The composition consisting of the words and music known as The Star-Spangled Banner is designated the National Anthem of the United States of America.

Whenever the National Anthem is played on board a vessel of the Navy, at a naval station, or at any place where persons belonging to the naval service are present, all officers and enlisted men not in formation shall stand at attention facing toward the music (except at colors when they shall face toward the colors). If in uniform, covered or uncovered, or in civilian clothes, uncovered, they shall salute at the first note of the anthem, retaining the position of salute until the last note of the anthem. If not in uniform and covered, they shall uncover at the first note of the anthem, holding the headdress opposite the left shoulder

so remain until the last note of the anthem, except that in inclement weather the headdress may be slightly raised.

The playing of the National Anthem of the United States or of any other country as a part of a medley is prohibited.


But the poem cannot be understood unless one knows just how it was written. Francis Scott Key was on an American ship in September, 1814, while the British were bombarding Fort McHenry, which protected Baltimore.

This was during the War of 1812. Mr. Key was not allowed by the British to land, but remained on deck during the night, watching the course of every British shell that was fired. While the bombardment continued," wrote his brother-in-law, afterward Chief Justice R. B. Taney, “it was proof that the fort had not surrendered. But it suddenly ceased some time before day; and as they had no communication with any of the enemy's ships, they did not know whether the fort had surrendered, or the attack upon it had been abandoned. They paced the deck for the residue of the night in painful suspense, watching with intense anxiety for the return of day, and looking every few minutes at their watches, to see how long they must wait for it; as soon as it dawned, and before it was light enough to see objects at a distance, their glasses were turned to the fort, uncertain whether they should see there the stars and stripes or the flag of the enemy. .

At length the light came, and they saw that 'our f.ag was still there.

He then told me that, under the excitement of the time, he had written a song, and handed me a printed copy of The Star-Spangled Banner.

As you read it, put yourself in the place of the author. It's early in the morning and you are looking through the fog and smoke to see if our flag is still there. If so, it's a prophecy that it will never dip its folds in defeat.

O say, can you see, by the dawn's early light,

What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight,

O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming !
And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;

O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

On the shore dimly seen through the mists of the deep,

Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes, What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,

As it fitfully blows, now conceals, now discloses? Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam, In full glory reflected now shines on the stream:

'Tis the star-spangled banner; O long may it wave O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore

That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion
A home and a country should leave us no more?

Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave;

And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

O thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand

Between their loved homes and the war's desolation !
Blest with victory and peace, may the heaven-rescued land

Praise the power that hath made and preserved us a nation.
Then conquer we must, for our cause it is just,
And this be our motto — “In God is our trust.”

And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

– FRANCIS Scott KEY: The Star-Spangled Banner.


1. Tell how and when our National Anthem was written. 2. What honors are paid it in our naval service? 3. How do you honor it in school?

4. Did you ever notice how frequently poets sum up in the last stanza the main lesson or appeal of their poems ? Illustrate by this poem.

5. How do the rimes come in each stanza? Compare with the rime order in America. See page 143.

6. With books closed, write the stanzas of The StarSpangled Banner.



Kinds of Adjectives.

Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. Qualitative or descriptive adjectives express an attribute or quality:

good, sour, hard, long, righteous, hot, clear, loud.

Quantitative adjectives express amount or number:

little, few, many, all, much, ten.

Demonstrative adjectives merely point out or distinguish:

this, that, every, the former, the other.

Adjectives as Nouns, and Nouns as Adjectives.

(a) When an adjective is preceded by the, the noun is frequently omitted. The adjective is then said to be used

as a noun:

1. To the pure all things are pure. 2. The bravest are the tenderest,

The loving are the daring. 3. All the impulses of her nature were toward the true, the beautiful, and the good.

(b) Many nouns may be used as descriptive adjectives:
1. This man is the head waiter.
2. The tariff is not merely a party question.

3. The name of Palmer is a household word in many Southern homes.

4. During my childhood days school exhibitions were great occasions.

Adjectives and Adverbs.

Some verbs may be followed either by adjectives or by adverbs. Shall we say “ The sun shines bright” or “ The sun shines brightly”? Either is correct, but there is a slight difference of meaning between the two. When we use “bright,” we are thinking more of the sun ; when we use “ brightly,” we are thinking more of the verb “ shines.” Compare these sentences, and tell what each means :

1. He turned pale as I passed him.
2. He turned quickly as I passed him.
3. She looked sweet in her pink gingham.
4. She looked sweetly into her mother's face.
5. The physician felt the man's pulse carefully.
6. The pulse felt cold.
7. The verdict appeared just.
8. The ship suddenly appeared.

Phrases and Clauses as Adjectives.

(a) Every phrase modifying a noun or pronoun is really an adjective. The most common form of the adjective phrase is the prepositional phrase, or phrase introduced by a preposition :

It was a task that required the patience of a Job and the courage of a Paul.

Or, we may say “ a Job-like patience and a Pauline courage.”

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