Caution. — Take care not to misplace the parts of either

or, neither . . . nor, not only . . . but also. They should immediately precede the words, phrases, or clauses that they join, as :

1. I shall visit either New York or Chicago. 2. I spoke neither to him nor to his father.

3. He declared not only that he was rich, but that he was the richest man in the community.


Nature of the Interjection.

The interjection is merely an exclamatory word or phrase used to denote strong feeling or to arrest attention. Many interjections are purely imitative. Thus ah represents the sound of sighing, ha, ha the sound of laughing, and sh (from which hush is derived) the sound made to impose silence.

Such expressions as “Good gracious!” “My stars!” “What a shame!” All right !” are best classed as phrasal interjections

The interjection does not modify any particular word or phrase in the sentence. It flavors the whole sentence. It gives the speaker's point of view. Compare,

1. Hurrah! here he is.
2. Alas! here he is.

“Oh” and “ O.”

The distinctions made by grammarians between oh and O are not borne out by the best usage. “There is no difference between 0 and oh except that of present spelling, oh being common in ordinary prose, and the capital O being rather preferred (probably for its round and more impressive look) in verse, and in the solemn style, as in earnest address or appeal.” Century Dictionary.

Caution. — Be sparing in your use of interjections. The presence of many ah's, oh's, alas's, and alackaday's is an admission that your sentences have not force or meaning enough to stand alone. Such words are like the hired mourners spoken of in the Bible. Which of the following sentences shows the better taste?

1. Alas! alas! Henry W. Grady died at the time when his services were most needed.

2. Henry W. Grady died at the time when his services were most needed.



1. Name ten words that may be used either as prepositions or as adverbs.

2. When are than and but prepositions?
3. Why is it incorrect to say “She is taller than me”?


1. Distinguish the two kinds of conjunctions. 2. Show how and may connect words, phrases, and clauses. 3. Show how that may be used as three parts of speech.

4. Illustrate the caution in the use of coördinate conjunctions,

III What seems to you the exact force of the interjection in these sentences ? Does it express joy, amusement, surprise, indignation, ridicule, contempt, pain, regret, terror, or compassion? Or is it used as a means of appeal, or to enforce quiet, or to attract the attention of some one whom the speaker wishes to address ?

O God! it is a fearful thing
To see the human soul take wing
In any shape, in any mood.

BYRON: Prisoner of Chillon.

Hark! from the tomb a doleful sound.

Watts: Hymn.
O, weep for the hour

When to Eveleen's bower
The lord of the valley with false vows came.

- THOMAS MOORE: Eveleen's Bower.

Ah, why
Should life all labor be?


The Lotos-Eaters.

Alack, when once our grace we have forgot,
Nothing goes right.

- SHAKESPEARE: Measure for Measure, III. 4. Alackaday, Cousin Biddy, these idle romances have quite turned your head.

- RICHARD STEELE: The Tender Husband.

At such an assertion he would have exclaimed a fiddlestick ! Why and how that word has become an interjection of contempt I must leave those to explain who can.




We have now concluded our study of the sentence and of the parts of speech, this lesson being merely a review and summary. We have learned that a sentence may be declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory. We have also learned that a sentence may be simple, compound, or complex. We saw, moreover, that every sentence must have a subject and predicate, and that some predicates demand objects. We found, also, that almost every sentence contains one or more modifiers, and that these modifiers may be words, phrases, or clauses, each clause having a subject and predicate of its own. When we divide a sentence into its parts, we are said to analyze it.

We analyze sentences and parse words. When we parse a word, we describe it by telling what part of speech it is and what its relations are to other words in the sentence.

The separation of a sentence into its various parts is called analysis.

The description of a word and of its relations to other words in the sentence is called parsing.

Analysis of Simple Sentences.
To analyze a simple sentence, it is necessary :
I. To tell the kind of sentence.
2. To give the complete subject and the complete predicate.

3. To give the grammatical subject and the grammatical predicate.


4. To give the direct object, if there is one.

5. To name the modifiers and to tell what kind of modifier each is.

The following sentences will serve as models for the analysis of the simple sentence:

1. Every brave man heartily detests a coward. (1) This is a simple declarative sentence. (2) Every brave man is the complete subject, and heartily detests a coward is the complete predicate. (3) The grammatical subject is man, and the grammatical predicate is detests. (4) The direct object is coward. (5) Man is modified by the adjectives Every and brave, detests is modified by the adverb heartily, and coward is modified by the adjective a.


read the account of the accident? (1) This is a simple interrogative sentence. (2) You is the complete and the grammatical subject, Have read the account of the accident is the complete predicate. (3) The grammatical predicate is the verb phrase Have read. (4) The direct object is account. (5) Account is modified by the adjective the and the adjective phrase of the accident, and accident is modified by the adjective the.

3. Study all your lessons with care. (1) This is a simple imperative sentence. (2) You understood is the complete and the grammatical subject, and the whole sentence as it stands is the complete predicate. (3) The grammatical predicate is Study. (4) The direct object is lessons. (5) Study is modified by the adverbial phrase with care, and lessons is modified by the adjective all and the possessive modifier your.

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