reached the Turkish camp, only to learn the downfall of all his expect ations.

A new series of intrigues in the court of Constantinople led to the appointment of a new vizier ; but this minister was little inclined to gratify the king of Sweden; on the contrary, warned by the fate of his predecessors, he resolved to remove him from the Ottoman empire (A. D. 1713). Charles continued to linger; even after he had received à letter of dismissal from the sultan's own hand, he resolved to remain, and when a resolution was taken to send him away by force, he determined, with his few attendants, to dare the whole strength of the Turkish empire. After a fierce resistance, he was captured and conveyed a prisoner to Adrianople ; on his road, he learned that Stanislaus, whom he had raised to the throne of Poland, was likewise a Turkish captive; but, buoyed up by ardent hopes, he sent a message to his fellow-sufferer, never to make peace with Augustus. Another revolution in the divan revived the hopes of Charles, and induced him to remain in Turkey, when his return to the North would probably have restored him to his former eminence. The Swedes, under General Steenbock, gained one of the most brilliant victories that had been obtained during the war, over the united forces of the Danes and Saxons, at Gadebusch, in the dutchy of Mecklenburg; but the conqueror sullied his fame by burning the defenceless town of Altona, an outrage which excited the indignation of all Europe. This, however, was the last service that Steenbock could perform to his absent master ; unable to prevent the junction of the Russians with the Danes and Saxons, he retreated before superior numbers, and, by the artifices of Baron Goertz, obtained temporary refuge in a fortress belonging to the duke of Holstein. The allies, however, pursued their advantages so vigorously that Steenbock and his followers were forced to yield themselves prisoners of war. Goertz, however, in some degree averted the consequences of this calamity by a series of political intrigues, which excited various jealousies and discordant interests between the several enemies of Sweden

The czar in the meantime pushed forward his conquests on the side of Finland; and the glory of his reign appeared to be consummated by a naval victory obtained over the Swedes near the island of Oeland (A. D. 1714). This unusual success was celebrated by a triumphal entry into St. Peterburgh, at which Peter addressed his subjects on the magnitude of the advantages they had derived from his government. Charles heard of his rival's progress unmored; but when he learned that the Swedish senate intended to make his sister regent, and to make peace with Russia and Denmark, he announced his intention of returning home. He was honorably escorted to the Turkish frontiers ; but though orders had been given that he should be received with all due honor in the imperial dominions, he traversed Germany incognito, and toward the close of the year reached Stralsund, the capital of Swedish Pomerania.

Charles, at the opening of the next campaign, found himself surrounded with enemies (A. D. 1715). Stralsund itself was besieged by the united armies of the Prussians, Danes, and Saxons, while the Russian fleet, which now rode triumphant in the Baltic, threatened a descent upon Sweden. After an obstinate defence, in which the Swedish monarch displayed all his accustomed bravery, Stralsund was forced to capitulate, Charles having previously escaped in a small vessel to his native shores. All Europe believed the Swedish monarch undone; it was supposed that he could no longer defend his own dominions, when to the inexpressible astonishment of every one, it was announced that he had invaded Norway. His attention, however, was less engaged by the war than by the gigantic intrigues of his new favorite Goertz, who, taking advantage of a coolness between the Russians and the other enemies of Sweden, proposed that Peter and Charles should unite in strict amity, and dictate the law to Europe. A part of this daring plan was the removal of the elector of Hanover from the English throne, and the restoration of the exiled Stuarts. But while the negotiations were yet in progress, Charles invaded Norway a second time, and invested the castle of Frederickshall in the very depth of winter. But while engaged in viewing the works, he was struck by a cannon-ball, and was dead before any of his attendants came to his assistance (A. D. 1718).* The Swedish senate showed little grief for the loss of the warlike king ; on the first news of his death, his favorite, Baron Goertz, was arrested, brought to trial, and put to death on a ridiculous charge of treason. The crown was conferred upon the late king's sister, but she soon resigned it to her husband, the prince of Hesse, both being compelled to swear that they never would attempt the re-establishment of arbitrary power. Negotiations for peace were commenced with all the hostile powers, and treaties concluded with all but Russia (A. D. 1720). The appearance of an English fleet in the Baltic, coming to aid the Swedish squadron, however, finally disposed the czar to pacific measures ; and he consented to grant peace, on condition of being permitted to retain Ingria, Livonia, and part of Finland (A. D. 1721). Thus the great northren war terminated, just as it was about to be connected with the politics of southern Europe

* Dr. Johnson's character of Charles XII. is the best comment on the life of that adventurous warrior :

" On what foundation stands the warrior's pride,
How just his hopes, let Swedish Charles decide;
A frame of adamant, a soul of fire,
No dangers fright him, and no labors tire;
O’er love, o’er fear, extends his wide domain,
Unconquered lord of pleasure and of pain;
No joys to him pacific sceptres yield,
War sounds the trump, he rushes to the field;
Behold surrounded kings their powers combine,
And one capitulate, and one resign;
Peace courts his hand, but spreads her charms in vain :
• Think nothing gained,' he cries, 'till naught remain :
On Moscow's walls, till Gothic standards fly,
And all be mine beneath the polar sky.'
The march begins in military state,
And nations on his eye suspended wait;
Stern famine guards the solitary coast,
And winter barricades the realms of frost;
He comes, nor want, nor cold, his course

Hide, blushing Glory, hide Pultowa's day:
The vanquished hero leaves his broken bands,
And shows his miseries in distant lands;
Condemned a needly supplicant to wait
While ladies interpose, and slaves debate.
But did not chance at length her error mend ?
Did no subverted empire mark his end ?
Did rival monarchs give the fatal wound ?
Or hostile millions press him to the ground ?
His fall was destined to a barren strand,
A petty fortress, and a dubious hand;
He left the name, at which the world grew pale,
To point a moral, or adorn a tale."




SECTION I.-Establishment of the Hanoverian Succession in England.

DURING the wars that had been waged against Louis XIV., the funding system was established in England; it commenced by the founding of a national bank (A. D. 1694), which lent its capital to the government at a lower rate of interest than was then usual. Further loans were contracted to support the exigences of the wars; parliament guarantied the payment of the interest, without entering into any obligation to restore the capital, which was transferable to any one. The gradual extension of the wealth of the nation facilitated the growth of this system, which soon gave England commanding influence on the continent. The facilities of raising money possessed by the English government enabled it to conclude subsidiary treaties, and set the armies of allied states in motion. Internally the funding system wrought a still greater change ; a great portion of the political influence previously possessed by the landed aristocracy was transferred to large capitalists and manufacturers; the banking and funding systems afforded great facilities for accumulating the profits of industry, and thus fostered the growth of an intelligent and opulent middle class, whose strength was soon displayed in the increasing importance of the house of commons. Even at the treaty of Utrecht, the mercantile system began to manifest itself in all its strength. Grants of commercial privileges were made the conditions of peace with the maritime powers, and territorial concessions were made with a regard to the interests of trade rather than power. Justly as the British negotiators at Utrecht may be blamed for not taking sufficient advantage of the position in which tocir country was placed by the victories of Marlborough, it is undeniable that the treaty they concluded laid the foundation of the commercial superiority of England; it also contained the germes of two future wars, but these consequences were slowly developed ; and at the commencement of the eighteenth century, the republic of Holland was still the first commercial state in Europe.

The accession of George I. produced a complete change in the English administration ; the tories were dismissed with harshness, the whigs were the sole possessors of office, and on the new election consequent on the demise of the crown, they obtained a decided majority in parliament. Unfortunately they used their power to crush their political adversaries; the chiefs of the late ministry were impeached for high treason, and their prosecution was hurried forward so vindica tively, that Lords Bolingbroke and Ormond fled to the continent. This seemed a favorable moment to make an effort in favor of the exiled Stuarts, but Louis XIV., broken down by age, infirmities, and misfortune, was unwilling to hazard a new war, which might disturb the minority of his great-grandson, for in consequence of the mortality in the royal family, this remote descendant was destined to be his successor. The death of Louis (Sept. 1,1715) further disconcerted the projects of the Pretender and his adherents ; the duke of Orleans, who was chosen regent by the parliament of Paris during the minority of Louis XV., adopted every suggestion of the English ambassador, the earl of Stair, for counteracting the designs of the jacobites; and he did them irreparable injury by seizing some ships laden with arms and ammunition, at a time when it was impossible for them to purchase any “resh supply. The jacobites, however, persevered, and a plan was Cormed for a general insurrection; but this was defeated by the Pre.ender's imprudence, who prematurely gave the earl of Mar a commission to raise his standard in Scotland. The earl of Mar possessed considerable influence in the highland counties; no sooner had he proclaimed the Pretender, under the title of James III., than the clans crowded to his standard, and he was soon at the head of nine thousand men, including several noblemen and persons of distinction. Thus supported, he made himself master of Perth, and established his authority in almost all that part of Scotland which lies north of the Frith of Forth. In the meantime the government was alarmed; the jacobite leaders who had agreed to raise the west of England were taken into custody, and the duke of Argyle was sent against Mar with all the forces of North Britain. An ill-contrived and worse executed insurrection of the jacobites exploded in the north of England ; its leaders, the earl of Derwentwater, Lord Widdrington, and Mr. Foster, a Northumbrian gentleman of great influence, were joined by several Scottish lords and à body of Highland infantry. But being unable to agree upon any rational plan of operations, they were surrounded by the royal forces in the town or Preston, and forced to surrender at discretion. It would have been better for the character of the government had lenity been shown to these unhappy men, but unfortunately most of the leaders were doomed to suffer the penalties of high treason.

In the meantime the earl of Mar had fought an indecisive battle with the duke of Argyle, which proved nevertheless ruinous to the Pretender's cause. Many who had been previously in doubt, declared for the royal cause, and several of the insurgent leaders returned to their allegiance. In this desperate state of his affairs, the Pretender landed with a small train in Scotland ; but finding his cause hopeless, he returned to France with such of the leaders as did not expect pardon, and the whole country quietly submitted to the duke of Argyle.

Before entering on the singular changes wrought by the policy of the duke of Orleans in Europe, it will be convenient to cast a brief glance at the affairs of Russia and Turkey. No sooner had Peter the Great concluded peace with Sweden than he assumed the title of emeror, with the consent of all the European powers. By sending an

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