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Biblical Antiquities, and the Hebrew Commonwealth. By Jolin Jahn, D.D. One volume.

History of Ireland. By Thomas Moore, Esq. Vol. III. (Lardner's Cyclopædia.)

Ward's Library. Christian Moderation. In two books. By Joseph Hall, D.D. Reprinted from the edition of 1640.

An Historical Sketch of the Law of Copyright; with Remarks on Serjeant Talfourd's Bill; and an Appendix of the Copyright Laws of Foreign Nations, By John J. Lowndes, Esq.

Historical Sketch of the Rise, Progress, and Decline of the Reformation in Poland, and of the Influence which the Scriptural doctrines have exercised on that Country, in Literary, Moral, and Polical respects. By Count Valerian Krasinski. Vol. II.

A Greek and English Lexicon to the New Testament : especially adapted for the Use of Colleges and Schools : but also intended as a convenient Manual for Students in Divinity and Theological Readers in General. By the Rev. S. T. Bloomfield, D.D.

The Cottage among the Mountains. A Narrative of peculiarly interesting Facts. By the Author of Conversations on Mind and Matter.'

The Fathers and Founders of the London Missionary Society; with a brief Sketch of Methodism, and Historical Notices of the Several Protestant Missions from 1556 to 1839. By John Morison, D.D. 2 vols.

Prince Albert, His Country and Kindred.

A Dictionary Geographical, Statistical, and Historical, of the Various Countries, Places, and Principal Natural Objects in the World. By J. R. M'Culloch, Esq. Part I.

A Treatise on Man's Responsibility. By J. Howard Hinton, M.A.

The Primitive Doctrine of Justification Investigated : relatively to the several definitions of the Church of Rome and the Church of England; and with a Special Reference to the Opinions of the late Mr. Knox, as published in his Remains. By George S. Faber, B.D. Second edition.

The Primitive Doctrine of Regeneration : Sought for in Holy Scripture; and investigated through the medium of the Written Documents of Ecclesiastical Antiquity. By George S. Faber, B.D.

Narrative of a Journey from Caunpoor to the Boorendo Pass in the Himalaya Mountains. By Major Sir William Lloyd. And Captain Alexander Gerard's Account of an Attempt to penetrate by Bekhur, to Garoo, and the Lake Manasarowara, &c. Edited by George Lamb. 2 vols. 8vo.

Improvement of AMiction: A Practical Sequel to a Series of Meditations, entitled “Comfort in Affliction.' By the Rev. James Buchanan.

A Treatise on Baptism ; designed as a Help to the due Improvement of that Holy Sacrament, as administered in the Church of England. By the Rev. E. Bickersteth.

Agathos, and other Sunday Stories. By a Clergyman.
Every Day Duties. In Letters to a Young Lady. By M. A. Stodart.

The Fountain of Life, or the Union between Christian Believers. By the
Rev. Thomas Jones.

Outlines of Church History. By the Author of Early Recollections.'

Memoir of the Rev. Rowland Hill, M.A. By William Jones. With a Preface by the Rev. James Sherman. Second edition.

The Christian Visitor: or Select portions from The Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles, with Expositions and Prayers. Designed to assist the Friends of the Sick and the Afflicted. By the Reì. W. Jowett, M.A.

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THE

ECLECTIC REVIEW

FOR APRIL, 1840.

Art. I. 1. Proceedings at a Meeting for the Formation of the Evan

gelical Voluntary Church Association, held on Wednesday Evening,

Dec. 4, 1839. 2. Advocacy of the Voluntary Principle on Religious Grounds only.

No. 1. The Church of England and the Church of Christ. a Lecture delivered in the Town Hall, Hertford. By the Rev. John BURNET. London: J. Dinnis.

'THE

HE stars in their courses fought against Sisera ;' and the

time of the turn of battle will come, whatever temporary disadvantages or defeats the cause of God and truth may

have to sustain. Instead of being alarmed by the fierceness of the conflict, the boasting of the foe, or the occasional tergiversations of lowly or lordly friends, we are disposed to feel encouragement and to cherish hope. The raging elements will the sooner subside from their present vehemence; vociferation will only produce hoarseness and silence; and a change of policy in the doubtful rouse into renewed action a needful excitement. The warfare of the voluntary with the compulsory principle, we deem to be eminently a 'good warfare. It is literally pro aris et focis ; for, as the one or the other prevails, we shall witness the purity or corruption of Christianity, the vigor or the feebleness of personal religion, the dominion of righteousness, or the reign of exaction and tyranny. The great questions at issue now are, whether the mind shall be free or fettered; whether conscience shall be let alone or coerced; whether the building of churches, and the motion of religion, are identical; whether the church of Christ requires for its support the prop of human authority, and the aid

pro

VOL. VII.

2 D

of state patronage? And these again involve other and momentous inquiries; such as, what was Christianity in its primitive, unsophisticated character, as taught by its Divine founder, and diffused under his guidance by its original propagators? What was its theory-what its practice—what its weapons—what its effects, and how accomplished ?--what its history-when it became associated with worldly administrations, obtained the protection, and spoke through the enactments of princes and potentates; exchanged the simplicity of the upper room at Jerusalem, and the cottage, and the highway, and the mountain-side, and the seashore, for the pomp of the palace and the cathedral—what its moral

power when men began to persecute, and assume the right to tolerate others in the exercise of their faith, and the conduct of their worship-what its progress when the sword, but not the

sword of the Spirit; its sceptre, but not the sceptre of the • Prince of Peace,' made martyrs of its apostles, and slaves of its subjects ?

Upon a review of the past three hundred years, there will be found much, very much to furnish matter for

grave

and even melancholy reflection. Considering the noble struggles of the great promoters of the reformation, it was to have been expected that emancipated religion would have gone on conquering and to conquer. It was not unreasonable in the reformers to think, as they did think, that the bright æra of the millennium was beginning to burst upon a long-oppressed and misguided world, and that the principles of moral freedom and eternal truth, for which they contended, were about to march_triumphantly through the length and breadth of the earth. It was natural, having struck so severe a blow, and inflicted so deep and deadly a wound on the man of sin, to look for the downfall of popery, and the irresistible success of a purer faith and practice. In truth, fair and glorious were the prognostications of the future at that auspicious period. There seemed to be men of the right spirit in action; the crushing encumbrance of resistless authority had been removed; the holy Bible was given to rejoicing millions in the German language. If ever it could be said, in any case, that the direct interposition of Providence was manifest, apart from mere visible and palpable displays to the senses, it may surely be affirmed, that it was then indisputable and obvious. As well in the singular origination of that great measure, as in all the circumstances of its early advancement, till the bravery and mastery of truth in its humble advocates subdued the power and discipline of the hosts of error and corruption, was to be seen a movement that extorted from ten thousand tongues the exclamation, What • hath God wrought! But, after the lapse of three centuries, what do we now find; and why do we find it? We find popery vigorous, and Protestantism turning pale at the sight; we find

the spirit of an Eckius reviving, and that of a Luther almost ready to quail. The christian world has been surprised at the resuscitation of exploded doctrines; the extravagant demands of newly constituted authorities; the plain and palpable stagnation of the Protestant mind. After this great lapse of time, during which so many controversies have been agitated, so many books written, so many mental giants have fought and bled in the field of illustrious strife for freedom and religion, what do we find, but christendom overspread with moral darkness, and even in this the most enlightened part of it; yea, even in this the nineteenth age of the christian æra, the very question which ought to have been settled long ago, which one would think to be of no very difficult solution, which is absolutely an elementary question, and fundamental to christianity, still in warm and rancorous discussion, namely, whether the establishment of religion by the state, or the propagation of it by its own voluntary and truth-loving agents, be the legitimate and scriptural mode? One would think this is like debating whether the religion of Jesus has any intrinsic virtue and force, or whether he, perceiving the natural inefficiency of his own principles, called upon princedoms and potentates to prop his cause by their legislation, and provide for its increase by their countenance. It is like asking whether christianity is an outward ceremony, or an inward principle; if the former, it needs a worldly sustenance; if the latter, it must and can triumph alone by its self-sustained and self-propagating energy.

But why, we have inquired, do we find things in their present position? Why do men of note and talent betray the grossest inconsistencies, puzzle themselves and others with a labyrinth of theological perpiexity, and pour forth their periodical denunciations upon those who conscientiously differ from their opinions, and deny their fallacies to be axioms; and why, in the form not only of what are technically denominated grievances,' but in that of secret, insidious, petty persecutions, and less secret calumnies, do men continue to disparage the gospel, and disgrace the mitre? The

answer, and the only answer, so far as we can discern, is — the reformation itself was essentially defective. It went deep, but not deep enough; it soared high, but not high enough. It was both less pure in its principle, and less perfect in its details, than it might have been.' It did wonderful execution in lopping, and barking, and tearing asunder even the main stem, but did not lay the axe at the root of the great upas-tree of corruption. If ever christians were called in providence to the discharge of a high and most responsible duty, we believe it to be at the present crisis. Never was duty plainer-perhaps, never was difficulty greater; and the difficulty will be found, not merely in the formidable array of antagonist principles and combinations, but in the conflict which, in the fulfilment of their high vocation, Christ

ians have to maintain with their own spirits. The perfection of a moral achievement is to do a great and good thing, and to do it in the right spirit. Before we take the sword of the Spirit in our grasp, we should wash our hands in innocency ;' so that every thrust shall be a triumph before we gain the ultimate victory. The grand defect of the reformation was, that it did not aim at the subversion, nay, it even confirmed by the advocacy and practice of its leaders, the compulsory principle in religion. It sought the ruin of a popish, but upheld the scheme of a Protestant establishment. Its theory was unfounded; or rather, perhaps, it had no theory. The reformers, with all their sagacity, did not perceive that they were no more entitled to impose on the faith of others, than others had the right to impose on theirs: that Luther ought no more to judge and condemn Zuingle for his sacramentarian sentiments, or Calvin to burn Servetus for his heresy, than Leo X., or his successors, to give Luther to the magistrate or to perdition. Lutheranism ought no more to have been established than popery; for whether the authority in question was pope, monarch, or elector, it was a human authority, and religion, which sought to be untrammelled, was only allowed to serve a better master. But heaven has designed her for rule and not for servitude; and her appropriate and predestined dominion is over the mind and the heart. Her glorious crown is the affections of her subjects.

The vast and peculiar enterprise to which all enlightened christians are called in the present day, is to seek, by every proper and practicable means, to obtain the separation of the church from the state. Their business is to carry out and go beyond the reformation. It is not with a Carlodstadt's violence to pull down images or altars, but with the argument of a Paul to convince, and with the love of a John to constrain. It is to demand inquiry; to pursue evidence; to explain Scripture; to oppose false theories, and resist vicious intrusions into the church of Christ; to ascertain and declare essential, long hidden, or much mutilated principles; to restore primitive practice, and to lay an unsparing hand upon soul-destroying corruptions. But we again say, and fearlessly maintain, that the one chief labor to which an enlightened church is now called, for which its members ought to pray and strive to unite, is to effect a separation of the true church from all its worldly adhesions, and to do this with all personal kindness to individuals who adhere to systems hostile to a primitive christianity: to make this their distinct and paramount object, that religion may stand forth in her unrivalled grandeur, in the majesty of her truth, and the power of her charity, and thus appear clear as • the sun, fair as the moon, and terrible as an army with banIners.'

And this we say the rather, because we perceive in the consti

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