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than a fishing line. It is still soft, however. Another strand of the same size twisted in the same way from another cotton rope is now joined with it, and the two are twisted and retwisted by machinery until they are as small as the finest cotton thread used for sewing. This is the thread out of which the cloth is to be

Woven.

As the thread comes from the machines some of it is rolled upon long spools, called spindles, by what is known as the mule spinner. This takes the place of the old spinning wheel, save that it winds hundreds of spools at a time, one machine often doing as much work, perhaps, as in colonial days a thousand women could do. Some threads are wound upon rollers or beams of the width of the

oth to be made. These threads are the warp; they run lengthwise in the cloth. The cross threads, or what is known as the woof or filling, are first wound upon small bobbins, and are then thrown from one side of the cloth to the other in the shuttle, which carries the thread back and forth through the warp threads at the rate of one hundred and fifty times or more a minute. This is called weaving. The machines with which the weaving is done are the looms. The machinery in the weaving rooms makes a great din, and the looms work so fast that thousands of yards of cloth are woven in one factory in a day.

How to Explain.

Do not try to explain anything that you do not understand. If you do, you will weaken every power of exposition that you possess, just as a man injures his health by violating the laws of health. Exposition has its laws, and its first law is honesty. Begin with simple things, things that you know thoroughly. Let your effort be to make your exposition so clear not only that everybody may understand it but that nobody can misunderstand it. If you can think of illustrations of each point that you make, you can hardly fail to be clear; but each illustration must be simpler and better known than the point that you are illustrating. The author of What Is a Bolshevik ? might have said: “A Bolshevik is a Russian socialist who believes in the rule of the soviet.” But instead of referring to the less known “soviet,” he refers to the better known “boy.” Remember, too, that an explanation that would be clear to your father or mother might not be clear to your younger brother or sister. Exposition, like description and narration, must be adapted to the hearer or reader. But, above all, think through your exposition from beginning to end before you begin to write or talk.

QUESTIONS

1. What are the three kinds of composition? How do they differ?

2. By what comparisons have four famous writers made their descriptions plainer?

3. What piece of advice is repeated in the discussion of each kind of composition ?

4. What are the three parts of a short story? In which part is narration best studied ?

5. Which one of the three examples of exposition do you prefer? Why?

EXERCISES

I

Describe in one paragraph a flower or a tree or a face or a house so that it may be instantly recognized by those who know it.

II

Tell in one paragraph the bare plot of a story that you have read or heard.

III

Explain orally, the stanza quoted from Kipling under Exposition or this saying of Samuel McChord Crothers : The writer who is unusually fluent should take warning from the instructions which accompany his fountain-pen: When this pen flows too freely it is a sign that it is nearly empty and should be filled.”

CHAPTER LXXXIV

KEEPING MINUTES OF CLUB MEETINGS

In many schools the pupils organize various clubs, such as “Good Speech Clubs,” “Corn Clubs,” “Pig Clubs,” and “Debating Societies.” The name of each indicates the purpose for which the club was formed. These clubs have appropriate constitutions and by-laws and regularly elected officers. The meetings are generally held in the regular English period.

The president and the secretary of a club are the most important officers. It is the duty of the president to preside over meetings in a dignified and impartial way. The principal duty of a secretary is to make a permanent record of the proceedings of the meetings held by the club or society in which he holds his office. An organization is held responsible for every statement made in the records or minutes after they have been approved, and it is therefore important that the minutes should be written with the utmost care.

Meetings are of four kinds: (1) Preliminary, (2) Regular, (3) Adjourned, and (4) Special or Called.

1. Preliminary Meeting.

The following contains the minutes of a preliminary meeting called to organize a “Good Speech Club":

Austin, Texas,

Jan. 4, 1919. At the call of the Principal the seventh grade pupils of the Dawson school met in the assembly hall, Jan. 3, 1919, at 4 P.M., for the purpose of organizing a "Good Speech Club." The meeting was called to order by the Principal, and on his motion Mr. Edward Allen was elected chairman, and Miss Kate Brown secretary.

The Principal explained the object of the meeting, after which it was unanimously voted to organize a “Good Speech Club,” to be known by that name.

On motion, a committee consisting of Mr. Henry Martin, Miss Margaret Williams, and Mr. James Wilson, was appointed to prepare a constitution and by-laws to be reported to the club at its next meeting.

On motion, another committee, with Mr. Jacob Williams chairman, was appointed to make a list of the errors of speech most common in the school and to report plans for keeping these errors before the pupils.

On motion, the chairman and secretary were requested to serve in their respective positions until the permanent organization of the club had been perfected.

The meeting then adjourned to meet at 4 P.M., Friday, Jan. 10, 1919. Attest: Edward Allen,

Kate Brown,
Chairman.

Secretary.

This form contains twelve points which should be found in every record of a preliminary or first meeting. It shows :

(1) Where and when the meeting was held; (2) at whose call it was held; (3) who composed the meeting ; (4) for what purpose it was held; (5) who called it to order; (6) the names of the chairman and secretary; (7) the final decision to form a club; (8) the names of the committee on constitution and by-laws; (9) the appointment of another committee; (10) the authority of the chairman and secretary to serve until the permanent organization of the club; (11) the date to which the meeting was adjourned; (12) the signature of the secretary as the recorder of the minutes and the signature of the chairman attesting the correctness of the record. (Note the word Attest” before the chairman's name.)

2. Regular Meeting.

The record of a regular meeting should show (1) when and where the meeting was held and (2) who presided; (3) it should also show that the minutes were read and approved; (4) it should state fully and clearly all motions offered that received a second and show how they were disposed of; (5) it should contain an exact copy of all resolutions receiving the attention of the meeting; and (6) it should be signed by the secretary and attested by the president.

The following is a record of the first regular meeting of the Good Speech Club”:

Austin, Texas,

Jan. II, 1919. A regular meeting of the “Good Speech Club” was held at the Assembly Hall at 4 P.M., Jan. 10, 1919, the chairman in the chair.

The minutes of the preliminary meeting were read and approved.

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