General History, briefly Sketched upon Scriptural Principles. By

the Rev. C. Barth, D.D. Translated by the Rev. R. F. Walker, A.M. London : Religious Tract Society.

This work is a brief Universal History, composed upon principles very different from those which have usually regulated the preparation of such works. The translator has revised and abridged some parts of the original, and has judiciously omitted a few of the opinions expressed by Dr. Barth on passing events.

The History of the Moravian Mission among the Indians in North America, from its Commencement to the Present Time.

With a Preliminary Account of the Indians. From the most Authentic Sources. By a Member of the Brethren's Church. London: L. and G. Seeley.

The Moravian Missions among the North American Indians furnish some of the most remarkable records of Christian devotedness in the whole history of the church. The vicissitudes experienced and the sufferings undergone, impart a thrilling interest to this department of missionary labor, and render it fruitful of instruction. A history of the brethren's proceedings was published in 1787 by Bishop Loskiel, which was subsequently translated into English by the Rev. C. J. La Trobe. This work is the basis of the present small volume, which will be an acceptable present to all who are interested in the labors of this most unpretending and indefatigible section of the universal church.

The Discovery of America by the Northmen in the Tenth Century.

By Joshua Toulmin Smith. With Maps and Plates. London: Charles Tilt.

The design of this volume is twofold, first 'to present the English reader with accurate accounts of the discovery of, and early voyages to, and settlements in, the Western Hemisphere, and continent of North America, by Europeans. Secondly, to prove that those accounts are authentic.' Both these objects are effected in a manner highly creditable to the research and talent of the author, so that we have rarely met with a volume comprising such a mass of antiquarian lore and yet capable of interesting so deeply every intelligent reader. We recommend it most cordially to our friends and the public at large.


Just Published. Memoirs of a Prisoner of State in the Fortress of Spielberg ; by Alexander Andryane, fellow captive of Count Confalonieri; with an Appendix by Maroncelli, the companion of Silvio Pellico. Translated by Fortunato Prandi. Two vols.

Apostolic Instruction Exemplified in the First Epistle General of St. John.

A Memoir of the Rev. Daniel Rowlands, late of Llangeitho, Cardiganshire. With an Introduction containing a brief account of the Chief Supporters of Religion in South Wales from the Reformation. By the Rev. John Owen.

Memorials of South Africa. By Barnabas Shaw." Wesleyan Missionary. Biblical Topography; Lectures on the Position and Character of the Places mentioned in the Holy Scriptures. With Maps. By Samuel Ransom. With a Preface by John Harris, D.D.

The Year-book of Facts in Science and Art, &c. By the Editor of 'The Arcana of Science.'

The Divine Origin of the Holy Scriptures enforced from their adaptations to the Circumstances of Human Nature, An Essay which obtained the Norisian Medal for 1839. By Daniel Moore, B.A.

A Pilgrimage to Palestine, Egypt, and Syria. By Marie-Joseph De Geramb, Monk of La Trappe. 2 vols.

The Former and the Latter Rain. By Mrs. Sherwood.

Indian Orphans, a Narrative of Facts; including many Notices of the Rev. Henry Martyn, B.D., and of the Right Rev. Daniel "Corrie. By Mrs. Sherwood.

Essays, Addresses, and Reviews. By Rev. Robert Nesbit.

Facts and Evidence relating to the Opium Trade with China. By William Storrs Fry:

The Eglinton Tournament, and Gentlemen Unmasked; in a Conversation between the Shade of James V. of Scotland, and Sir David Lindsay of the Mount. By Peter Buchan.

Lectures on the 14th, 15th, and 16th Chapters of St. John's Gospel. By the late Rev. John B. Patterson, A.M.

The Connexion of the East India Company with the Superstitions and Idolatrous Customs and Rites of the Natives of India. The Present State of the Nation. By J. M. Strachan, Esq.

Sermons on the First Principles of the Oracles of God.' By Henry Erskine Head, M.A.

An Historical Sketch of the Progress and Present State of Anglo-Saxon Literature in England. By John Petheram.

The Voice of Conscience: a Narrative founded on Fact. By Mrs. Quintin Kennedy.

Erotophuseos, or the Love of Nature. A Serio-comic Poem. By Timotheus Pikromel, Esq.

Israel's Return; or Palestine Regained. By J. Elisha Freeman. Pulpit Politics. The Correspondence of the Rev. W. M. Bunting, ' An Old Wesleyan Preacher ;' Mr. Holland Hoole, and Mr. T. H. Williams. With Additions.

The Chairman and Speaker's Guide, being a brief Digest of the Rules required for the Efficient and Orderly Conduct of a Debate, &c., &c. Second edition, revised and improved. By Thomas Smith.



FOR JUNE, 1840.

Art. I. 1. Sir Henry Vane the Younger. By John FORSTER, Esq.,

of the Inner Temple. London: Longman and Co. 2. Life of Sir Henry Vane. By CHARLES WENTWORTH UPHAM.

Boston and London,

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N the latter of these productions, of which indeed the former

very little more than a mere copy, we have pourtrayed before our eyes one of the noblest amongst Christian patriots. We entirely agree with its eloquent author, that every day serves to “strengthen the convictions of reflecting men, that liberty can only be maintained by the diffusion of religion and truth in the hearts of the people. Sudden emergencies may produce temporary changes : but the cross of the Redeemer, nationally apprehended by a living faith, will prove at once both the fountain of atonement, and the source of political, as well as spiritual regeneration. Those gigantic minds, which astonished the seventeenth century, derived their stature and varied powers, through being so continually conversant with eternal verities. They were fond of dwelling in profoundest meditation on matters and things unseen, and uncared for by carnal eyes. Hence their anchors of hope sunk below the stormy surface on which they floated; and that so deeply, that secular statesmen could never fathom the realities of the case, nor know by felicitous experience, the hold maintained by such as Sir Henry Vane upon the Rock of everlasting ages! Nor were the soarings of their imaginations into the firmament above them a whit less sublime in their character. Where others indulged in possible anticipations, the pious Calvinists and Puritans expatiated in assurances. The new heavens and new earth, to which they looked forward, cast

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down many a bright reflection upon the world beneath and around them. The great genius, now before us, wanted all men to be free as air ;-free from the fetters forged by their own passions, -free from the slavery of sin,-free from any interference with the sacred rights of conscience,-free in fact from every vestige of social or political bondage. Yet none could be greater lovers of order than himself; inasmuch as he knew it to be the appointment of God, fixed by an almighty fiat as the grand foundation upon which alone liberty can be expected to last. In one word, he was a magnanimous and a religious politician; holding fast the principle of the greatest happiness to be enjoyed by the "greatest number,' upon its only righteous grounds; and with a mind, like the warrior-spirits of Milton, enshrined in the glorious armour of an impenetrable cloudless diamond! Mr. Upham has declared no more than the literal truth, in avowing that from his early youth, Henry Vane's whole heart was devoted to piety; that his sincerity and zeal were seen and acknowledged by all; that they shone with a steady and serene radiance through his whole life ; that they concentrated themselves on the scene of his death, so as to extort the admiration even of his bitterest enemies; that his chosen pursuit was the acquisition of divine and moral holiness ; that his most earnest and powerful efforts were devoted to its diffusion ; that his soul was the constant abode of the spirit of prayer; and that his intellect was kept clear and lustrous by the rays of the Sun of Righteousness. His very youth seemed a realization of the poetical Rinaldo:

• Dolcemente feroce alzar vedresti
La regal fronte, e in lui mirar sol tutti :
L'eta precorse e la speranza ; e presti
Pareano i fior, quando n'usciro i frutti.'

We intend sketching, as briefly as possible, his life, his opinions as developed in several invaluable compositions,--and the final catastrophe, which rendered him far more entitled to the honors of martyrdom than the royal Stuart against whom he waged a never-dying, yet most conscientious warfare !

He was descended from one of the noblest of our aristocratical families, and stands himself in the genealogies of Raby Castle, as the lineal ancestor of the present Duke of Cleveland; it being not a little remarkable, that the highest grade in our peerage should have been conferred in 1832 upon a descendant, for principles not dissimilar from those which in 1662 brought Sir Henry Vane to the scaffold ! Heraldic decorations, enormous wealth, and considerable mental endowments, illustrated his entrance upon public life. At Westminster, he had figured as a lad of high birth and fortune, full of health and spirits : yet before he went

to Magdalen College, Oxford, that change took place in his heart and views, which may best be described in his own words delivered from the block on Tower Hill: - About the fourteenth or fifteenth year of my age, which was thirty-four or five years since, God • was pleased to lay the foundation or groundwork of repentance in me, for the bringing me home to himself, by his wonderful • rich and free grace, revealing his Son in me, that by the know• ledge of the only true God and Jesus Christ, whom he hath sent, · I might even whilst here in the body, be made partaker of

eternal life, in the first fruits of it.' Vane bad now to encounter precisely that opposition and persecution, which the world and Satan generally excite against vital godliness. His father was a vain, vacillating, temporizing courtier, having held the highest civil and military situations; wrapt in the purple and fine linen of honors and affluence; or if making any religious profession at all, contriving to retain it in commendam with the most hearty adoration of things visible and temporal. He had entertained Charles the First at Raby Castle, was a member of the Privy Council, had risen to be Treasurer of the Household, and soon became principal Secretary of State ! His more magnanimous son had weighed such things, and found them wanting. The parentinsisting on matriculation at the University, the young man conceived it impossible to reconcile with his conscience that wicked oath to observe obsolete statutes, which the denunciations of public opinion have but just obliterated at Oxford. Further investigation only augmented his difficulties, nor would he swear either as to allegiance or supremacy. Friends frowned and whispered : Laud, then bishop of London, undertook to tame the recusant, and of course failed: Pym had touched his understanding with something like Promethean fire: the profligate court of his sovereign extended its arms for once without success : and the son of the Prime Minister, after visiting Holland, France, and Geneva, resolved to seek a final asylum amongst the exiles in America ! Nothing,' he afterwards observes, seemed difficult to me, so thạt I might preserve faith and a good conscience, which I prefer before all things. For this he felt willing to forfeit all that time has to give,—to secure that which eternity itself can never take away.

He reached Boston early in 1635; was admitted to the freedom of that colony on the 3rd of March; and became governor of Massachusetts the following year. His administration brought out a fine groundwork for the brilliant points and features of his future character. Its apparent failure at the time arose from no fault of his own. For a brief period he had imagined that Religious Liberty had built her nest beyond the waves of the Atlantic: a halcyon dream, which it required at least a century and a half to realize. We have neither space nor inclination to plunge into


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