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4. To parse an adjective, we name (1) its class, (2) its degree of comparison, and (3) the noun or pronoun that it modifies.

5. To parse an adverb, we name (1) its class, (2) its degree of comparison, and (3) the adjective, verb, or adverb that it modifies.

6. To parse a preposition, we name the words between which it shows a relation.

7. To parse a conjunction, we name (1) its class, and (2) the words, phrases, or clauses that it joins.

8. Interjections are merely named. They do not modify.

The words in three of the sentences already analyzed will serve as models for parsing :

1. Every brave man heartily detests a coward. Every is a demonstrative adjective, incapable of comparison, modifies man.

Brave is a descriptive adjective, in the positive degree, modifies man.

Man is a common noun, masculine gender, singular number, nominative case, subject of detests.

Heartily is an adverb of degree, in the positive degree, modifies detests.

Detests is a weak transitive verb; its principal parts are detest, detested, detested; it is in the singular number (to agree with its subject man), present tense, indicative mood, active voice.

A is a demonstrative adjective, incapable of comparison, modifies coward.

Coward is a common noun, masculine or feminine gender, singular number, objective case, direct object of detests.

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2. He smote the rock of the national resources, and abundant streams of revenue gushed forth.

He is a personal pronoun, singular number, nominative case, subject of smote.

Smote is a strong transitive verb; its principal parts are smite, smote, smitten; it is in the singular number (to agree with its subject He), past tense, indicative mood, active voice.

The is a demonstrative adjective, incapable of comparison, modifies rock.

Rock is a common noun, neuter gender, singular number, objective case, direct object of smote.

Of is a preposition showing the relation between rock and

resources.

The is a demonstrative adjective, incapable of comparison, modifies resources.

National is a descriptive adjective, in the positive degree, modifies resources.

Resources is a common noun, neuter gender, plural number, objective case, object of of.

And is a coördinate conjunction joining the two clauses.

Abundant is a quantitative adjective, in the positive degree, modifies streams.

Streams is a common noun, neuter gender, plural number, nominative case, subject of gushed.

Of is a preposition showing the relation between streams and revenue.

Revenue is a common noun, neuter gender, singular number, objective case, object of of.

Gushed is a weak intransitive verb; its principal parts are gush, gushed, gushed; it is in the plural number (to agree with its subject streams), past tense, indicative mood, active voice. Forth is an adverb of manner, incapable of comparison, modifies gushed.

3. When summer returns, the flowers will bloom again. When is a subordinate conjunction joining the two clauses.

Summer is a common noun, neuter gender, singular number, nominative case, subject of returns.

Returns is a weak intransitive verb; its principal parts are return, returned, returned; it is in the singular number (to agree with its subject summer), present tense, indicative mood, active voice.

The is a demonstrative adjective, incapable of comparison, modifies flowers.

Flowers is a common noun, neuter gender, plural number, nominative case, subject of will bloom.

Will bloom is a phrasal form of the verb to bloom; to bloom is a weak intransitive verb; its principal parts are bloom, bloomed, bloomed; it is in the plural number (to agree with its subject flowers), future tense, indicative mood, active voice.

Again is an adverb of time, incapable of comparison, modifies will bloom.

NOTE TO TEACHER. Material for parsing may be found everywhere; but the teacher should remember that composition is better than parsing, and that parsing is not an end in itself but only a means to an end.

CHAPTER LXXXI

LETTERS

Life and Letters.

Did you ever notice how frequently the words “life and letters" go together? We have The Life and Letters of Benjamin Franklin, The Life and Letters of George Washington, The Life and Letters of Thomas Jefferson, The Life and Letters of Longfellow, The Life and Letters of Edgar Allan Poe, The Life and Letters of well, nearly everybody whose life we really know. If a man leaves no letters when he dies, it will be almost impossible for his biographer to make him really live again. Why? Because letters reveal a writer as he really is. We learn from newspapers and books what a man's reputation is; we learn from letters what a man's character is.

Three Letters Compared.
Compare these three letters:

I

Abraham Lincoln to Mrs. Bixby (1864)

Dear Madam,

I have been shown in the files of the War Department a statement of the Adjutant General of Massachusetts that you are the mother of five sons who have died gloriously on the field of battle. I feel how weak and fruitless must be any words of mine which should attempt to beguile you from the grief of a loss so overwhelming. But I cannot refrain from tendering to you the consolation that may be found in the thanks of the Republic they died to save. I pray that our Heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement and leave you only the cherished memory of the loved and lost, and the solemn pride that must be yours to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of freedom.

Lincoln was not asked to write this letter. He could not help writing it. Is it not a sort of unconscious photograph of the writer's heart?

II

The Kaiser to Frau Meyer (1918)

His Majesty the Kaiser hears that you have sacrificed nine sons in defense of the Fatherland in the present war. His Majesty is immensely gratified at the fact, and in recognition is pleased to send you his photograph, with frame and autograph signature.

These two letters do more than reveal the characters of the writers. They reveal the differences between American democracy and Prussian autocracy.

III
Stonewall Jackson to Dr. White (1861)

My dear Pastor,

In my tent last night, after a fatiguing day's service, I remembered that I had failed to send you my contribution to our colored Sunday school. Inclosed you will find my check for that object.

Yours faithfully,

Thomas J. Jackson.

The “ fatiguing day's service" was the first battle of Manassas, the battle that gave Jackson the title of Stonewall

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