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natural son of Pepin, better known in history by the name of Charles Martel, set aside this absurd arrangement, and succeeded to more than his father's power. His numerous victories over the Saxons, Burgundians, Frisians, &c., have rendered his name illustrious ; but he is more justly celebrated for his triumph over the Saracenic invaders of France (A. D. 732), between Tours and Poictiers, by which he delivered Christendom from the imminent danger of being subjected to the Mohammedan yoke. His son, Pepin, finally compelled Chilperic III. to abdicate (A. D. 752), and the crown of France was thus transferred to the Carlovingian dynasty, from the descendants of Clovis.
SECTION VI.-The Lombard Monarchy. THE Lombards were encouraged to settle on the frontiers of the empire by Justinian, who deemed that they would prove a check on the insolence of the Gepidæ. While these barbarous tribes were engaged in war, Thrace enjoyed comparative tranquillity ; but when Alboin became head of the Lombard tribes, he entered into alliance with the Avars for the extirpation of the Gepidæ, purchasing their aid by a tithe of his cattle, and a promise of all the conquered lands. The emperor, Justin II., unwisely abandoned the Gepidæ to their fate ; Cunimund, their monarch, hasted to encounter Alboin before he could join the Avars, but he fell in the field which proved fatal to the existence of his nation, and his scull was formed into a drinking vessel by his barbarous enemy. Rosamond, the daughter of the slaughtered king, became the prize and spouse of the victor; the bravest of the surviving Gepidæ were incorporated in the army of the Lombards. Though the Avars had contributed but slightlý to the success of the war, they received a large share of the spoils; the greater part of ancient Dacia was resigned to them, and in this country their chagans ruled for more than two hundred years. Alboin's ambition was fixed on a higher object; fifteen years before, a body of Lombards had served under Narses in the conquest of Italy, and they still preserved a vivid remembrance of the wealth and fertility of the peninsula. Alboin encouraged them to hope that this fair land might yet own their sway, and to stimulate their ardor, produced some of its finest fruits at a royal feast. When his designs became known, adventurers flocked to his standard from the neighboring Slavonic and German tribes. Having made every preparation for the expedition, the Lombards resigned their lands to the Avars, on the simple promise of receiving them back, if they failed in the conquest of Italy.
As if the court of Constantinople had resolved to aid the projects of the invaders, the brave Narses was contumeli ously removed from his post by the Empress Sophia ; and Longinus, a person wholly unacquainted with Italy, appointed exarch in his stead. Alboin met no army to oppose him the field ; few even of the cities ventured to resist his progress; Ticinum, or, as it began now to be called, Pavia, almost alone closed its gates against the conqueror, and detained him three years before its walls. It was at length forced to yield by the pressure of hunger; Alboin threatened a general massacre, but his horse happening to stumble as he entered the gates, he believed that Heaven had sent this omen to warn him against cruelty, and he assured the trembling multitude of pardon and safety. Before he could regulate the affairs of the kingdom he had so easily won, Alboin fell a victim to the revenge of his wife.
of his wife. One evening, heated with wine, he sent her the skull of her father Cunimund, fashioned, as has been stated, into a goblet, filled to the brim, with an insulting message, that she should rejoice with her sire. Rosamond, stifling her resentment, simply replied, “ Let the will of the king be obeyed;" but she secretly resolved on vengeance and, by infamous means, procured two officers of the household to murder her husband (A. D. 573). She was compelled by the indignation of the people to fly with her paramour to the court of Ravenna, where she was poisoned by a potion which she had prepared for the partner of her guilt.
Clepło, one of the noblest of the Lombard chiefs, was chosen king after the murder of Alboin, by the great council of the nation ; but at the end of eighteen months, he was stabbed by a domestic. His cruelty gave the Lombards such a distate for royalty, that after his death, they changed their form of government, and for ten years were ruled by a federation of thirty-six dukes, each of whom was chief of some important city. During this period, they made several efforts to acquire possession of some part of Gaul, but were invariably beaten by the Franks ; in Italy, on the contrary, they were generally successful, adding considerably to their territories at the expense of the exarchate of Ravenna, and the other provinces dependant on the Greek empire.
A confederacy between the imperial exarch and Childebert, king of the Franks, so alarmed the Lombards that they chose Autharis, son of Clepho, for their sovereign. He established a perfectly feudal monarchy, assigning their dutchies to the dukes in perpetuity, on the condition of their giving one moiety of their revenue to support the royal dignity ; they could not be deprived of their possessions except for hightreason but they held power only at the sovereign's will. A similar form of government seems to have prevailed among the Franks almost from the foundation of their monarchy ; but feudal law first received a complete form among the Lombards, and the rules respecting the succession, acquisition, and investiture of fiefs among other nations, were generally derived from their code. The new monarch gained several victories over the Franks, who had been bribed to invade Italy by the Emperor Maurice, and punished the hostility of the Byzantine by subduing a great part of ancient Samnium, which he formed into the dutchy of Benevento. Autharis died without issue (A. D. 590), after a brief but glorious reign, and the crown was transferred to Agilulf
, duke of Turin.
Hitherto the Lombards had been either Arians or pagans; but Agilulf, instigated by his queen, established the Catholic faith throughout his dominions, and chastised several dukes who made this change a pretext for rebellion. His son and successor, Adaluald, completed the triumph of the orthodox faith, a circumstance which tended greatly to reconcile the Italians to the supremacy of the Lombards. The Arian party was, however, sufficiently powerful to raise another to the throne; both the rivals, however, died without issue, and the general assembly chose Rotharis for their sovereign (A. D. 636). This monarch, though tainted with the Arian heresy, won the affection of all his subjects by the wise laws he enacted; he also wrested some important places fin the exarch of Ravenna, and reduced the imperial interests in Italy so low, that it might be said to exist only by the sufferance of the Lombards. On his death (A. D. 652), a scene of weakness and revolution followed, which was only terminated by the accession of Grimvald, duke of Benevento (A. D. 662).
Grimvald was soon involved in war with the Franks, who invaded Italy, but were completely defeated. Scarcely had he repelled this invasion when the Byzantine emperor, Constans, appeared in Italy at the head of a powerful army, and laid siege to Benevento. But the imperialists, meeting a fierce resistance from the garrison, were soon forced to retreat, and being overtaken on their march, were routed with great slaughter. Constans fled to Sicily with the shattered remnant of his forces, and was murdered in a bath by some of his own servants. Grimvald did not long survive his triumph; he died universally lamented (A. D. 672), and his death was followed by a series of obscure and uninteresting revolutions, which, however, deluged Italy with blood.
The accession of Luitprand (A. D. 711), once more restored the prosperity of the Lombards; he enacted several wise laws, rectified the evils which during the recent disturbances had crept into the administration of justice, and won the favor of the nobles who had opposed his elevation by a judicious display of courage and prudence. Unfortunately, he was prompted by ambition to attempt the complete conquest of Italy; taking advantage of the troubles occasioned by the edicts of the emperor Leo for the destruction of images. The exarchate was invaded, and Ravenna taken ; but Luitprand's success provoked the jealousy of the pope, who, though pleased with the punishment of the Iconoclasts,* was by no means gratified with the accession of power of the Lombards. At the pontiff's instigation, the Venetians aided the exarch to recover Ravenna ; but the emperor Leo, instead of showing any gratitude to pope Gregory II. for his interference, sent emissaries to arrest him, and he was only saved from prison by the prompt interference of Luitprand. The Italians, provoked at Leo's fierce zeal again st images, began to revolt, and several cities voluntarily submitted to the Lombard monarch, who pretended to an extravagant zeal for the Catholic faith. The pope, however, dreaded Luitprand, and sought a protection in Charles Martel against the emperor of Byzantium, who was equally hostile to the Lombards and the pontiff. Italy was now distracted by religious disputes and political jealousies, while the death of Luitprand, at this critical period (A. D. 743), afflicted the Lombards with a new series of revolutionary wars.
After some minor changes, Astulphus was chosen king (A. D. 751); during his reign, the kingdom of the Lombards touched the summit of its greatness; he subdued the exarchate of Ravenna, and changed it into a new dukedom, and then led his forces against Rome, which, nominally subject to the emperor, was really governed by the pope. Alarmed at the danger that threatened him, Pope Stephen first applied for aid to the emperor, but finding that the Byzantine ca urt cared little
for Italy, he appealed to Pepin, the first monarch of the Carlovingian dynasty in France. Pepin immediately crossed the Alps with a powerful army, besieged Astulphus in Pavia, and forced him to purchase peace by the cession not only of the places he had seized in the Roman dukedom, but also of the exarchate and the marches of Ancona, to the Holy See. The Franks had to return a second time to compel the fulfilment of these engagements; Astulphus once more submitted, but secretly resolved to renew the war on a favorable opportunity ; before his preparations were completed, however, he was killed by a fall from his horse, and the Lombard kingdom distracted by a disputed succession.
By the aid of the pope, Desiderius prevailed in the contest; but subsequently being exposed to the jealousy of the pontifical power, he tried to secure himself by giving his daughters in marriage to Charles and Carloman, the two sons of Pepin. This alliance was of no long duration ; Charles divorced his wife under pretence of her barrenness; and Desiderius, in revenge, endeavored to persuade the pope to anoint Carloman's children monarchs of the Franks. Adrian I., who then filled the pontifical chair, steadily refused; Desiderius invaded his dominions, and the pope unable to make effective resistance, placed himself under the protection of Charles, or, as he is more generally called, Charlemagne. The king of the Franks crossed the Alps, and. after a brief war, put an end to the kingdom of the Lombards by the capture of Pavia (A. D. 774). Desiderius and his family were sent into France, where they died 'in obscurity; Charlemagne, as conqueror, received the iron crown of Lombardy.
SECTION VII.-The Anglo-Saxons. WHEN Britain was deserted by the Romans, the country remained exposed to the savage incursions of the Picts and Scots; the inhabitants, unable to protect themselves, and refused aid by the emperors, who were oppressed by other barbarians, deserted their habitations, abandoned their fields, and sought shelter in the hills and woods, where they suffered equally from famine and the enemy. When the retreat of the barbarians afforded them a temporary respite, they Wasted their energies in theological controversies arising out of the Pelagian heresy; and when the invasions were renewed, domestic rancor prevented their combining for their common defence. Vortigern, prince of Dumnonium, advised his countrymen to seek foreign aid; and they, forgetting prudence in the extremity of their fears, invi. ted the Saxons to their aid from Germany.
The Saxons and Angles, from small beginnings, had gradually extended their sway from the mouth of the Rhine to the coast of Jutland; their piratical vessels scoured the seas of western Europe; and, the maritime cities of Gaul, Spain, and Britain, were frequently plundered by their corsairs, or forced to purchase safety by the payment of a large tribute. Among the chiefs of their warlike tribes, none enjoyed greater authority than the two brothers Hengist and Horsa, who claimed to be descended from Woden, the tutelary god of the nation. To these leaders the application of Vortigern was made ; they readily accepted his invitation, and, accompanied by about sixteen hundred of their
countrymen, landed in the isle of Thanet. The Picts and Scots were subdued with so much facility, that the adventurers began to reflect how easily they might conquer a nation unable to resist such feeble in vaders ; instead of returning home, they invited over fresh hordes of their countrymen, and received from Germany a reinforcement of fiv thousand men. A long and cruel series of wars ensued, in which the Saxons and another barbarous tribe, the Angles, continually supporter by crowds of volunteers from Germany, triumphed over the Britons ir almost every encounter, and finally drove the miserable remnant of the nation to seek refuge in the mountains of Wales and Cornwall. The struggle lasted nearly one hundred and fifty years, and ended in the di vision of southern Britain into seven Saxon kingdoms, commonly called the Heptarchy.
The Christian religion was first established in the kingdom of Kent, the earliest and long the most powerful of the Saxon monarchies. Ethelbert, its sovereign, though a pagan, had married a Christian prin cess, Bertha, the daughter of Caribert, one of the successors of Clovis, and had promised to allow her the free exercise of her religion. Bertha, by the exercise of her conduct, acquired considerable influence over the mind both of her husband and his courtiers; her popularity was probably one of the principal motives that induced Pope Gregory the Great to send missionaries into England.* Augustine, the chief of the mission, was honorably received at the court of Ethelbert (A. D. 597), and began to preach the gospel to the people of Kent. The rigid austerity of his manners, and the severe penances to which he subjected himself, wrought powerfully upon the minds of a barbarous people, and induced then readily to believe the pretended miracles he wrought for their conversion. Éthelbert and the great majority of his subjects were soon received into the church, and Augustine was consecrated the first archbishop of Canterbury.
The petty wars between the princes of the Heptarchy are totally devoid of interest, and the history of the separate kingdoms is little more than a list of obscure names.
An exception may be made in favor of Offa, king of Mercia, who zealously labored to extend the power of the Romish see in England, and founded the magnificent monastery of St. Albans. So considerable were his power and fame, that the emperor Charlemagne sought his friendship and alliance; Offa, at his desire, sent the celebrated Alcuin to the court of Charlemagne, and this learned Saxon became the emperor's preceptor in the sciences. To Alcuin, France was indebted for all the polite learning it boasted
* It is said that this prelate, while yet in a private station, beheld some Saxon youths exposed for sale in the slave-market at Rome. Struck with their beauty, he inquired to what country they belonged, and being told that they were Angli, .exclaimed “They would not be Angli, but Angeli (angels), if they were Christians.". Continuing his questions, he asked the name of their province; he was told Deiri (a district of Northumberland). “ Deiri !” he exclaimed, “ De ira (from the wrath of God), they are summoned to his mercy.” He further asked the name of their king, and hearing that it was Ælla, or Alla, he joyously cried out, “ Allelujah! we must endeavor that the praises c God be sung in that country." Moved by these punning allusions, he designed to visit Britain himself as a missionary, but being detained by the Roman people, he embraced the earliest opportunity of intrusting the task to qualified legates.