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between those of the card, turns by the contact, and
strips the card of its filanıents which are immediately
taken from the comb, by the spinning system described
in Fig. 23, and placed at ¿ in these figures. From this
latter machinery the thread descends to the spindle k l,
the flyers of which move a little faster than the bobbin
in ng so that the difference winds up the thread just as
fast as the spinning system furnishes it, and the coming
thread, by the form of the bobbin, drives down what
was already wound, so as to gather a very large quantity
before it becomes necessary to change the bobbins. The
latter, it must be noted, is covered by a cylinder op,
fixed to its bottom, and rising nearly to the top, so as to
prevent the thread from flying unequally off the centre,
as the bobbin diminishes to give it room.
two wheels, whose unequal numbers acting on equal
pinions, cause the winding difference above-mentioned.

N. B. This machinery may work upward as well as downward, or the card axis may be horizontal and carry several central cards, opposite to several drawing systeins and spindles; but the principles would remain the same.

Sometimes the filaments may be taken directly from the card B by the spinning system, and also by pressing cylinders having no motion but round their axis. The same may also be done from the comb, either delivering the filament directly to the spindle k, or to the spinning system. Sometimes one or two pairs of drawing cylinders without twist, are interposed between the machinery i and the spindle k; in order to refine and smooth the thread previous to twisting.

In the former part of this specification, two forms of the watch or untwister have been explained. Another

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form shall now be given, which is perhaps more convenient, although its principles be the same.

. AB. Fig. 32, (PI, II.) is the section of a wheel like those of Figs. 22 and 23, turning on a cannon C. In this wheel is serewed the untwisting machinery D E, composed of some sharp grooyed pullies a, b, c, d; which receive, and bend the thread as it passes through the cannon C, from the giving to the taking cylinders. The two pul. lies b c, are mounted on screws fixed in the moveable plate e, which can assume the position fg, by which means a wire or hook passes directly from D through the cannon to bring up the thread : and this, when e resumes its present position, is bent four times, viz. to the right of a, to the left of b, to the right of c, and to the left of d, where it leaves the machine in the prolonged axis of the cannon C. These bends of the thread and the action of drawing so connect it with the pullies, that turning round the cannon C, they undo any required proportion of the twist contained in a given thread, which thereby becomes'extensible as before mentioned,

Fig. 33 represents another form that may be given to the receiving system, s is the spindle turned by a proper wheel working in the pinion p. The wheel a, at pnce cylindrical and bevel, runs loose on S, and receives its motion from another wheel in the manner of those qr, Fig. 22. The pinion p goes through the bottom of the circular box q r, and communicates the motion of a to the wheel c. But the wheel c is a part of the flyers de, which turn on the upper end of the spindle sg. receiving the thread at h from the spinning system. Now if these flyers, and the box q r turn together but with a different velocity, the thread brought by de will be thrown against the hollow sides of the box and carried

D 2

gently

gently round it, so as to be gathered. up as fast as it leaves the other machinery; and thus will be obtained the triple object of winding up á very weak thread without danger of breaking, of winding up a large quantity without stopping, and of winding it at once in the form of a skain, so as to avoid the necessity of reeling.

N. B. The fyer de might be turned from above by a pinion at r, and thus the wheels abc be suppressed; but the taking out of the thread would be less convenient.

Fig. 34, shews a different method of placing the circular comb (h, Fig. 22). If A B be a card (similar to that B, Fig. 22), the comb, placed as at e, with its axis directed toward that of the card, and its teeth plunged among those of the card, will drive off the filaments as at f, where they may be taken immediately by the spinner, Fig. 23, or any other mechanism having the property of twisting and drawing at the same time. The dots on the card shew the direction of the card-wires in this instance.

It may be now proper to mention and describe several other new methods of preparing and spinning filamentous substances. Let A, Fig. 35, be a card or comb for receiving the filament delivered by the feeding cylinders B (placed as well as A in any given position). When A revolves, B gives out the filament with a proper velocity : but the same line in the ribbon of filament is always placed on the same circle of teeth in the card, whence arises more or less inequality of thickness in the sheet of feeding. To prevent this imperfection, a backward and forward motion in direction of the axis of A, is given to the frame which carries B, as is expressed by tne two arrows on B. That motion is here given by a crank C of very small radius, moving swiftly, and thus changing

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continually the place of the approaching filament on the card A. This system is called the shaking feeder : and it should be observed that as it is necessary the shake should be nearly parallel to the surface of A, the frame which contains B must move in a slide, or round a centre far beyond D.

In Fig. 36 is shewn another system of feeding, which is called the throwing feeder : and this is its principle, A is a kind of hollow box, containing the filament in a state of ribbon (or connected longitudinally in any other state). When the box turns, the wheel D circulates round the pinion C, which is concentric with the axis of revolution of the box, and is either fixed or turned with the box as the necessary proportion of draft nay require. By these means one set of the pressing cones for cylinders) x y z receives, and communicates to the other sets the motion necessary for drawing the filament out of the box and delivering it at E with a proper velocity : and as the cylinders z, are at a distance from the centre of motion of the box, they describe a circle round it, and would deliver filament to any number of combs or cards that should be placed in that circle (say those B, Fig. 22, (Pl. I.) or A B, Fig. 41).

Fig 37 shews another method of feeding applicable to long filainents, such as flax, &c. It is a cylinder a, through which passes an endless ribbon, made of any proper material, whose width is just equal to the inner circumference of a. This ribbon passes over two rollers BC, one of which, aided by a third roller, presses it, and draws it forward in the direction D, a e. By these means the ribbon changes its place in the cylinder, so that any wool or other filamentous substance laid on it at D, will be rolled up on entering the cylinder, and

there

gently round it, so as to be gathered. up as fast as it leaves the other machinery; and thus will be obtained the triple object of winding up á very weak thread without danger of breaking, of winding up a large quantity without stopping, and of winding it at once in the form of a skain, so as to avoid the necessity of reeling.

N. B. The flyer de might be turned from above by a pinion at r, and thus the wheels a b c be suppressed ; but the taking out of the thread would be less convenient,

Fig. 34, shews a different method of placing the circular comb (h, Fig. 22). If A B be a card (similar to that B, Fig. 22), the comb, placed as at e, with its axis directed toward that of the card, and its teeth plunged among those of the card, will drive off the filaments as at f, where they may be taken immediately by the spinner, Fig. 23, or any other mechanism having the property of twisting and drawing at the same time. The dots on the card shew the direction of the card-wires in this instance.

It may be now proper to mention and describe several other new methods of preparing and spinning filamentous substances. Let A, Fig. 35, be a card or comb for receiving the filament delivered by the feeding cylinders B (placed as well as A in any given position). When A revolves, B gives out the filament with a proper velocity ; but the same line in the ribbon of filament is always placed on the same circle of teeth in the card, whence arises more or less inequality of thickness in the sheet of feeding. To prevent this imperfection, a backward and forward motion in direction of the axis of A, is given to the frame which carries B, as is expressed by the two arrows on B. That motion is here given by a crank C of very small radius, moving swiftly, and thus changing

con.

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