore; and I was thus saved by the hands of Providence, and your invention, from a watery grave. - I beg, Sir, you will permit me to acknowledge how much I feel myself obliged to you; and you are at full liberty to make this case known for the benefit of mankind. I am, Sir, your most obedient servant, - a G. H. Willers. - - Sir,

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