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General movement of Movements of the Sax. 420 Pharamond. 476 End of Western the Sarmatian tribes ons to England; 449 Merovaus.

empire. toward Southern and the Franks to Gaul; 481 Clovis, who, by the Odoacer becomes Western Europe ; for the Goths to Italy ;

defeat of Syagrius, king of Italy. six centuries their the Lombards to Pan- established the powhistory obscure. nonia,and in the next er of the Franks in 493 Establishment of century to Italy ; Gaul.

the Gothic kingdom the Alemanni to the Ro

of Italy, by Theodoman provinces on the

ric, Rhine, &c.

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1614 Clotaire II.

Lombards,
Visigoths.

Heptarchy.
628 Dagobert I.
616 Ada baldus.
603 Witeric.

617 Rodoald. 638 Sigebert II. 626 Aria caldus. 610 Gondomar.

East Anglia. Clovis II. 638 Rotnaris.

612 Sisebad. 660 Clotaire III.

624 Edwin. 654 Rodoaldus.

621 Recared II. 669 Childeric II.

Northumberland 659 Aribertus.

Suintilla 1. 672 Dagobert II. (Pepin 662 (undebertus 631 Sisenaud I.

643 Oswyn unites seyHeristal.) 672 Garibald 636 Sisenaud II.

eral kingdoms. 673 Thierry III. 673 Pertharit.

640 Tulca. 690 Clovis Ill.

656 Ceadwalla, Sussex 691 Cunibertus.

642 Chindaswind. 695 Childebert II.

and Wessex.
649 Reches wind.
The Exarchate of Ra-672 Wamba.

688 Ina, Wessex. The kingdom frequent

venna nominally held 680 Ervig. ly divided.

The native Britons by the Eastern Em. 687 Egiga.

seek shelter in Scotpire, tout tribute paid toward the close of

land and Wales from by its guvernors to

the Saxon invaders the Lombards.

the century the Moors
begin to threaten the
South of Spain.

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Under the Vandals. 426 Relinquished by 408 Theodosius III. and Bells used in Churchce. 438 Rechilda.

the Romans.

Pulcheria. 448 Rechiarius.

450 Marcian.

Commencement of the 456 Maldias. Under the Britons. 457 Leo I. (Thracian).

middle or dark ages. 460 Fumarius.

474 Leo II. 445 Vortigern. 463 Regismund.

Zeno.

Establishment of the 454 Vortimer. 491 Anastasius I.

Salic Law. Under the Visigoths.

465 Ambrosius. 451 'Therismond.

Rise of the factions of Introduction of Christi. 452 Theodoric II.

Satons.
the Circus.

anity into France. 466 Euaric.

454 Hengist in Kent. 484 Alaric.

491 Ella in Sussex. The Vandals conquer

ed by the Visigoths.

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604 Kenneth 1. 605 Eugenie IV. 622 Ferchard I. 636 Donald IV. 650 Ferchard II 668 Ma.druin. 688 Eugene V. 692 Eugene VI.

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602 Phocas.

622 Hėjira, or Flight of Latin disused as a liv610 lleraclius I.

Mohammed from ing language. 641 Constantine Ill.

Mecca.

Pens made from quills. Heraclius Heracli-1632 Abu Bekr. 634 Ornar.

Glass manufactured in Constans It. 644 Othman.

England. 668 Constantine IV. 656 Ali.

The Alexandrian Libra. 685 Justinian II. 660 Hassan.

ry destroyed. 695 Leontius.

661 Moawiyah, founder 698 Tiberius II.

of the Ommiade The Greek fire in

vented.
dynasty.
679 Yezid i.
683 Merwan I.
684 Abdainiater.

EIGHTH

FRANCE.

ITALY.

SPAIN.

711 Dagobert III.

Lombards

Popes.

712 Dynasty of the Visi. 715 Chilperic II. 700 Luitpertus.

The Popes raised to the goths subverted by Charles Martel. 701 Arimbertus.

rank
of temporal

the Saracens under 717 Clotaire IV. 712 Ausprandus.

Tarik and Musa.

princes by Pepin, 720 Thierry IV. Luitprandus. king of France.

7755 Abderrahman, in741 Pepin (regent). 743 Hildebrand.

dependent khaliph. 742 Childeric. III. 744 Rachisius. 752 Stephen III.

The power of his suc752 Pepin (king) 750 Astolphus. 757 Paul I.

cessors, who reign in 768 Charlemagne. 756 Desiderius. 768 Stephen IV.

Spain until A. D. 1051, 772 Adrian 1.

is gradually weaken. The Merovingian dy- The dynasty of the 795 Leo III.

ed both by internal nasty set aside hy Lombards subverted

discords and continuPepin, father of Charby Charlemagne.

ed wars with Chiislemagne, and foun

tian insurgents. der of the Carlovin

718 Pelagius founds a gian dynasty.

petty

Christian kingdom in the Asturian mountains.

NINTH

NORTHERN
NATIONS.

AUSTRIAN
DOMINIONS.

WESTERN EMPIRE.

POPES.

form- 876

man

762 Regular 794 TheMagyars 800 Charlemagne, emperor of the West.

816 Stephen V. government occupy Hunga- 814 Louis the Pious.

817 Pascal I. established ry, the ancient 843 Empire divided.

824 Eugenius IT. in Russia by Pannonia.

827 Valentine. Ruric. The Moravians Germany. Italy, &c.

France. 828 Gregory IV. become a for- 1843 Louis the 843 Lothaire I. 843 Charles

844 Sergius II. Denmark midable nation.

847 Leo IV. formed into Bohemia German. 855 Lothairell. the Bald.

855 Benedict III. a kingdom.

Carlo-1879 Boson, 877 Louis the 858 Nicholas I. ed into a reg.

and duke of Bur-Stammerer. Sweden ular state, and

867 Adrian II. Louis III. gundy. 879 Louis III.

872 John VIII. formed into Christianity in881 Charles

Carloman. troduced. It a kingdom.

The great feu-887 Eudes.

882 Martin II. the Fat.

datories was generally 887 Arnulph. The petty prin-| governed

884 Adrian III.

898 Charles
by 1899 Louis
the crown as-

885 Stephen VI.

the Simple. cipalities of dukes tributary

the

891 Formosus. Norway

the Child. to the emperors formed into of Germany.

power of so. The family of 896 Boniface VI.

vareign prin- the Capets Stephen VII. a kingdom

ces in various begins to u. 898 Theodore II. by Harold

parts of the surp
surp the royal

John IX. Harfager.

empire. authority.

900 Benedict IV.

of

sume

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992 Christiani- 975 Wladimir 994 Christiani- 912 Conrad I. 922 Robert. 904 Leo V. ty established the Great ex- ty introduced of Franconia. 923 Rodolph. Christopher. in Denmark. tends the Rus-into Hungary. 919 Henry the 933 Louis 905 Sergius III. 991 Christiani- sian monar- 997 Stephen I. Fowler.

Outremer. 913 Anastasius ty established chy, and establishes 936 Otho the 1954 Lothaire. 914 Lando (III. in Norway. 988 Establish- the Hunga-| Great.

986 Louis V. 915 John X. es Christiani- rian

Iarnar- 962 Empire of the Idle. 1928 Leo Vi. The Scandina- ty.

chy.

the West re- 987 Hugh Ca-929 Stephen VIII vian pirates

stored and gi- pet, founder 931 John XI. formidable to 942 Poland be- 990 Bodeslaus ven to Otho. of a new dy- 936 l.eo VII. Southern and comes a king- III. indepen-973 Otho Il. nasty.

939 Stephen IX. Western Eu-l dom.

dent in Bohe-¡983 Otho III. 996 Robert the 943 Martin III. rope. mia.

Wise.

946 Agapetus II. celand and

Jealousies be

956 John XII. Greenland

The Letti,&c., gin to arise The province 963 Leo VIJI. discovered established in between the of

Neustria 964 Benedict V. and coloniz.

Lithuania
emperors and assigned

to 1965 John xu. ed and Prussia.

the Normans, 1972 Benedict VI. and thence 974 Donus II. called Nor-1975 Benedict VII mandy. 982 John XIV.

985 John XV.

John XVI. yun teus Y V 1999 Sylvestes in

ill

the popes.

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The Heptarchy still 702 Ambes 705 Justinian II. re-05 Walid I.

Paper made continues, but the Keleth. stored.

[nes. 714 Suleiman.

from cota states frequently 704 Eugene 711 Philippicus Barda- 1717 Omar II.

ton. vary both in nurnber VII.

713 Anastasius II. 19 Yezid II. and extent 721 Mordach 716 Theodosius III. 723 Hashem.

Carpets in 717 Ethelbald in Mer. 730 Elfinius. 718 Leo III. Isauricus. 742 Walid II. (III. troduced. cia.

761 Eugene 741 Constantine V. 743 Merwan ; Yezid 707 Offa unites East! VIII.

Copronymus. 750 Abu i'Abbas, foun- Schools of Anglia to Mercia; 764 Fergus 775 Leo IV.

der of the Abasside learning but toward the close III. 780 Constantine VI. dynasty.

founded by of the century Wes-767 Salva- Porphyrogennetus. 553 Almanzor.

the Sarasex becomes the pre- thus. (Irene. Nicephorusi). 775 Mohadi. dominant state. 787 Achaius. During the greater 775 Al Hadi.

part of this century 786 Harun-al-Rashid. Greek works
the empire is dis- The seat of the Kha- of science
tracted by the Icono- liphate fixed at Bag- translated
clast controversy.
dad, A. D. 702.

into Arabic. .

cens.

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paved.

II.

run.

The islands Gradual de- 828 End of 819 Congal 811 Mi-809 Al Amin. Streets of of Sicily, cay of the the Heptar-III.

chael I. 1814 Al Mamun, Cordova ! Corsica and Saracenic chy. Egbert 824 Dongal. 813 LeoV. 833 Motassem. Sardinia,

power. the Great, 831 Alpin. 820 Mi-846 Motawakkel Saxon code and a con

king of 833 Kenneth chael II. 861 Montaser. of laws siderable Foundation England.

829Theo-1 862 Mostain. formed. part of the of the 838 Ethel- 831 Alpin. philus.

Clocks kingdom of Christian wolf. [bală. 851 Donald 841

Ha. Fall and division brought to Naples, oc- kingdoms 857 Ethel- V.

of the Khaliph- Western cupied by of Navarrel 866 Ethelred 858 Constan- 842 Mi- ate.

Europe. the Sara- and Leon. 872 Alfred tine II. chael III

Oxford unithe Great.

874 Ethus. 867 Basi- Fatimate dynas- versity England fre- 875 Gregory lius I. ty founded 768, founded. quently ra- the Great. 886 Leo by Motaz. Agriculture vaged by 892 Donald VI.

and horti. Danish and i VI.

The seat of the

culture enNorwegian The

Picts
Fatimites

couraged in
pirates.
subdued and

transferred in

in Germany. expelled by

the nex: centuKeaneth II.

ry to Egypt.

cens.

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901 Edward 1.903 Constantine 900 Alexander. The Khaliphs in University of the Elder. III.

91) Constantine subjection to Cambridge foun925 Atheistan, 943 Malcolm I. VII. Porphyro- their Turkish ded. 941 Edmund I. 958 Indulph.

gennetus,

mercenaries, 946 Edred. 968 Duffus.

919 Romanus I. whose chief Figures of arith955 Edwy. 972 Cullen.

Constantine 935 Takes the title metic introduced 959 Edgar. 977 Kenneth III.

VIII.

of Emir al Omrah from the Arabs. 975 Edward II.1994 Constantine 959 Romanus II. 997 The Ghaznethe Martyr. IV.

963 Nicephorus II. vid dynasty Mining in the 978 Ethelred II. 995 Grimus. 969 John Zimisces founded.

Hartz mountains. 976 Basilius U. The Danes ac

and Constantine The Fatimite Kha Wine presses first quire posses

IX.

liphs possess a introduced into sion of a great

powerful empire Italy. portion of Eng

The prosperity of in Egypt.
Jand.

the empire par-
tially restored in
consequence of
the decline of the
Saracenic power.

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rous.

Sweyn, king of both 1 Olaus. 15 Sva- 25 Miesko 38 Peter. 2 Henry II. 31 Hencountries,

19 Amund I. topole I. II. 41 Expel-24 Conradll. ry I. 14 Canute the Great, 35 Edmund 16 Jaro- 37 Casimir led, and of Franco- 60 Philip king of England.

II.

laus. 1. Anar- succeed nia, who I. the

40 Hacquin 54 [sila- chy. ed by 32 Inherits Amo11 Olavus II. 36 Hardica. ill.

us I. 41 Casimir Otto. Burgundy 32 Sueno.

61 Sturkill. 78 Vse- recalled. nute.

44 Peter 39 Henry III 36 Magnus 42 Magnus.

75 Ingo

the volod 1. 58 Boles- restored. 56 Henry IV Oleron. 47

Good.

93 Sya-l laus Sweyn

II. 47 Anchar 47 Harold III Elpisden.

topole II the Bold. I.

Wars with Ilaardrade. 74 Harold

77 Bo- 61 Bela 1. the Saxons: 66 Olavus II. VII.

Russia leslaus 63 Solo-! and with 70 Magnus 1. 76 Canute

scarcely takes the

the Popes 87 Hacon.

yet the Saint.

title of 74 Gieza I.

the 89 Magnus 85 Olaus II.

emerg- king. 77 Ladis. question of
II.
95 Eric Ill,

ed from 81 Wladis- laus i. ecclesiasti.
barba- laus I.

95

Colo- cal investi. ism.

tures. The nations of the Nort 1 abandon their

piratical habits, and make great ad. vances in civilization.

95 Commencement of

the Crusades, first preached by Peter the Hermit, and then sanctioned by the Popes.

mon.

on

man.

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on.

.

14 Wlademir 2 Boleslaus Hungary

6 Henry 6 Louis 18 Gelasius II. Norway. JI. III. 14 Stephen

VI. the 19 Calixtus II. 3 Sigurd. 25 Motislaus Civil dissen

25 Lo-Fat. 24 Honorius II. 62 Magnus III. 32 Jaropolik. sions and

thaire II. 37 Louis 30 Innocent II.

31 Bela II. 38 Vzevolod constant

41 Gieza II.

the Sax-VII. the 43 Celestine II. II. wars with 61 Stephen

Young. 41 Lucius II 46 Isialausit the Letti in

III. Denmark.

37 Conrad 80 Philip 45 Eugenius III. 56 Jourje or Lithuania

74 Bela III.

IlI.

II. AU-53 Anastasius 7 Nicholas. George 1. and Prus-96 Emeric.

52 Frede. gustus. IV. 35 Eric IV. the found-sia.

ric I. Bar

54 Adrian IV. 39 Eric V. er of Mos- 38 Wladis

barossa The 59 Alexander II. 47 Canute V. COW.

laus II.

90 Henry great 81 Lucius III. 55 Sueno IV. 57 Andrewi. 46 Boleslaus Bohemia. VI. As. feudato-185 Urban III. 57 Waldemar I. reigning at IV.

40 Wladisla- per.

ries of 87 Gregory VIII. 82 Canute VI. Wladimir. 13 Miesko

Clement III. 75 Michaell. III.

us III duke. 98 Philip the
75

crown
77 Expelled ick, duke.
Freder. (Otho).

91 Celestine III. gradual- 98 Innocent III.

ly reSweden. II., the Just

duced to

duke. 10 Ingo IV. 95 Lescho V.197 Premisla

obedi29 Ragwald.

Ottoa.

ence, 40 Suercher II.

and the

cre I. king. 60 Eric X. the

royal Holy.

authori61 Charles VII.

ty estab68 Canute.

lished. 92 Suercher III.

by Casimir 90 Conrad II.

us

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