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3. A daughter of the gods, divinely tall,
- TENNYSON: Dream of Fair Women.
4. Time has touched me gently in his race,
face. GEORGE CRABBE: Tales of the Hall.
5. We mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.
- JEFFERSON: Declaration of Independence.
6. Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery?
– PATRICK HENRY: Speech in the Virginia Convention, March, 1775.
7. Silently as a dream the fabric rose,
- WILLIAM COWPER: The Task.
8. A fool must now and then be right by chance.
WILLIAM COWPER: Conversation.
9. You must wake and call me early, call me early, mother dear.
- TENNYSON: The May Queen.
10. If I should die, think only this of me:
That there's some corner of a foreign field
- RUPERT BROOKE: The Soldier.
II. Often I think of you, Jimmy Doane,
You who, light-heartedly, came to my house
- ROWLAND THIRLMERE: Jimmy Doane.
Do the same for the adverbs in this selection :
When Turner's picture of Cologne was exhibited in the year 1826, it was hung between two portraits, by Sir Thomas Lawrence, of Lady Wallscourt and Lady Robert Manners. The sky of Turner's picture was exceedingly bright, and it had a most injurious effect on the color of the two portraits. Lawrence naturally felt mortified, and complained openly of the position of his pictures. You are aware that artists were at that time permitted to retouch their pictures on the walls of the Academy. On the morning of the opening of the exhibition, at the private view, a friend of Turner's who had seen the Cologne in all its splendor, led a group of expectant critics up to the picture. He started back from it in consternation. The golden sky had changed to a dun color. He ran up to Turner, who was in another part of the room. “Turner, what have you been doing to your picture?” “Oh,”. muttered Turner, in a low voice, “poor Lawrence was so unhappy! It's only lamp black. It'll all wash off after the exhibition !” He had actually passed a wash of lamp black in water color over the whole sky, and utterly spoiled his picture for the time, and so left it through the exhibition, lest it should hurt Lawrence's.
RUSKIN: Lectures on Architecture.
PREPOSITIONS, CONJUNCTIONS, AND INTERJECTIONS
Prepositions and Adverbs.
The prepositions most frequently used are about, above, after, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, by, concerning, during, except, for, from, in, into, of, off, on, through, under, until, upon, with, without. It will be seen that many of these may be used also as adverbs :
1. He's not strong enough to walk about much.
Prepositions and Pronouns.
The most important thing to remember about prepositions is that they require every pronoun following them to be in the objective case. Many persons who would not say, “He was with I” will yet say, “He was with John and I,” but both sentences are incorrect: I should be me. However far the pronoun may stand from the preposition, the pronoun must still be in the objective case
The Position of Prepositions. Grammarians used to say that a preposition is a bad word to end a sentence with ”; but while prepositions usually precede their objects they frequently come last in the clause or sentence. It is proper to say:1
1. The man that I was talking to is my
brother. 2. This is the gun that I shot with. 3. The affair was very much talked about. 4. Where is the book you were reading from? 5. This is the poem I was speaking of. 6. The house I was born in is no longer standing.
1 In these sentences the so-called prepositions may be considered as adverbs joined to the verb and forming compound or phrasal predicates. In “ The man whom I was talking to," to may be called an adverb or a preposition; but in “The man that I was talking to,” lo can hardly be a preposition since to that is not English.
Than” and “ But ” as Prepositions. The best writers of to-day use than as a preposition only in than whom, and but as a preposition only when it means except:
1. For a while Clive thought himself in love with his cousin, than whom no more beautiful girl could be seen.
2. He found himself in the camp of Richard the Lion-Hearted, than whom none knew better how to do honor to a noble foe.
3. There's nobody here but me.
Kinds of Conjunctions.
1. Robert and Josephine were called, but they did not come. 2. They would have been rewarded, if they had come.
In the first sentence, and connects two equal or coördinate words; but connects two equal or coördinate clauses. And and but are coördinate conjunctions.
In the second sentence, if introduces a dependent clause and joins it to an independent clause. If is a subordinate conjunction.
A coördinate conjunction is one that joins words, phrases, or clauses of equal rank.
A subordinate conjunction is one that joins a dependent clause to an independent clause.
It was found in Chapters XLVII and LIV that the conjunctions most used in compound subjects, compound predicates, and compound sentences were and, both ... and, but, or, either or, nor, neither
To these may be added as well as and not only ... but also. These are all coördinate conjunctions, and may, therefore, connect (a) words, (6) phrases, or (c) clauses:
(a) 1. He was both expelled and degraded.
4. He was a man not only of fine scholarship but of equally fine character.
(c) 5. Either I have been here before, or my memory is playing me false.
6. Not only did he protest his innocence, but his parents had numerous interviews with the judge.
Remember that “ John as well as James,” “ Either John or James,” and “ Neither John nor James ” all require singular predicates. See cautions (a) and (b) in Chapter LXXI.
With the exception of relative pronouns (Chapter LVI), all words that join dependent clauses to independent clauses are subordinate conjunctions. For the ten most important classes of subordinate conjunctions, see Chapter LV. Noun clauses are usually introduced by the subordinate conjunctions that, how, why, when, where, and whether (see Chapter LVI).