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III 1. What collective nouns stand for groups of the following objects ?

Congressmen worshipers foot soldiers

cattle
pupils
birds

mounted soldiers
jurymen
football players

2. Construct two sentences showing the difference in use between (1) is and it, and (2) are and they, as used with collective nouns.

IV

Write (1) five abstract nouns that are formed from adjectives, (2) five that are formed from nouns, (3) five that are formed from verbs.

CHAPTER LX

GENDER OF NOUNS

Sex and Gender.

There are two sexes, male and female; and two corresponding genders, masculine and feminine. Things or objects without sex are of the neuter gender; that is, they are neither masculine nor feminine, as: book, tree, storm, grass. They are referred to by “it.” Most nouns denoting animals or persons may be either masculine or feminine, as: parent (father or mother), child (boy or girl), cousin (male or female), fox (male or female). These nouns are referred to by "he" or “she," and sometimes by "it."

Gender is a grammatical distinction corresponding in English to the sex of the object named.

Male beings are of the masculine gender.
Female beings are of the feminine gender.
Things without sex are of the neuter gender.

Personification.

There are two exceptions to the strict correspondence of gender with sex :

1. When an object without sex has male qualities, the noun may be considered masculine and referred to by “he, as: sun, death, war. When the object has female qualities, the noun may be considered feminine and referred to bt she," as: the moon, justice, mercy.

2. The lower animals, and infants, are commonly regarded as neuter and referred to by“ it.”

Three Ways of Denoting Gender.

There are three ways in which gender is indicated in English:

(1) By the use of a different word, as:

boy, girl.

(2) By a prefix, as:

manservant, maidservant.

(3) By a suffix, as:

giant, giantess.

(1) By the Use of a Different Word. – The most important nouns belonging under this head are:

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MASCULINE
bachelor
boar
boy
brother
buck
bull
OX
bullock
steer
cock
rooster
drake
father
gander
monk

COW

}
} heifer
} hen

wife
queen
woman
niece

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duck
mother
goose

ram son uncle wizard

daughter aunt witch

nun

(2) By a Prefix. — The words belonging to this class are compounds. The two parts are usually separated by a hyphen :

MASCULINE buck-rabbit he-goat manservant billy goat

FEMININE
doe-rabbit
she-goat
maidservant
nanny goat

(3) By a Suffix. — Notice that in many of these words the suffix is added to the masculine form in a more or less irregular way:

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Of feminine endings, ess is the only living suffix in English, and it is less used than formerly. The words author, doctor, poet, and even actor may be used of both sexes.

EXERCISES

I

Tell the gender of these words and refer to each by the appropriate pronoun:

heiress
emperor
pupil

maid
fish
servant

table
person
president

II

Name and illustrate the three ways of indicating gender.

III

Write six nouns of the masculine gender, six of the feminine gender, and six of the neuter gender.

IV

Explain the use of the suffix ess.

CHAPTER LXI

NUMBER OF NOUNS

The Two kinds of Number.

Compare carefully the following sentences:

1. This boy knows his lesson.
2. These boys know their lessons.
3. That dog killed a sheep.
4. Those dogs killed ten sheep.

The repeated words in these sentences differ only in number. The words in sentences I and 3 are in the singular number; those in 2 and 4 are in the plural number. The form of the words was changed to indicate a change in number. This change is called inflection. Notice that " killed ” and “sheep in sentence 4, though plural in use, do not indicate their number by any change of form or inflection.

Number is that use of a word by which, with or without change of form, it stands for one or more than one.

A word denoting one is singular, or in the singular number.

A word denoting more than one is plural, or in the plural number.

Plural Suffixes.

Nouns form their plurals by the addition of s or es to the singular. Exceptions are found in a few native English

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