These words here used to modify verbs are called adverbs. Read :

1. The sentry was too brutal.

2. Nathan Hale spoke very calmly. In the first sentence the adverb too modifies an adjective. In the second sentence the adverb very modifies an adverb.

Read the story of Nathan Hale and find the adverbs in it. Tell what each one modifies, whether a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.

An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

Comparison of Adverbs.

Adverbs are compared like adjectives. To some adverbs er and est are added. Others are compared by using more and most. Read the following sentences and tell how the adverbs in italics are compared :

A little boy ran away from home one day. The birds cried, "Stay," but he only ran faster. The violets whispered, “Dwell with me,

but the little boy ran on more swiftly. He was following the voice of the wind. It roared madly through the woods. It tore down trees. Then the little boy was afraid. The lightning flashed vividly. The thunder rolled heavily across the sky. The little boy's heart beat louder and louder. He sat down and cried bitterly. Suddenly the moon shone out brightly from behind the cloud. She spoke to the little boy kindly and showed him the way home. Most gladly he followed the path of bright light made by the full moon, and soon he reached home, a happy but a tired boy.

Find other adverbs in the selection and tell what each one modifies. Compare the adverbs. How many are compared by using er and est? How many by using more and most?

Find the adjectives in the selection and compare them. Tell how they are compared.

Choose three adjectives and three adverbs and write their comparisons.




1. General Washington needs information but he hesitates to send any man on so perilous an errand.

2. There was a brief moment of silence and then Nathan Hale stepped forward.

3. The young captain saluted and retired.

4. Without courtesy or consideration of any kind he was sentenced.

The words and, but, and or are conjunctions, or link words. In the first sentence the conjunction but links or connects the two groups of words in the sentence. What are the groups ?

In the second sentence the conjunction and connects two groups of words. What are the groups ?

In the third sentence and connects two words. What words are connected by the conjunction?

In the fourth sentence the word or connects two groups of words. What are the groups ?

The most frequently used conjunctions are and, but, and or.

A conjunction is a word used to connect words or groups of words.


Write sentences containing:

1. Two nouns connected by and.
2. A noun and a pronoun connected by or.
3. Two verbs connected by and.
4. Two adjectives connected by and.
5. Two adverbs connected by but.



Each child has pencil and paper.

One child may go to the front of the room and give directions for the class to follow. The directions may be like the ones given below:

Draw a table.
Draw a chair by the table.
Draw a vase sitting on the table.
Draw a basket under the table.

The words by, on, and under show the relation of the different objects to the table. See in how many ways you can complete this sentence: The dog ran

the table. You may say that the dog ran around, before, behind, by, from, to, toward, or under the table. These words differ in meaning, but each expresses a relation between the verb ran and the noun table. Instead of a noun we may place a pronoun after the blank:

He spoke


We may complete this sentence by inserting the words about, for, of, to, or with. These words that show relation are prepositions.

A preposition is a word used to show the relation between the noun or pronoun that follows it and some other word in the sentence.


I Each of you write a preposition on the board. Use these prepositions in sentences.

II Find the prepositions in the following selections, and tell between what words each preposition shows relation:

Into the jaws of Death,
Into the mouth of Hell,
Rode the six hundred.


Over the river

And through the wood,
To grandfather's house we go.


Here I come creeping, creeping everywhere;

By the dusty roadside,
On the sunny hillside,
Close by the noisy brook,

In every shady nook,
I come creeping, creeping everywhere.




Using Pronouns and Prepositions.

Read the following sentences :

1. Grandfather sent some nuts to John.
2. Grandfather sent some nuts to me.
3. Grandfather sent some nuts to John and me.

No one would make a mistake in the first sentence, nor in the second. No one would say “to 1.” However, a person does often make a mistake in a sentence like the third. He often uses I for me.

Look at the following sentences and make a list of the pronouns that follow prepositions:

1. Just between you and me, I don't think he knows anything about it.

2. Aunt Jane sent presents to Kate and me.
3. James will go in the boat with Tom and me.

She sat beside Mary and me.
5. We were talking to them.
6. The boy listened to us.
7. I went to the game with her.
8. For whom did you buy the doll?
9. To whom did you write?
10. Whom did you see?
II. What is the trouble between you and him?

Read the sentences aloud. That will help you to remember which pronouns to use after prepositions.

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