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Every man who has a farm must, in general, work it himself; for laborers, as I have said, cannot be procured either for a share of the crop or for money. The only assistance that can be procured, is that of slaves, and a good many are employed by persons who have influence sufficient to secure a property so tangible, and these are chiefly men dedicated to religion, who have lands free of rent.
All the domestics are slaves, and they are pretty numerous, every man of rank having several. The slaves are procured from among
the necessitous, who mortgage themselves, in the same manner as in the eastern divisions of Ronggopoor. Some are exported. About 100 of pure caste are annually sold to Bengal. They are mostly children. The girls cost from 12 to 15rs. A Koch boy casts 25rs., a Kolita 50. Slaves of impure tribes are sold to the Garos, and many are said to be sent to Nora, from whence they are probably exported to Ava.'
-Ib. p. 681.
We regret that we cannot speak more highly of the intrinsic merits of this well intended publication. It contains much curious and amusing information, which any one who will take the requisite pains, will find worth extracting from the immense mass of facts and observations collected by the author during his long and laborious survey.
Art. VIII. British History, Chronologically Arranged; comprehend
ing a Classified Analysis of Events and Occurrences in Church and State, &c., &c. By John WADE. 8vo.
1160. London : Effingham Wilson.
IF F there be one portion of the public press which, more than
another, ought to hail the increasing attention that history is beginning to receive, it is that which advocates those enlarged views and liberal principles which tend to the greater happiness of the citizens of the empire.
History, it has been often and correctly said, is Philosophy teaching by example; and we can scarcely conceive of the possibility of any man well performing his duties as a citizen, who is not more or less acquainted with the invaluable lessons which it unambiguously teaches. Especially ought those worthy men who nobly aspire to be useful in their day by urging onward the chariot of reform, study as deeply as they may
as they may the historic page. A thousand vain fancies will thereby be prevented; and the men, acquainted with the past, will look upon the present with an eye of intelligence that will penetrate through hollow disguises, and discriminate between the real and the false, the chimerical and the practicable. Improved in intelligence and practical ability,
they will also be better morally prepared for their noble, though it may be silent and unnoticed, course. Truth rejected and scorned, they will learn by high examples to bind more closely about their brows as an ornament of grace; instead of abandoning it amid reproach, they will cherish it the more dearly; an unmanly and time-serving policy they will, with our Eliots, Hampdens, and Miltons, thoroughly abhor,--real losses, and contumely, and hate, they will calmly endure,—while they behold the cloud of witnesses that, amid storms and darkness having sought their country's weal, have gradually upreared the constitution which is the home of freedom. But the work is not perfected : all the builders have not been free from weakness and whim, while not a few have perhaps daubed with untempered mortar; so that there are rotten and unsightly parts, with meretricious and paltry ornaments, to be removed, weak parts to be strengthened, towers of might to be added, and the top-stone to be yet
brought forth amid the general shouting. To this consummation, which certainly shall come, many of our readers are looking with an ardent eye; for it they are toiling, though perhaps unseen; while not a few are patiently suffering, as we know, for their advocacy of those cherished principles which, dearer than fortune, reputation, life,-shall ultimately be throned in the hearts of all, and be crowned by general acclamation.
To such of our readers as in city, town, or village, are fighting that battle of reform, civil and religious, which has chiefly to be fought in detail, and in a thousand circles, we would recommend above many things, a yet increased attention to the study of history, while we animate them to be stedfast and immoveable, forasmuch as their labor cannot be in vain.
The work before us will prove of real service; it is valuable, we had almost written indispensable; indeed, to those who have not access to good libraries, it is so, and even to those who have, it will afford information, especially of a statistical nature, which it is not easy to acquire. The book is written on a new and excellent plan; it is not one continuous history, but being chronologically arranged, records facts under the dates of their occurrence. As a specimen of the manner in which the work is written is scarcely possible without extracts more copious than is convenient, we quote from the author's preface an explanation of the design and plan.
Hitherto, the prevailing character of histories has been biographical. They are the lives of princes, rather than the records of nations. It is Julius Cæsar or Constantine, not the Roman people, or the Greek empire, that fills the page of the annalist. The common histories of England offer few exceptions to the ancient models ; and the Edwards, Henries, and Richards, crowd the foreground to the almost
entire exclusion of the other and often more important characters, events, and occurrences, that really make up the body, form, and pressure of the time.
• Next to the sovereign, the most conspicuous figure on the canvass is usually the historian himself, whose opinions and peculiarities are frequently more forcibly displayed than the age he has undertaken to delineate. Aspiring to a higher office than that of simple chronicler of facts, which is his chief vocation, he seeks to embellish, or rather to distort the truth, by beauties of style, by the charms of narrative, by moving and adventurous incidents, by picturesque and contrasted portraits of eminent persons, and by ingenious theories, conjectures, and unravelments of historical obscurities. The legitimate uses of history are thus sacrificed to the ingenuity or vanity of the author, and to the graces and excitements of literature; its authority depreciated, and an agreeable romance rather than faithful record elaborated.
• A second evil, from the historian putting himself forward in place of his subject, is in the spirit of partizanship, by which his narrative thereby becomes imbued. This has been the great bane of history. Every epoch, every political, social, and religious transition, and every prominent personage, has advocates and impugners, each of whom, by dexterous representation, suppression, or exaggeration, seeks to maintain a peculiar thesis, according to his connexions, personal temperament, education, early impressions, and associations.
* A third, and ordinary defect of history, is the neglect of chronolo. gical order. It is only by marshalling in line, as it were, events and occurrences, foreign and domestic, moral and physical, social and intel. lectual, that the bearing and action of an age can be comprehended. Changes of the seasons, domestic incidents, discoveries and inventions, the births, characters, and deaths of remarkable persons,—all contribute to the drama of life, influence the course of legislation, the policy of government, and the progress of society; and, unless each is explained and brought forward in its due place, proportion, and juncture, the panorama is incomplete, the contemporary scene imperfectly delineated, and the reader's path obscure and perplexed.
• In the plan of the publication now submitted, the aim has been to avoid these defects. Its basis is classification and chronological arrangement. Each reign or historical period is prefaced with an introduction, explanatory of the character of the governing power, or of the prominent features of the time, political, social, or industrial; then follow the events and occurrences, facts and incidents, in chronological order, upon which the introductory view has been founded ; and after these, distinct sections, illustrative of legislation, finance, commerce, science, manners, literature, internal improvements, or whatever else has constituted a leading characteristic of the time, and influenced the state of the Commonwealth. The design partakes of the interest as well as something of the arrangement of an ordinary newspaper. There is the leading article ; then the occurrences of the day, diversified and illustrated with such incidents, facts, and information, as usually fill the columns of the journalist. The great advantage possessed over such vehicles of intelligence has been in the circum
stance that, the author's labours mostly referring to transactions long past, information relating to them was more copious and mature; and, having no fixed time for appearing before the public, opportunity was thereby afforded for being more deliberate in commentary, and more correct and condensed in the details.'-PREFACE.
To this are added, Biographical Notices of Eminent Public Characters; Tables of the progress of Taxes, the National Debt, Agriculture, Commerce, Shipping, and Navigation ; Accounts of variations in Prices, Wages, and Currency; List of the Public Statutes from Magna Charta, and of the Men of Letters and Science who distinguished each reign; with Accounts of changes in the Manners, Diet, Industrial Pursuits, Amusements, and Costume of the people; with Comparative Statements of Crime at different periods, &c.
The whole is well arranged and ably condensed. The various statistical information considerably enhances the value of the book, which is impartially written; and we feel a pleasure in cordially recommending it.
A Manual of Christian Antiquities ; particularly during the Third,
Fourth, and Fifth Centuries : with an Analysis of the Writings of the Ante-Nicene Fathers. By the Rev. J. E. Riddle, of St. Ed. miund's Hall, Oxford. 8vo. pp. 832. London: Parker.
On hearing of a new book containing ecclesiastical history or antiquities, it is not mere party spirit which dictates the instant inquiry, To what school the writer belongs. For although the being numbered with a moderate and sober school does not ensure impartiality and accuracy, to be under the influence of an intolerant school ensures the contrary qualities. Mr. Riddle is a clergyman, of the most moderate and candid sentiments, supporting Episcopacy as a highly expedient institution, but regarding English Episcopacy as obviously not identi. cal with, only analogous to, that of the primitive church. He speaks with just disapproval of the claims of those who affect for their own church system a divine sanction, and pleads only for that toleration to the Anglican Episcopacy, which he grants to other churches. In conformity with this excellent foundation, his whole book displays unaffected candor. He exhibits without disguise the state of the early churches, not seeking to hold them up as models, yet keeping quite clear of the spirit of vituperation. He appears entirely to agree with Bp. Newton (although he states it rather in the Bp.'s words than in his own), that the ascetic apostacy predicted in 1 Tim. iv. had received
its accomplishment already in the fourth and fifth centuries. This opinion is also strongly pressed in Mr. Taylor's 'Ancient Christianity.' While, therefore, Mr. Riddle's book is in no sense controversial, being a simple statement of facts, seldom with any comment, we trust it will prove a most valuable antidote against enthusiasm in behalf of the Nicene church.
He professes himself indebted for his materials, mainly to Augusti, and secondly to Siegel ; but we understand him to say that the latter writer, though very valuable, has been used with great caution by reason of his neological tendencies. This is a book of antiquities, not of history; yet his analysis of the writings of all the Ante-Nicene Fathers is more than would be expected from mere archæology. The reader may gain an insight into the work from the following syllabus.
Preface. Four preliminary essays, occupying seventy pages; the third being historical.
Book I. Lives and writings of the Ante-Nicene Fathers.
Book II. Of the Church, or General Body of Christians; under their ancient divisions and names.
Book III. On Ministers of the Church-ordinary and extraordinary -Their names, functions, insignia, rank, rights, and privilegesmodes of appointment and deposition. On Bishops and PresbytersOn councils-On ordination-On the revenues of the Church, &c.
Book IV. On Christian Worship and Discipline-Public Prayer, Psalmody, Liturgies, Prayers for the Dead - Preaching- Catechising -Secret doctrines—Creeds-Baptism-Confirmation-Sponsors, The Lord's Supper-Penance-Confession- Absolution.
Book V. Festivals—Lord's Day-Saturday or Sabbath— FastsHoly Days-Cycles of Christmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide.
Book VI. History of Church Buildings—their form-positionstructure-immunities---ornaments.
Book VII. On Marriage-Annointing of the Sick-Funeral Rites -Agapæ or Love Feasts—Stations-- Processions, Pilgrimages-Monachism and Monasteries.
Chronological and Alphabetical Tables-Eight Appendices.
In the present state of English theology it is quite refreshing to find a clergyman lay before the public a learned but plain account of those human ordinances which so many of his order are striving to pass off as of divine obligation. Indeed, his protest in the preface against the evil superstitions which he has to record, will be so much the more forcible to his brethren for its remarkable mildness and tranquillity.
Henry of Guise : or the States of Blois. By G. P. R. James, Esq.
Three volumes. London : Longman and Co.
We are not in the habit of frequently noticing works of this clasi, and the reasons of our not doing so are well known to our readers. It is not that we object to fiction as such, or that we sympathize in the indiscriminate and unintelligent condemnation which some pious people pass, upon the whole range of our lighter literature. Such a course fails to commend itself to our judgment, and though in some instances it