yielded unconditionally, but he took advantage of their disunion to con. clude a separate peace with the emperor at Crespy (A. D. 1544). Henry VIII. continued the war for some time longer, but it did not produce any event of consequence. Charles had now secured his predominance in Italy, and was secretly preparing to restore the imperial authority in Germany. Death removed his two powerful contemporaries, Francis and Henry, in the same year (A. D. 1547), both of whom would nave been dangerous antagonists. Though Henry's motives in favoring the reformation were not very pure, his intense hatred of the popes must have induced him to protect the protestant interest in Germany.

The secularization of Prussia, by Albert of Brandenburg (A. D. 1525), was the first example of the seizure of church property, consequent on the change of religion ; but the indignation of the catholic princes, and the ambition of the protestants, were restrained by the Turkish and the French wars. Still the emperor's conduct at the diets of Spires and Augsburg, the pope's anxiety to convene a council subservient to his will, and the intrigues of the ecclesiastics in the states that retained their connexion with Rome, compelled the protestants to renew the league of Smalkald, and assign the fixed contingent of men and arms that should be supplied by the several members. When the council of Trent finally opened (A. D. 1545), its very form and its first decision rendered it impossible for the protestants to take any part in it. But the peace of Crespy lest them unprotected, and their want of mutual confidence prevented them from acting in concert. At the very commencement of the war, Prince Maurice of Saxony deserted the league, and joined the emperor; John Frederic, the elector of Saxony, and chief leader of the protestants, was made prisoner at the battle of Mühlberg (A. D. 1547), and his dominions rewarded the treachery of Maurice. The landgrave of Hesse, the last hope of the reformers, was inveigled to visit the emperor, at Halle, and dishonorably detained as a captive.

This rapid success of the emperior alarmed the pope, who began to fear that Charles would prevail upon the council to limit his pontifical authority, and the two potentates, apparently believing the protestant cause crushed, began to seek for their own private advantages. Charles published a code of doctrines called the “ Interim,” because the regulations it contained were only to be in force until the convocation of a 'free general council, and this edict, which was strictly conformable to the tenets of the Romish church, he resolved to enforce on the empire (A. D. 1548). Catholics and protestants equally declaimed against this summary mode of settling a nation's faith, but the emperor scarcely encountered any open resistance, except from the free city of Magdeburgh, and an army sent to reduce this disobedient place, was intrusted to Maurice of Saxony

Maurice was secretly dissatisfied with the conduct of the emperor, and was especially grieved by the detention of his father-in-law, the landgrave of Hesse He formed a bold plan for compelling the emperor, by a sudden attack, to establish religious freedom, and liberate the landgrave, but concealed his projects until the most favorable moment for putting them into execution. On the surrender of Magdeburgh (A D 1551), he contrived to win the confidence of the garrison and the citizens, without awakening the suspicions of the emperol, and he entered into a secret treaty with Henry II. of France, the son and successor of Francis. No words can describe the astonishment and distress of the emperor, when Maurice, having completed his preparations, published his manifesto, detailing the grievances which he required to be redressed. The active prince proceeded with so much promptitude and vigor, that Charles narrowly escaped being made prisoner at Innspruck. The council of Trent was broken up; the prelates tumultuously voted a prorogation for two years, but more than ten elapsed before its proceedings were renewed. The emperor had the mortification to see all his projects overthrown by the prince whom he had most trusted, and was compelled to sign a treaty at Passau, by which the captive princes were restored to liberty, and a free exercise of their religion secured to the protestants (A. D. 1552). The war with France lasted three years longer; it was conducted without any great battles, but on the whole, proved unfavorable to the emperor. From the hour that the treaty of Passau had wrested from Charles V. the fruits of his whole political career, he felt that his crowns were heavy on his brows. The principles of mutual toleration were formally sanctioned by the diet of Augsburg : Paul IV., who may be esteemed the successor of Pope Julius-for the twenty days' reign of Marcellus produced no political event—was so offended, that he became the avowed enemy of the house of Austria, and entered into close alliance with the king of France. A storm was approaching, when Charles, to the great surprise of the world, abdicated his dominions.

Though a prince of moderate abilities, Charles V. had reigned with more glory than most European sovereigns. A king of France and a pope had been his captives ; his dominions were more extensive than those of Alexander, or of Rome. By his generals, or his ministers, he had acquired all the objects which usually excite ambition ; he had gained even the distinction of being regarded as the champion of orthodoxy, in an age when toleration was a crime. But the triumph of civilization over the system of the middle ages, of which he was at once the last support and the last representative, was certain and complete, and he could not resist the mortification of finding himself vanquished; the peace of Passau was to him “the hand-writing on the wall;" it announced that his policy was past, and his destiny accomplished. The feebleness of old age overtook him at fifty-six; harassed by vain repinings, overwhelmed by infirmities, he felt that he could no longer appear a hero, and he desired to seem a sage. He became a hermit, removed all his diadems from his head, and sank into voluntary obscurity. He was, however, sure to be regretted, for he bequeathed to the world his successor, the sanguinary Philip, just as Augustus adopted Tiberius.

The protestant religion was first legally established in England by Edward VI., the pious son of the profligate Henry. But the troubles occasioned by his minority, and the ambition of his guardians, prevented the reformed church from being fixed on a permanent foundation. Edward died young (A. D. 1553), and the papal dominion was restored by his bigoted successor and sister, Mary. Charles, having failed to procure the empire for his son Philip, negotiated a marriage between that prince and Queen Mary, which was concluded, much to the dissatisfac



tion of the British nation. Mary's cruel persecutions of the protestants failed to reconcile her subjects to the yoke of Rome, and on her death (A. D. 1558), the reformed religion was triumphantly restored by her sister Elizabeth.

The diet which assembled at Augsburg (A. D. 1555), did not secure to the protestants all the advantages they had a right to expect. Maurice had fallen in a petty war, and they had no leader fit to be his suc

With strange imprudence, the Lutherans consented to the exclusion of the Calvinists from the benefits of religious toleration, and left several important questions undecided, the pregnant source of future

When the labors of the diet terminated, Charles, mortified at being forced to resign the hope of securing the empire to his son, saddened by his experience of the instability of fortune, and broken down by illness, resolved to abdicate his double authority. He resigned the sceptre of Spain and the Netherlands to his son, Philip II., and the imperial crown some months after to his brother Ferdinand : he then retired to the monastery of St. Justus, in Valladolid, where he died (A. D. 1558)

The long struggle for religious freedom during the reign of Charles V. terminated in the favor of the Reformation ; but the Romish church was far from being subdued, and it derived most efficient support from the institution of the Jesuits, a political rather than religious society, admirably organized for the support of the highest and most unyielding assumptions of papal authority. This body became formidable from its unity and the secrecy of its operations, but it at length excited the alarm of catholic princes, and was suppressed in the last century.

In the course of the wars between Charles and Francis, the republic of Venice, which, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, had appeared so formidable that almost all the potentates of Europe united in a confederacy for its destruction, declined from its ancient power and splendor. The Venetians not only lost a great part of their territory in the war excited by the league of Cambray, but the revenues as well as vigor of the state were exhausted by their extraordinary and long-continued efforts in their own defence, and that commerce by which they had acquired their wealth and power began to decay withuut any hopes of its reviving. All the fatal consequences to their republic, which the sagacity of the Venetian senate foresaw on the first discovery of a passage to the East Indies, by the Cape of Good Hope, actually took place. Their endeavors to prevent the Portuguese from establishing themselves in the East Indies, not only by exciting the Mameluke sultans of Egypt and the Ottoman monarchs to turn their arms against such dangerous intruders, but by affording secret aid to the infidels in order to ensure their success, proved ineffectual. The activity and valor of the Portuguese surmounted every obstacle, and obtained such a firm footing in that fertile country, as secured to them large possessions with an influence still more extensive. Lisbon instead of Venice became the staple for the precious commodities of the east. The Venetians, after having possessed for many years the monopoly of that beneficial commerce, had the mortification to be excluded from almost any share in it. The discoveries of the Spaniards in the western world proved no less fatal to inferior branches of commerce. When the sources from which the state derived its extraordinary riches and power were dried up, its intea rior vigor declined, and of course its external operations became less formidable. Long before the middle of the sixteenth century, Venice ceased to be one of the principal powers in Europe, and dwindled into a secondary and subaltern state. But as the senate had the address to conceal the diminution of its power under the veil of moderation and caution ; as it made no rash effort that could discover its weakness; as the symptoms of political decay in states are not soon observed, and are seldom so apparent to their neighbors as to occasion any sudden alteration in their conduct toward them, Venice continued long to be considered and respected. She was treated, not according to her present condition, but according to the rank which she had formerly held. Charles V., as well as the kings of France, his rivals, courted her assistance with emulation and solicitude in all their enterprises. Even down to the close of the century, Venice remained, not only an object of attention, but a considerable seat of political negotiation and intrigue.

That authority which the first Cosmo de Medici and Lorenzo his grandson had acquired in the republic of Florence by their beneficence and abilities, inspired their descendants with the ambition of usurping the sovereignty in their country and paving their way toward it. Charles V. placed Alexander de Medici at the head of the republic (A. D. 1530), and to the natural interest and power of the family added the weight as well as the credit of the imperial protection. Of these his successor Cosmo, surnamed the Great, availed himself; and establishing his supreme authority on the ruins of the ancient republican constitution, he transmitted that, together with the title of grand duke of Tuscany, to his descendants. Their dominions were composed of the territories which had belonged to the three commonwealths of Florence, Pisa, and Sienna, and formed one of the most respectable of the Italian


SECTION VIII.—The Age of Elizabeth.

The accession of Elizabeth was the crisis of the Reformation in Great Britain ; as she was the daughter of Anne Boleyn, whose marriage with Henry VIII. had not been sanctioned by the Romish church, her title was not recognised by the catholics, and the king of France permitted his daughter-in-law, Mary, queen of Scots, to assume the arms and title of England. Elizabeth secured herself by entering into secret alliance with the heads of the protestant party in Scotland, who succeeded in withdrawing that kingdom from its allegiance to the pope, and so fettering the royal authority, that the queen dowager, who acted as regent for her daughter, was too much harassed at home to make any hostile attempt on England. Connected with the cause of the Reformation by her own interests, Elizabeth was naturally regarded as the head of the protestants in Europe, while Philip II. was the champion of the catholics. Hence England became the counterpoise to Spain in this age, as France had been in the preceding. But the ancient rivalry between France and Spain was of the highest importance to England'; it prevented a cordial union between the catholic powers of Europe for checking the progress of the Reformation, and it secured support for her doubtful title, ere her noble qualities becoming known, earned for her the best of all securities, the affections of the English nation.

Mary, queen of Scots, was the niece of Henry VIII., and next heir to his crown if the illegitimacy of Elizabeth were established ; she was wedded to the heir-apparent of the French monarchy; her maternal uncles, the princes of Lorraine, were remarkable for capacity, valor, and daring ambition, and she had reasonable prospects of success at a time when Scotland was divided between the contending communions, Ireland altogether catholic, and while catholics predominated in the north of England. The death of Henry II., by à mortal wound in a tournament, raised Mary's husband, the feeble Francis II., to the French throne, and through the young queen's influence transferred the power of the monarchy to the princes of Lorraine. The bigoted Philip II. was so alarmed at the probable accession of power to his great rivals, that he not only acknowledged Elizabeth's title, but proffered her marriage. She declined the offer, and Philip gave his hand to the princess Elizabeth of France, and concluded a treaty with that power at Château Cambresis. Though no express stipulations were made, it was well known that the extirpation of heresy formed a part of this alliance between the two great catholic powers; it led to a furious war of religion, which ended in the establishment of a new European state.

Before entering on the history of the religious wars in France and the Netherlands, it is of importance to examine the state of England and Scotland during the early part of Elizabeth's reign. On the death of Francis II. (Dec., 1560), Mary was compelled to return to her native doniinions by the jealousy of her mother-in-law, Catherine de Medicis, who secretly envied the power of the princess of Lorraine. She left France with a heavy heart, and from the very first moment of her landing had to endure indignities the most mortifying to her proud spirit. Popery had been overthrown in Scotland, but the protestantism erected in its stead was just as bigoted and as intolerant as the ancient creed had been in the worst of times. Still, the winning manners of the queen, and the weakness of her party, prevented any immediate outbreak; and the confidence of the protestants in the earl of Moray restrained the violence of their fanaticism. The marriage of Mary to the young Lord Darnley, in spite of the remonstrances both of Elizabeth and Lord Moray (£ D. 1565), led to the first open breach between the queen and her subjects. Several lords, indignant at the refusal of security to the protestant religion sought safety in England, and they soon gained Darnley himself to join their association. An Italian, of mean birth, David Rizzio, having been appointed private secretary to the queen, gained such an ascendency over her, that Darnley's jealousy was roused; he entered into a conspiracy with the exiled lords, introduced an armed band secretly into the palace, arrested Rizzio in the queen's presence, and murdered him at the door of her shamber. The birth of a son led to an apparent reconciliation between Mary and her husband; but its hollowness was proved by Darnley's being excluded from witnessing the baptism of his own child. The appearance of renewed affection was maintained notwithstanding this insult; Darnley fell sick, Mary visited him with apparent anxiety, and, under the pretence that quiet

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