the parliament before it had sat the five months required by he consti tution, which he had himself framed and sworn to support.

A new parliament was summoned, but notwithstanding the interference of Cromwell and the major-generals that ruled the twelve districts into which England was divided, so many opponents of the government were returned, that Cromwell posted soldiers at the door to exclude those members to whom he had not granted tickets of admission. The parliament, thus modified, proved sufficiently subservient, and on the 26th of March, 1656, it gratified Cromwell's secret ambition, by offering him the title of king. But Fleetwood, the protec tor's son-in-law, and Desborough, his brother-in-law, disconcerted tha entire plan by joining the republicans in the army, and procuring a po tition from the officers against royalty, which it would have been dangerous to disregard.* Cromwell was forced to resign his darling object at the moment it seemed within his grasp, and to content himself with the protectorate for life, and the power of nominating his suc


To divert the attention of the nation from its internal affairs, Cromwell resolved to engage in some foreign war, but was at first undecided whether he should attack France or Spain.f Mazarine's cunning decided the question ; he conciliated the protector by banishing the English princes from France, and thus obtained auxiliaries at a critical moment, whose support, as we have already seen, he paid by the cession of Dunkirk. Two formidable fleets were prepared in England; 02e, under the command of Blake, was sent to cruise in the Mediterranean; the other, intrusted to admirals Penn and Venables, proceeded to the West Indies. To justify hostilities, Cromwell demanded of the Spanish ambassador, that his master should abolish the Inquisition, and open the trade of South America to the English. The ambassador repiied, that this was asking for his master's two eyes ; indeed, neither demand, under the circumstances, was reasonable. The Spanish Inquisition certainly exercised an unjust tyranny toward protestants, but Cromwell did not treat the Irish catholics with greater mildness; and when England had just given an example of monopoly by passing the navigation act, it showed little regard for consistency to demand free trade from Spain. But both proposals were in accordance with the spirit of the times, and the knowledge of their having been made, brought back to Cromwell a considerable share of the popularity he had forfeited.

Admiral Blake first sailed to Leghorn, and having cast anchor hefore the town, demanded and obtained satisfaction for the injuries which the duke of Tuscany had done to English commerce. Repairing thence to Algiers, he compelled the dey to restrain his piratical subjects from further lepredations on the English. Failing to obtain similar satisfaction at Tunis, he battered its fortifications with his artillery, and burned every ship in the harbor. His fame spread through the entire Mediterranean, and no power dared to provoke his vengeance. Penn and Venables attempted to take Hispaniola, then considered the most valuable island in the West Indies, but failing in this effort, they conquered Jamaica, which has ever since been annexed to the dominions of England. Cromwell, however, was so little satisfied with the conduct of the two admirals, that on their retu n, he committed them to the Tower. The English, through the entire war, maintained their supremacy by sea ; several of the galleons, laden with the precious metals from South America, were taken or destroyed, and an entire fleet burned by the heroic Blake in the bay of Santa Cruz.*

*“ Certain persons," said the petition, " are endeavoring to reduce the nation to the old state of slavery, and urge the protector to assume the royal title, wishing by this means to ruin him. We, therefore, petition the parliament to oppose such intrigues, and to abide by the old cause, for which we are ready to hazard our lives."

7" In order to maintain himself, he, in common with Lambert, and some of the council, wishes for war, and is only revolving whether it were better for him to raise it against France or Spain."-Report of the French Ambassador, April 20%


These conquests silenced many opponenis for a time, bui secret dissatisfaction pervaded the nation, and pamphleteers bitterly assailed the protector, both in verse and prose.f Public attention was roused by the assembling of parliament on the 20th of January, 1658; the house of commons showed its hostility to the government, by admitting the members who had been previously excluded by the privy council, and still more by severely scrutinizing the constitution of the upper house. After a vain effort to conciliate his opponents, Cromwell dissolved the parliament on the 4th of February, and resolved to hazard the perilous experiment of governing alone. But he encountered violent opposition, even in his own family ; Elizabeth, his second daughter, keenly reproached him on her dying bed, and the father, who loved her fondly, felt his grief for her loss sharpened by the pangs of conscience. A pamphlet was published, and widely circulated, in which the assassination of the protector was recommended as an act of justice and patriotism ; Cromwell read it, and never smiled again. He lived in continual fear, always wore a coat of mail, never slept two successive nights in the same chamber, had guards posted everywhere, and secret avenues contrived, by which he might escape on the least alarm. In such as condition, his death must be considered a happy release ; it took place on the 3d of September, 1658, the anniversary of his great victories at Worcester and Dunbar. He was interred with great pomp in Westminster Abbey, but the conduct of the populace evinced anything but sorrow for the loss of their ruler. I

April 21st, 1657.-" This was the last and greatest action of this gallant naval commander, who died in his way home. He was, by principle, an inflexible republican, and only his zeal for the interests of his country induced him to serve under the usurper. Though he was above forty-four years of age before he entered into the military service, and fifty-one before he acted in the navy, he raised the maritime glory of England to a greater height than it had ever attained in any former period. Cromwell, fully sensible of his merits, ordered him a pompous funeral at the public expense; and people of all parties, by their tears, bore testimony to his valor, generosity, and public spirit.”—Dr. Johnson's Life of Blake, . † Satirical poems were published, in one of which is the following passage :

“A protector! what's that? 'Tis a stately thing
That confesses himself but the ape of a king ,
A tragica. Cæsar, the actor a clown,

Or a brass farthing, stamped with a kind of à Ciow." Evelyn says, “ This was the merriext funeral that I ever saw, for no one nowled but the dogs, with which the soldiers made sport, amid barbarous noise, parading through the streets, drinking and smoking."" Ludlow adds, " The folly

ment. *

Richard Cromwell had hitherto lived a thoughtless and rather extravagant life, but on his father's death he was acknowledged as protector both at home and abroad, without opposition. He had, however, soon to contend against a powerful republican minority in parliament, while still greater dangers menaced him from the discontent of the army, which was equally dissatisfied with the protector and the parlia

The officers urged Richard to dissolve the refractory commons, and when he had taken this imprudent step, seized the reins of government into their own hands. Having deliberated on several projects, the military junta came to the resolution of re-assembling the Long parliament. About ninety members were hastily collected, but those who displeased the new rulers were excluded, and the deliberations of the rest were fettered, by what was called “ an humble petition and address from the officers to the parliament of the commonwealth of England.” Richard, weary of his situation, resigned the protectorate, and the chief power of the state passed to the cabal of officers, at whose head were Lambert, Fleetwood, and Desborough. In the contests that followed between the parliament and the council of officers, the nation generally took no interest. It was a period of complete anarchy; principle was forgotten, every one was guided by his caprice, or by some prospect of private advantage. All true friends of their country were heartily tired of this confusion, and the illusion of the republicans had so completely vanished, that if we except those who wished for a protector, or expected the personal reign of Christ, not more than a few hundreds could be found anxious to restore the commonwealth. In this state of affairs, George Monk, afterward duke of Albemarle, resolved to act a decided part. He had been intrusted by Cromwell with the government of Scotland, and the command of the army: though suspected of a secret attachment to the royal cause,t he continued to hold his place during the protectorates of Oliver and Richard. On the abdication of the latter, he professed the utmost anxiety for a reconciliation between the parliament and the English army ; but if that could not be effected, he declared that he would support the former, because the establishment of a commonwealth was dear to his heart. This declaration gave so much confidence to the opponents of the officers, that Fleetwood found it necessary to permit the parliament to assemble ; and the Rump parliament, as the house of commons so often mutilated was ignominiously termed, met amid the loudest acclamations of the soldiers, who only two months before had dispersed it by military violence. The house promptly made use of the power which it had

and profusion (of the lying in state) so far provoked the people, that they threw dirt in the night on his escutcheon that was placed over the great gate of Somerset house."

* Richard derided the fanatical pretensions of his father's officers; when a remonstrance was made against his granting commissions to "the ungodly;" he replied, “ Here is Dick Ingoldsby, who can neither pray nor preacli, and yet I will trust him before ye all.” “These imprudent, as well as irreligious words," says Ludlow, so clearly discovering the frame and temper of his mind, were soon published in the army and city of London, to his great prejudice."

| Cromwell once wrote to him, “I have been informed that there is in Scotland, a certain cunning fellow, George Monk by name, who has a scheme for restoring Charles Stuart; endeavor to catch him, and send him hither."

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regained ; the members and officers of whom it did not approve were removed ; Desborough, with some others, fled to Lambert. Fleetwood was overwhelmed with consternation.

On the 1st of January, 1660, Monk, at the head of six thousand men, commenced his march toward London ; he was received everywhere with the greatest enthusiasm ; in all the towns on his road the people rang the bells, lighted bonfires, and declared their ardent wish for a free parliament. Lambert's army melted away as he advanced; but Fleetwood's soldiers excited so much alarm, that the speaker wrote to Monk to hasten his march. On the 6th of February he appeared in parliament, and first excited some suspicions of his real designs by refusing to take the oath of abjuration against the Stuarts. The parliament tried to embroil him with the citizens of London, by sending him to arrest some members of the common council for resolving that no taxes should be paid until the parliament was filled. Monk performed this disagreeable duty; but immediately after reconciled himself to the city, and sent a letter to the speaker, demanding a dissolution of parliament and a new election. While this letter was fiercely debated, Monk took the decisive step of introducing the old excluded members, by which he gained a triumphant majority.

On the 17th of March the Long parliament concluded its sittings, to the great joy of the nation, and a new house of commons met on the 25th of April. In the interval, Lambert made a desperate effort to place himself at the head of a new army, but by Monk's promptitude and sigor he was taken prisoner and sent to the Tower.

When the new parliament, consisting both of upper and lower house, eet, it was manifest that the royalists had such a preponderance that he only question remaining to be decided was, whether Charles II. should be restored with or without conditions. The latter course was unsortunately chosen, perhaps because it would have been impossible to frame terms, the discussion of which would not have roused the slumbering feuds of hostile parties.

On the 29th of May, the day on which he completed his thirtieth year, Charles triumphantly entered London. He was accompanied by the members of parliament, the clergy, the civic authorities, and about twenty thousand persons on foot or horseback. The streets were strewed with flowers, the houses decorated with tapestry, the bells rung in every church, the air resounded with acclamations. The monarch, so recently a hopeless exile, might well ask, as he witnessed the tumult of universal joy, “ Where then are my enemies ?"

Section III.-History of England, from the Restoration to the Revolution ;

and Rise of the Power of Louis XIV. Few monarchs ever had such an opportunity of rendering himself popular, and his subjects happy, as Charles II. ; there is scarcely one who failed more lamentably. His first measures promised well ; a few of the regicides and their adherents were indeed excepted from the act of indemnity, and executed ; but pardon was granted to the chief parliamentary leaders, and many of them received into favor. Ecclesiastical affairs, however, began to disturb the harmony of the nation, when a new parliament was assembled, in which the episcopal and royalist party had a triumphant majority. An act was passed, requiring that every clergymen should possess episcopal ordination, declare his assent to everything contained in the book of common prayer, take the oath of canonical obedience, abjure the solemn league and covenant, and the right of taking up arms against the king under any pretence whatever. About two thousand of the clergy rejected these conditions, and resigned their benefices, rather than do violence to their religious opinions. The ejected clergymen were persecuted with unwise rigor; severe laws were enacted against conventicles, and a non-conformist minister was prohibited from coming within five miles of a corporation.

The marriage of the king to Catherine of Portugal, when his subjects hoped that he would make a protestant princess his queen, and the sale of Dunkirk to the French monarch, tended still further to diminish the royal popularity; and a war, equally unjust and impolitic, undertaken against the Dutch, completed the public dissatisfaction, Hostilities were commenced without a formal declaration of war; the English seized several of the Dutch colonies in Africa and America, especially the province of Nova Belgia, which Charles, in honor of his brother, named the state of New York. Holland was at this time ruled by the Louvestein, or violent republican party ; its head, the celebrated John de Witt, who, with the title of pensionary, enjoyed almost dictatorial power, feared that Charles might make some effort to restore William III., prince of Orange, to the office of stadtholder, which his ancestors had enjoyed ; and to avert this danger, entered into close alliance with France. The pensionary found, however, that he must rely upon his own resources ; he fitted out a powerful fleet; the English exerted themselves with equal diligence, and a furious engagement took place upon the coast of Holland (A. D. 1665). Victory declared in favor of the English ; more than thirty of the enemy's ships were taken or destroyed, and the whole would probably have fallen had not the pursuit been stopped by the oversight or cowardice of the duke of York, who had been created lord high-admiral of England by his brother.

The joy occasioned by this victory was diminished by the ravages of the great plague, which swept away seventy thousand citizens of London in the course of a year. De Witt, in the meantime, exerted himself to restore the naval power of the Dutch ; he formed an alliance with the king of Denmark, procured aid from France, and soon sent out a more powerful fleet than that which had been defeated. But the English still maintained their wonted superiority; and the Dutch, disheartened by repeated defeats, began to murmur against the government of the grand pensionary. Scarcely had the plague ceased, when London was subjected to a second calamity ; å dreadful fire, which raged for four days, destroyed four hundred streets and lanes, including thirteen thousand houses; but it is remarkable that not a single life was lost by the conflagration. Great discontents were excited by the severity with which the non-conformists were treated in England and Scotland; about two thousand of the discontented, in the western counties of Scotland, had recourse to arms, and renewed the covenant but they were overpowered by the royal forces, and their insurrectior

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