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In Fig. 23, (PI. II.) A B, are the sections of two toothed wheels connected with the two tubes a a and b, the late ter turning in the former, and the outside one turning in a proper collar. The wheel A is connected with the tube b, at the other end of which is fixed the bevel wheel cc, which therefore occupies the inside of the said wheel B. To the large tube, and at its opposite, end, is fixed the second wheel dd, which therefore is placed without the wheel A. In the hollow of each wheel is placed a small piece of drawing machinery, composed of a bevel wheel e, its axis f, and its communication wheel g. It consists further of two fluted cylinders hi: that marked i (see the upper wheel) being. mounted in a moveable frame k, and pressed against h by the spring t. Of the two bevel wheels e e, one works in c, and the other in d, through a slit in the plate of the wheel A. If, therefore, one of the wheels as A, were to revolve about the common centre while the other remained at rest, the bevel wheel d would turn the circu. lating wheel e, and give motion to the drawing cylinders of the wheel A; and the same effect would be produced in the wheel B by the wheel c. But in such case the motion of the drawing cylinders would be too great re. latively to the twisting motion of the whole; and there. fore a rotary motion is given to both A and B in the same direction, in order that the drawing tendency may be the result of the difference of such motion, by which means a great deal can be twisted against a moderate length of drawing, which would have required more complicated mechanism, had the drawing motion been taken from any fired pinion, which last method may however be adopted when thought proper. An essential property of this mechanism is, that it draws and twists
at the same time in any desirable proportion, and also that it smooths and refines the thread between A and B, with little or no addition of twist, in order to prepare it for the last operation of twisting and winding on the bobbin; but note, that sometimes only one of the drawing systems, as A e k ik, is used, when the kind of thread admits or requires it.
It may be as well to precede the description of the most usual form of this new spinning machine, by some general observations ou the use of oblique cards, which are hereby claimed as a new invention.
If in Fig. 24 the card A B turn in the direction A B, having its wires hooked in the direction of the arrows, and if in the part of the oblique card C D which touches A B, its teeth be directed like the punctuated arrows a, then these teeth, after the card has made half a revolution round its axis y will be placed in the direction of the black arrows 6, the points directed downwards : and if then a circular comb formed like the.crown-wheel of a watch be applied with its teeth parallel to the hooks of the card, such comb will strip the card of its contents by driving back the filaments in the same lines they were laid on in by AB, but in a contrary direction ; thus producing a roller like that cross one produced by common carding
But if, as in Fig. 25, the card A B turn the same way while C D is sloped the contrary way, having its teeth positioned as the dotted arrows a, then the hairs or filaments will leave A B, and be placed on C D obliquely across the hooks of its card wires, and when these shall have been carried half a revolution round the axis y , they will be found in the position of the black arrows b, that is nearly horizontal, with the filaments nearly ver
tical. In this state of things a similar comb, whose teeth should be directed in the same lines as the card wires, would sweep the filaments off the card by taking them nearly at right angles, producing a ribbon composed of hairs placed, somewhat obliquely, in the direction of its length, which is the best position for the subsequent operations of spinning when a smooth thread is required. The former operation being preferable when a hairy thread is wanted, as for cloths, &c.; and they both grow out of the use of oblique or diagonal cards, on which in general this branch of the invention is founded. And with respect to this obliquity, it admits of an infinite variety, as well in the relative position of the touching cards, as in that of the hooks or wires on each; there being no other bounds to this variety, but a parallel position on the one hand, and a right angular position on the other.
A series of these 'narrow cards with diagonal teeth are also sometimes put on a cylinder or cone A B, Fig. 26, which is made to work against the cylinder of a common card as C D, same Fig. (placing another series opposite to these, so as to sweep the intervals a b c, &c. of said eylinder), as two sets of common straight hooked cards have been before done, and to these diagonal cards the circular combs défg are applied; and under or near them an equal number of spinners, such as A B, Fig. 23, or bobbins min, Fig. 22, or both if neeessary. See their places at h, i, k, l, when this form is employed.
Another new method of dividing into several portions or ribbons the sheet of filament which is found on a given cylinder of any card is this: a series of divergent cones, à, b, c, d, e, f, Fig. 27, are used for that purpose, each turning on its own axis properly inclined and touching
said cylinder in the line A B; these cones are furnished with diagonal (or straight) cards ; if the former, the combs are applied immediately to them, and near these an equal number of spinners or bobbins, in the manner just mentioned. See also h i k l m n, Fig. 127. This system of diverging figures may be also used to open long filaments; and that by fixing to them proper cards or hooks, some leaning to one side and some to the other (but in general more to one side than to the other). When therefore any mass of filament is laid on these hooks in the line A B, that mass will be considerably widened in the line hn, and lie across the series of figures. And here the filament is unhooked by a set of thin rollers placed in the intervals of the Figs. a, b, c; as is shewn in the Fig. 28; where it is evident that if a turn, b will turn also (by the pressure of the transverse filament), and will drive off the filament stretched between any two figures b, c; and so for the other figures.
Another method for opening and carding filamentous; substances is this. On a body of a proper figure A, Fig. 29, are placed the necessary hooks or card-wires, which by the contact of other bodies B, C, opens and cards the filament in the usual way. But here, these hooks are placed in circular rows, and between each pair of row's passes a portion of an endless line or chain E, going from the said body to that D, and returning under A, until all the intervals are filled; when the two ends of the line are brought together by means of proper direction-pullies. If then the bodies A and D turn, , any filament engaged between the hooks of A, will be pushed off by the lines where they leave F in a tangent; and thus be ready for re-carding or spinning, as may be thought proper : and note, that the series of lines at E
serye at the same time as a feeding-cloth. The same system may also be applied to the same purposes without lines, and that by suitable metallic rings A B, Fig. 30, hung round a body C of a smaller diameter, and between its rows of teeth as before-mentioned. Here it is evident that if C revolve, A B will roll on its surface (weighed down if necessary by the cylindrical weight D), and thus push off the filaments at E, the motion of C being in the direction of the arrow.
One of the practical forms of this invention shall now be described. a a, Figs. 22 and 31, (Pl. I.) are the feeding cylinders which receive the cottonin the form of a ribbon, and deliver it (by a slow motion taken from the central axis through the wheels b c) to the central horizontal card A. Observe also in Fig. 31, a new method of feeding by enveloping one of the feeding cylinders with an endless cloth or leather d, so placed round a roller above d, as to bend (more or less according to the length of the staple) round the card A; and press the cotton or wool softly against it; and thus equallize the feeding, and save the card from injury by any metallic contact, One or more endless cloths or leathers x y may be used, made to run on rollers as swift as the card, and to cover the naked parts of it, so as to prevent the filament from being thrown off by the centrifugal force. From A the cotton (or other filament) passes to the oblique card B, whose teeth are placed as before explained in Fig. 24. This card receives its motion from the central axis, by the wheel and screw e applied to the wheel f. The said wheel and screw being supported in a frame formed like the dotted lines above B. The circular comb h placed obliquely with respect to the eard B, plunges its teeth · Vol. XIII.-SECOND SERIES,