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PRESENT TENSE

creep cut feed feel flee have hear hit hurt keep kneel lay 1 lead leave lend let lose 2 make meet pay put quit read rend rid

1

say seek sell send

1 This verb is always transitive and means to place or to set something in a certain position.

PAST TENSE

crept cut fed felt fled had heard hit hurt kept knelt laid led left lent let lost made met paid

PAST PARTICIPLE

crept
cut
fed
felt
fled
had
heard
hit
hurt
kept
knelt
laid
led
left
lent
let
lost
made
met
paid
put
quit
read
rent
rid
said
sought
sold
sent

put
quit

read rent rid said sought sold sent

2 Do not confuse lose with loose.

PRESENT TENSE

PAST TENSE

PAST PARTICIPLE

set 1

shed shoe shoot shut 2 sleep slit spend spit split spread sweep teach tell think thrust weep wet

set
shed
shod
shot
shut
slept
slit
spent
spit
split
spread
swept
taught
told
thought
thrust
wept
wet

set
shed
shod
shot
shut
slept
slit
spent
spit
split
spread
swept
taught
told
thought
thrust
wept
wet

Strong Verbs.

The strong verbs number about eighty. Like the preceding weak verbs, they are nearly all words of one syllable and include the verbs most frequently used in everyday speech :

1 This verb must not be confounded with sit, which is always intransitive, except in the phrase “to sit a horse.” It is, of course, proper to say “The sun sets” and to speak of the “setting sun.” As to a “setting hen,” good usage has long ago justified the expression. The grammarians may just as well proclaim a truce; those who raise hens are not going to talk about “sitting hens.”

2 The student should beware of the expression “to get shut of,” which appears more often as “shet of” or “shed of.” It is commonly derived from the verb "shut,” but was doubtless influenced by the verb “shed.” At any rate, it is a vulgarism for which “to get rid of” may always be substituted.

a

PRESENT TENSE

PAST TENSE

PAST PARTICIPLE

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bear beat begin bid bind bite blow break chide choose cling

come

dig
do
draw
drink
drive
eat
fall
fight
find
fling
fly
forget
forsake
freeze
get
give
go

bore
beat
began
bade, bid
bound
bit
blew
broke
chid
chose
clung
came
dug
did
drew
drank
drove
ate
fell
fought
found
flung
flew
forgot
forsook
froze
got
gave
went

abode been borne beaten, beat begun bidden, bid bound bitten, bit blown broken chidden, chid chosen clung come dug done drawn drunk driven eaten fallen fought found flung flown forgotten, forgot forsaken frozen got given gone

PRESENT TENSE

PAST TENSE

PAST PARTICIPLE

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grind grow hang hide hold know lie (as in lie down) ride ring rise run see shine shrink sing sink sit slay slide slink smite speak spin spring stand steal stick sting stink strike string

ground grew hung, hanged hid held knew lay rode rang rose ran saw shone shrank sang sank sat slew slid slunk smote spoke spun sprang stood stole stuck stung stunk struck strung

ground grown hung, hanged hidden, hid held known lain ridden rung risen run seen shone shrunk sung sunk sat slain slidden, slid slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk struck strung

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Cautions. — Unless the past participle has just been used, do not omit it after have. These sentences are correct:

I've seen that man; I'm sure that I have.
Have you heard him? I think you have.
Has he swum two miles? He says he has.
I had already told him; I know I had.

He has failed utterly; they, at least, say he has. Here the past participles need not be repeated because, having just been used, they may be understood; but in the following sentences the past participles written above the line must be inserted, or the sentences will be ungrammatical :

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