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powerful ally, must have been ruined but for the abilities of its general, tho count de Bellisle, who effected one of the most masterly retreats recorded in history, from the centre of Bohemia to the frontiers of Alsace. The Spaniards failed in their attacks on the imperial territories in Italy, chiefly owing to the activity of the English fleets in the Mediterranean; and the court of Versailles, disheartened by these repeated failures, made proposals of peace.
peace. Maria Theresa, intoxicated with success, rejected all the proffered eonditions (A. D. 1743). She urged forward her armaments with such vigor, that the French were driven to the Rhine, and the unfortunate elector of Bavaria, abandoned by his allies, and stripped of his dominions, sought refuge in Frankfort, where he lived in indigence and obscurity. The errors of the French in Flanders led to their defeat at Dettingen, just when a little caution would have insured the ruin of the English and Austrians. But the allies made no use of their victory, owing to the irresolution of George II., who took the management of the campaign into his own hands, and superseded the earl of Stair. The war lingered in Italy, but the haughtiness and ambition of the emperess began to excite the secret jealousy of the German princes; and the French and Spanish courts, alarmed by her treaty with the king of Sardinia, drew their alliance closer by the celebrated Family Compact, which bound them to maintain the integrity of each other's dominions.
England had now become a principal in the war, and the monarchs of France and Spain resolved to invade that country, and remove the Hanoverian dynasty. A powerful army was assembled, and a fleet prepared to protect the transports ; but the French ships were shattered in a storm, and forced to take refuge in Brest from a superior English force (A. D. 1744). The English navy was less successful in the Mediterranean : the combined fleets of France and Spain were met by the British admirals, Matthews and Lestock ; but owing to the misconduct of some captains, and Lestock's remaining aloof with his whole division, the re sult of the engagement was indecisive. It is a sad proof of the violence and injustice of faction, that when these officers were brought to trial, Matthews, who had fought like a hero, was condemned, and Lestock acquitted. The war in Italy was sanguinary, but indecisive. In Germany, however, the king of Prussia once more took up arms against Maria Theresa, and invaded Bohemia. He was defeated with great loss, and forced to retire precipitately into Silesia. Soon afterward, the death of the elector of Bavaria removed all reasonable grounds for the continuance of hostilities; his son, who had no pretensions to the empire, concluded a treaty with Maria Theresa, and promised to support the election of her husband, the grand duke of Tuscany, to the imperial dignity.
But the national animosity between the French and English prevented the restoration of peace (A. D. 1745). The Austrians were completely vanquished in Italy by the united forces of the French and Spaniards, whose vast superiority of numbers could not be resisted; and on the side of the Netherlands, the misconduct of the allies gave a signal triumph to the Bourbons. The French army under Marshal Saxe was strongly posted at Fontenoy, but was, notwithstanding, attacked by the English, Dutch, and Germans In few battles has the valor of the British infantry been displayed more signally or more uselessly. Forming themselves into a column, they bore down everything before them, until, deserted by their Dutch and German auxiliaries, they were outflanked and driven back by the entire force of the French army. The loss on both sides was nearly equal ; but though the victory was not decisive, it enabled Marshal Saxe to reduce some of the most considerable towns in the Netherlands. Tranquillity was restored to Germany by the election of the grand duke of Tuscany to the empire, under the name of Francis I.; and about the same time Maria Theresa, as queen of Hungary, concluded the treaty of Breslau with the king of Prussia, and thus quieted her most dangerous enemy.
The discontent occasioned by the loss at Fontenoy induced the grandson of James II., commonly called the Young Pretender, to attempt the restoration of his family. He landed in Scotland with a small train, but being soon joined by the enthusiastic Highland clans, he descended from the mountains and marched toward Edinburgh. The city surrendered without any attempt at resistance, but the castle still held out. Sir John Cope, the royal commander in Scotland, had marched northward to raise the loyal clans; having collected some reinforcements, he proceeded from Aberdeen to Dunbar by sea, and hearing that the insurgents were resolved to hazard a battle, he encamped at Preston Pans. Here he was unexpectedly attacked by the Young Pretender, at the head of about three thousand undisciplined and half-armed soldiers. A panic seized the royal troops ; they fled with the most disgraceful precipitation, abandoning all their baggage, cannon, and camp-equipage, to their enemies,
The reduction of the French colony of Cape Breton, in North Amer. ica, had revived the spirit of the English ; and the time that the Pretender wasted in idle pageantry at Edinburgh afforded the ministers an opportunity of bringing over some regiments from Flanders. Notwithstanding the formidable preparations thus made, the Pretender, probably relying on promised aid from France, crossed the western borders, and took Čarlisle. But the vigilance of Admiral Vernon prevented the French fleet from venturing out; and the Pretender having failed to raise recruits in Lancashire, and unable to force a passage into Wales, baffled the royal armies by an unexpected turn, and suddenly marched to Derby. Had he continued to advance boldly, London itself might have fallen ; but he delayed at Derby until he was nearly enclosed between two powerful armies, and was forced either to retreat or to hazard a battle on very disadvantageous terms. It was finally determined that they should return to Scotland, and this retrograde movement was effected by the Highlanders with extraordinary courage and expedition.
This retreat did not produce the dispiriting effect on the insurgents that had been anticipated. The Pretender's forces were greatly augmented after his return to Scotland ; but finding that Edinburgh had been secured by the royal army during his absence, he marched to Stirling, captured the town, and besieged the castle. General Hawley was sent with a strong force to raise the siege, but despising the undisciplined Highlanders, he acted so iinprudently that he suffered a complete defeat near Falkirk (A. D. 1746). The Pretender, instead of following up his advantage, returned to the siege of Stirling castle, while the royal army, reinforced by fresh troops, was placed under the command of the duke of Cumberland, a prince of the blood, who, though by no means a skilful general, was a great favorite with the soldiery. The insurgent army retired before the royal troops until they reached Culloden Moor, where they resolved to make a stand. Warned by the errors of Cope and Hawley, the duke of Cumberland took the most prudent precautions to meet the desperate charge of the Highlanders; they rushed on with their usual impetuosity, but being received by a close and galling fire of musketry, while their ranks were torn by artillery, they wavered, broke, and in less than thirty minutes were a helpless mass of confusion. The victors gave no quarter: many of the insurgents were murdered in cold blood, and their unfortunate prince was only saved from capture by the generous devotion of one of his adherents, who assured the pursuers that he was himself the object of their search.
The cruelties of the royalists after their victory were perfectly disgraceful ; the country of the insurgent clans was laid waste with fire and sword ; the men were hunted like wild beasts on the mountains, the women and children, driven from their burned huts, perished by thousands on the barren heaths. When all traces of rebellion, and almost of population, had disappeared, the duke of Cumberland returned to London, leaving a large body of troops to continue the pursuit of the surviving fugitives. During five months the young Pretender remained concealed in the Highlands and Western isles of Scotland, though a reward of thirty thousand pounds was set on his head, and more than fifty persons were intrusted with his secret. At length he escaped on board a French privateer, and, after enduring incredible hardships, arrived safely in Brittany. The vengeance of the government fell heavily on his adherents : numbers of the leaders were tried and executed, and though they died with heroic firmness, their fate excited little commiseration.
In the meantime the French, under Marshal Saxe, had overrun the greater part of the Netherlands ; Brussels, Antwerp, and Namur, were captured, while the confederate army was defeated in a sanguinary but indecisive engagement at Raucoux. In Italy, the allies were more successful; taking advantage of the mutual jealousies between the French and Spaniards, the Austrians, reinforced by the king of Sardinia, drove their enemies from Italy, and pursued them into France. The death of their monarch had abated the vigor of the Spaniards, for the designs of Ferdinand VI., Philip's son and successor, were for some time unknown; but when he declared his resolution to adhere to the Family Compact, the hopes of the partisans of the house of Bourbon were revived. About the same time the imperialists were compelled to evacuate the south of France by the judicious measures of the marshal de Bellisle ; and the Genoese, irritated by the severity with which they were treated, expelled the Austrian garrison, and baffled every attempt that their oppressors made to recover the city. The national animosity between the French and English was aggravated by commercial jealousy; they mutually fitted out armaments against each other's colonies; but these expeditions, badly contrived and worse executed, led to no decisive results, and all parties began to grow weary of a war which produced no consequence but a lavish waste of blood and treasure. the Eng
Conferences were commenced at Breda, but the demands of the French appeared so exorbitant to the allies, that the negotiations were abruptly terminated, and the hostile powers made the most vigorous preparations for a decisive struggle (A. D. 1747). The exertions of the allies were long paralyzed by the indecision of the Dutch rulers ; even when their own country was invaded, they could not be induced to adopt more vigorous councils, until a popular revolt compelled them to revive the office of stadtholder, and confer that dignity on the prince of Orange.
Though this revolution gave more vigor to the operations of the allies, the whole weight of the war was ungenerously thrown upon lish. The obstinate and bloody battle of Val would have been won by Britis. A valor, but for the timidity and slowness of the Dutch and Austrians; in consequence of their misconduct it terminated to the disaa vantage of the confederates. Soon after, the fortress of Bergen opZoom, generally believed to be impregnable, was captured by the French, who thus became masters of the whole navigation of the Scheldt. In Italy, the allies, though forced to raise the siege of Genoa, were generally successful, while the British navy gained several important triumphs
A valuable French convoy was attacked by Admirals Anson and Warren, off Cape Finisterre, and, after an obstinate engagement, six ships-of-the-line and several armed Indiamen were taken. Seven weeks after, a fleet laden with the rich produce of St. Domingo fell into the hands of Commodore Fox; and at a later period of the year, Admiral Hawke, after a sharp battle, took six ships-of-the-line in the latitude of Bellisle. These reverses, and the sailing of a powerful British armament to the East Indies, so alarmed the court of Versailles, that negotiations for peace were once more commenced.
While conferences were opened at Aix-la-Chapelle (A. D. 1748), Marshal Saxe continued to carry on the war with great vigor : he laid siege to Maestricht, which was obstinately defended, but before the contest could be decided, intelligence was received that the preliminaries of peace had been signed. The basis of the treaty was a restitution of all conquests made during the war, and a mutual release of prisoners with
It left unsettled the clashing claims of the Spaniards and British to the trade of the American seas, and made no mention of the right of search which had been the original cause of the war; the only advantage, indeed, that England gained, was the recognition of the Hanoverian succession, and the general abandonment of the Pretender, whose cause was henceforth regarded as hopeless. This result, from so expensive a contest, gave general dissatisfaction ; but the blame should fall on the authors of the war, not of the peace; England had no interest in the contests for the Austrian succession ; under the peaceful administration of Sir Robert Walpole, her commerce and manufactures had rapidly increased; but through an idle ambition for military glory, and a perverse love of meddling in continental affairs, the prosperity of the country received a severe check, and an enormous addition was made to the national debt.
SECTION II.—The Colonial Struggle between France and Great Britain.
THE peace of Aix-la-Chapelle was soon discovered to be little better than a suspension of arms. Two causes of a very different nature united to produce a new and fiercer struggle, which no arts of diplomacy could long avert. The first of these was the jealousy with which the court of Austria regarded the great increase of the Prussian monarchy; the extorted renunciation of Silesia could neither be forgiven nor forgotten, and its recovery had long been the favorite object of the court of Vienna. The Prussian monarch was not popular with his neighborsall new powers are naturally objects of jealousy-and the selfish policy which Frederic displayed, both in contracting and dissolving alliances, prevented him from gaining any permanent friend ; he was the personal enemy of Elizabeth, emperess of Russia, and of Count Bruhl, the leading minister in the court of Saxony, and both readily joined in the plans formed for his destruction.
But with these confederates, the Austrian cabinet was reluctant to engage in hostilities, while France might at any time turn the balance, by renewing its former relations with Prussia. Prince Kaunitz, the real guide of the court of Vienna, and, during four reigns, the soul of the Austrian councils, resolved to unite the empire and France in mne common project for sharing the rule of Europe. Louis XV., who had sunk into being the slave of his mistresses, was induced, by this able diplomatist, to depart from the course of policy which for two centuries had maintained the high rank of France among the continental powers ; from being the rivals and opponents of the Austrian dynasty, the house of Bourbon sank into the humble character of assistants to that power-a change which eventually brought the greatest calamities on themselves and their country.
The commercial jealousy with which the English regarded the French, was the second cause for the renewal of the war. During the late war, the French navy had been all but annihilated, and the exertions made for its restoration were viewed with secret anger. Owing to incapacity or defective information, the negotiators at Aix-la-Chapelle had left most of the colonial questions at issue between England and France wholly undecided. The chief subjects contested were, the limits of the English colony of Nova Scotia, the right claimed by the French to erect forts along the Ohio, for the purpose of connecting the Canadas with Louisiana, the occupation of some neutral islands in the West Indies by the French, and, finally, the efforts of both nations to acquire political supremacy in Hindústan.
The maritime war between England and France had no immediate connexion with the struggle between Prussia and Austria. But when the French king, at the commencement of the contest, menaced Hanover, George II., who preferred the interests of this petty principality to those of the British empire, entered into a treaty with Frederic for its defence. Thus these two wars, so distinct in their origin and nature, were blended into one ; but before their termination, they were again separated and concluded by distinct treaties of peace.
The empire which the descendants of Baber had established in Hindústan, touched the summit of its greatness in the reign of Aurungzebe; under his feeble successors the imperial power rapidly declined, and after the successful eruption of Nadír Shah (A. D. 1738), it was almost annihilated. The governors of provinces and districts became virtually independent sovereigns, and the allegiance they paid to the court of