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IV

Use we or us in each of the following blanks; give a reason for your choice:

1. It was not — who were doing the whispering.
2. He asked where had been.
3. Will you go with —?
4. He called —, but refused to come.

5. The poor fellow died, — having done all — could do to save him.

Use he or him in each of the following blanks; give a reason for your choice:

1. Who was with you and —?
2. Nobody saw it but
3. Wasn't — tardy that morning?
4.

being out of the way, I could do better.
5. It is — who caused the delay.
6. She and tried to lift it.
7. She is not so studious as
8. Did the rich man adopt her as well as -?

VI Use she or her in each of the following blanks; give a reason for your choice:

1. He and are brother and sister.
2. I like him better than
3. Susan is just as smart as —
4. Was it

that told you?
5. – helping me, the lesson was quickly learned.
6. I told both of them, - and her sister, to go home,

VII

Use they or them in each of the following blanks; give a reason for your choice: 1. Here

are. 2. I don't believe it was who did it. 3. I met Robert and — together. 4. You can't do better than —. 5. Were you with Henry and — when the accident happened? 6. We are not better than —.

CHAPTER LXVII

OTHER KINDS OF PRONOUNS

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

The Uses of Relative Pronouns.

The relative pronouns are who, which, what, and that. The antecedent of what is never expressed. We may say

I liked what I saw," but not“ I liked the men what I saw. The other relative pronouns introduce adjective clauses and point back to preceding nouns or pronouns called antecedents.

Differences in Use.

(1) The relative who is used of persons :

Here is the man who told me.
People who are rude may expect to be treated rudely.

(2) The relative which is used of animals or things:

Dogs which bark at night should be gagged.

These boats, which are very leaky, are not the ones which I ordered.

(3) The relative that is used of persons, animals, or things :

The soldier that (or who) was hurt has recovered from the wounds that (or which he received.

There is the horse that threw me.

(4) Every relative pronoun except that may be preceded by a preposition :

Ronald is the boy of whom I was speaking.
Ronald is the boy that I was speaking of.

Declension

Who is the only relative pronoun that varies its form. It is declined thus :

Nom.
Poss.
Obj.

SING. who whose whom

PL. who whose whom

Relative Pronouns as Subjects.

Before we can use who correctly, we must be able to distinguish the subject and the object in relative clauses. In the following clauses, each relative pronoun is the subject of its verb, and therefore in the nominative case:

1. The pupils who study hard will be promoted.

2. That large picture, which was painted by Raphael, is called the Sistine Madonna.

3. I like the binding that is on this book.
4. The man who I thought was sick is well again.

Notice that who in the last sentence is not the object of thought, but the subject of was. This will become clearer if we put "I thought " in brackets, or place as before it, or remove it further from who :

The man who (I thought] was sick, etc.
The man who, as I thought, was sick, etc.)
The man who was sick, I thought, etc.

Relative Pronouns as Objects.

(1) Relative pronouns, like other pronouns, may be the objects of verbs; but they differ from all other objects in that they never follow the verbs that govern them. They precede not only the verbs, but the subjects of the verbs as well:

Look at this pencil which I hold in my hand. .
Where is the fish that I caught?
George Washington, whom we all love, is buried at Mt. Vernon.

(2) They may also be the objects of prepositions:

I found the book of which I spoke to you.
It is on the chair under which the cat is sleeping.
Fanny is the girl to whom I was talking.
Fanny is the girl that I was talking to.

In the last sentence it is best to consider that as the object of talking to instead of to.

Caution. - Do not use a relative pronoun without a definite antecedent. Such a sentence as “He complimented me, which I returned,” is incorrect, because which has no clearly defined antecedent; the sentence should read “ He paid me a compliment, which I returned.”

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

The Uses of Interrogative Pronouns.

The interrogative pronouns are who, what, and which. They differ from the relative pronouns in having no antecedent. They differ also in that they ask questions, and relative pronouns do not.

Differences in Use.

(1) The interrogative who is used only of persons:

Who was with you?
Whose umbrella is that?
Whom did

you

see?

(2) The interrogative what is used only of things:

What is it?
What did you say?

(3) The interrogative which, unlike its relative of the same name, is used of persons and things:

Which is the older brother?
Which is the right road?
Which is the more interesting of these two books?

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