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but not the other part, and may think that part which he does see very insufficient, as indeed it often would be. Do all you can, you may not be able to explain to him the other part, possibly it might not be proper to explain it to him. The child must know a great deal more, and act and obey a great deal more, before he will be able to take in and appreciate the real reasons of half of what he is ordered to do. "Let him do what he is told, and after a time he shall find that it was right. This is the principle of all virtue, as well as of religious obedience. Action precedes and accompanies knowledge. In education there is great need of faith ; faith on the part of the master or parent that the seed sown will not be choked, but will be fruitful of good ; faith on the part of the child, towards his master or parent, that what he does or orders is for his good, and will prove so in the end. This is the true principle of a child's obedience. This is the ground on which it is placed by Scripture, by common sense, and by universal experience.

A parent sometimes directs a child to do a particular thing, and then assigns a reason why he should do it. The child hesitates, objects, argues ; at last the parent will say, "Well then, do it because I tell you.' If this had been said at first, it would have saved much trouble and many words. So, a master should never argue with a pupil ; never allow a boy to answer again, reply, ask reasons, and so on. All this is out of place, and detrimental to good order and healthy discipline.

But, it may be asked, would not these principles encourage arbitrariness and tyranny on the part of masters ? On the contrary, a master (if what he ought to be, which is of course presupposed), finding his responsibility so great, will take the greater pains to be in the right; finding that whatever he orders is to be done, will not order what is unnecessary, or unjust; finding his pupils submissive towards him, will be lenient though strict, and kind though authoritative, towards them. And this is what boys themselves always prefer. There is nothing they hate so much as an uncertain, vacillating, capricious discipline; no master is so much respected as one who will be obeyed, and who keeps them in strict order and up to the mark. Boys do not really like confusion any more than men; they like order and regularity, and he who insists on order and regularity, and, without caprice, enforces obedience, is sure of their respect. They have no respect for a man who does not claim respect as his due; they cannot submit willingly and regularly to one who does not insist on obedience and regularity himself. It is too much to expect a large number of boys or men to keep themselves in order, without some actual, visible, external restraint. And this both men and boys like. They actually enjoy more liberty by being so restrained : they are more comfortable for being kept in a state

that at first sight it appears almost unfeeling to do any thing to unsettle it, still more to refute it altogether. It seems to be based upon love in opposition to fear, and appeals seemingly to the better and more generous sympathies of our nature. But for all that we must look at it closely, and see whether it will bear examination.

When we order a child to do a particular thing, and begin to argue with him to show him why he should do it, we put his obedience on a wholly different ground from our will or authority; we put it on a different ground to him, and a ground which he can take as well as we, and which he will not be slow to take. We put his obedience on the ground of his seeing the reasonableness of our order. Now, often he will not see the force of our reasoning, and if he is unwilling to see the force of it, of course he will not see it. Well, one of two things, then, must follow. Either we must give in, which would be yielding to the child's self-will, and would be ruinous to all authority; or we must still insist on his doing what we ordered; we must after all fall back on our authority, and then seem to the child to be enforcing what was unreasonable. In other words, whenever the child does not see the force of the reasons we assign, we must appear to him either weak or capricious, either yielding and pusillanimous, or arbitrary and tyrannical ; either the child becomes practically master, or we become apparently unjust.

Of course, the mere theorist or writer on education does not see this. How should be? But let him have the responsible management of a hundred boys for six months, and then say whether he would be content to place his system of discipline on the ground of persuasion. If he did, the boys would soon ride upon his back. We never knew a practical schoolmaster of any experience, to entertain the notion under remark. Some parents entertain and act upon it, if that may be called acting, which rather consists in suffering. They say of a son, 'we never oblige him to do what he does not see the propriety of doing, we endeavour to show him the reason why he should do this or that.' They seem to have forgotten, that when they have given an order, they have given what ought to be the strongest motive for obedience, and that by adding

other motives, inducements, persuasions, and coaxings (for it soon comes to that), they are, in fact, only weakening the grand motive and habit of obedience, and encouraging the arts of dissimulation and hypocrisy. Obedience is prompt; and unless prompt, is as much like disobedience as it can be.

The truth is, a child is in very few cases able, in the nature of things, to see or comprehend the whole of the reasons for what be is told to do. He may see one part of the reason for a thing,

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but not the other part, and may think that part which he does see very insufficient, as indeed it often would be. Do all you can, you may not be able to explain to him the other part, possibly it might not be proper to explain it to him. The child must know a great deal more, and act and obey a great deal more, before he will be able to take in and appreciate the real reasons of half of what he is ordered to do. Let him do what he is told, and after a time he shall find that it was right. This is the principle of all virtue, as well as of religious obedience. Action precedes and accompanies knowledge. In education there is great need of faith ; faith on the part of the master or parent that the seed sown will not be choked, but will be fruitful of good ; faith on the part of the child, towards his master or parent, that what he does or orders is for his good, and will prove so in the end. This is the true principle of a child's obedience. This is the ground on which it is placed by Scripture, by common sense, and by universal experience.

A parent sometimes directs a child to do a particular thing, and then assigns a reason why he should do it. The child hesitates, objects, argues ; at last the parent will say, "Well then, do it because I tell you.' If this had been said at first, it would have saved much trouble and many words. So, a master should never argue with a pupil; never allow a boy to answer again, reply, ask reasons, and so on. All this is out of place, and detrimental to good order and healthy discipline.

But, it may be asked, would not these principles encourage arbitrariness and tyranny on the part of masters ? On the coultrary, a master (if what he ought to be, which is of course presupposed), finding his responsibility so great, will take the greater pains to be in the right; finding that whatever he orders is to be done, will not order what is unnecessary, or unjust; finding his pupils submissive towards him, will be lenient though strict, and kind though authoritative, towards them. And this is what boys themselves always prefer. There is nothing they hate so much as an uncertain, vacillating, capricious discipline; no master is so much respected as one who will be obeyed, and who keeps them

and up to the mark. Boys do not really like confusion any more than men; they like order and regularity, and he who insists on order and regularity, and, without caprice, enforces obedience, is sure of their respect. They have no respect for a man who does not claim respect as his due; they cannot submit willingly and regularly to one who does not insist on obedience and regularity himself. It is too much to expect a large number of boys or men to keep themselves in order, without some actual, visible, external restraint. And this both men and boys like. They actually enjoy more liberty by being so restrained: they are more comfortable for being kept in a state

of high discipline. • Legum,' says Cicero,* \idcirco omnes servi sumus, ut liberi esse possimus.'

We have said much against the sciences supplanting the classics, or even interfering with their high claims in education. It may be asked then, Would you give a boy no scientific knowledge? Would you have him leave school without any information on the most important and interesting facts in science or any general knowledge? We reply, by no means. Those most important facts can be communicated in a very short time, and as the pupil is become versed in arithmetic (which we have all along supposed), if not also in the mathematics, he will have no difficulty in following out any of the sciences to which his future destination may lead him, seeing that by his classical studies he has acquired a power, which, being applicable to any object, will enable him to make progress in chemistry as well as in history, if he chooses to devote himself to that study. And as to general knowledge ; we conceive that a well-stocked library, containing books of entertainment and instruction of various kinds and on various subjects, is the best teacher. The pupil can there suit his own taste, and if he is fond of natural history, he can and will choose Buffon, or some other books which treat of it; if he prefers biography, he will choose the life of Nelson, of Cortez, of Wellington, or some other favorite hero, perhaps even the volumes of the veracious Plutarch ; if he leans to natural philosophy, he will choose books relating to that subject; and if he has a taste for anecdotes, the Percy anecdotes, and such-like volumes are at his command. By such voluntary and unshackled indulgence of particular taste and propension within given limits, a boy's mind will develop in the most natural manner.

There are many other points on which we should have wished to touch ; such as the proportions and kinds of liberty which should be allowed, and of restraint which should be exercised in schools, the most efficacious kinds of rewards and punishments, the hours of study, the amount of actual instruction which should be given, and the amount of solitary independent preparation which should be required; the effect of lectures, and so forth, on all which subjects there is much popular misconception : but the length to which this paper has already extended, warns us to conclude. We cannot finish, however, without again adverting to the increased and increasing number of works on the subject of education. Books on education have mulciplied within the last few years beyond all precedent. We cannot say that we think people have acquired juster notions on the subject, or have made any material progress in consequence of these productions.

* Pro A. Clucntio, $ 53.

They have, as we have before said, and it cannot be too often repeated, they have been written chiefly, almost entirely, by unpractical men, and we may add, women. They have been written by theorizers, who have seen evils, and thought they saw how to remedy them, and they might have remedied them, and so could any one else, if a few strokes of the pen would do it. But this is not the case. Children have wills; and they cannot be worked quite in a mechanical way like a steam engine. No antecedently formed plan can provide for emergencies which may arise, and may arise every day; no antecedent study or thought can anticipate the difficulties which occur, or the means of meeting them. A plan which sounds well to the ear, and looks well on paper, and seems plausible and feasible to one who is not a teacher, will often to a man of ten years' experience in teaching, be obviously unmanageable and absurd. The framer of the plan did not know the material he had to work on, or the way of working upon it. The practical schoolmaster, like a skilful lawyer, knows what boys are, and what they are in numbers, and what effect any given plan will be likely to have on them; and when any new plan is proposed, he falls back on his precedents, and applies his knowledge of the past to any proposal for the future. A new theory or speculation will not deceive him. Theorizers are liable to be deceived at every step. Results which they fancy will follow a given course, the practical schoolmaster often knows will not follow. Experience is the safe guide. We cannot, then, but express our regret that the educational treatises and manuals with which the public has lately been inundated, have not been written by practical men, men of experience in that on which they offer to instruct others.

We want no more treatises on teaching from writers who have never taught; no more plans of education from persons who have never educated; no more schemes of discipline from those who have never exercised discipline themselves. The opinion of one practical schoolmaster is worth more than that of a hundred theorizers.

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