4. General Foch, in whom all the allied nations had confidence, was made commander-in-chief.

5. Sympathy is the soil in which the fruits of friendship grow.

A relative pronoun is a pronoun that joins an adjective clause to a preceding noun or pronoun.

The antecedent is the noun or pronoun to which the relative pronoun joins an adjective clause.



Show by examples how the conjunction that may introduce the four kinds of noun clauses.


Fill the following blanks with relative pronouns and name their antecedents:


The trees stand in our campus are chiefly oaks. 2. A student, name was Richardson, won first honor. 3. Here is a man I delight to honor. 4. I have read the books

you recommend. 5. The desk at we write is made of oak. 6. I failed to find the merchant to

you gave me a letter of introduction.

7. Is it I - am accused ?
8. She - you love is worthy.


Tell whether the dependent clauses in the following complex sentences are adverbs, nouns, or adjectives, and why:

1. I remember, I remember

How my childhood fleeted by, -
The mirth of its December
And the warmth of its July.

W. M. PRAED: I Remember.

2. Blessings be with them, and eternal praise,

Who gave us nobler loves, and nobler cares !
The poets, who on earth have made us heirs
Of truth and pure delight by heavenly lays.

WORDSWORTH: Personal Talk.

3. As she fled fast through sun and shade The happy winds upon her play'd.

– TENNYSON: Sir Launcelot and Queen Guinevere.

4. To me the meanest flower that blows can give Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears.

WORDSWORTH: Intimations of Immortality.

5. Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet, Lest we forget — lest we forget.

- KIPLING: The Recessional.

6. He had a head which statuaries loved to copy, and a foot the deformity of which the beggars in the streets mimicked.

- MACAULAY: Essay on Lord Byron.

7. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union, to see what might lie hidden in the dark recess behind.

- DANIEL WEBSTER : Reply to Hayne.

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8. He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he that ruleth his spirit, than he that taketh a city.

- Proverbs 16:32.

9. What seem to us, but sad, funereal tapers May be heaven's distant lamps.

- LONGFELLOW : Resignation.

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10. The only thing that ever set any man free, the only thing that ever set any nation free, is the truth. A man that is afraid of the truth is afraid of the law of life. A man who does not love the truth is in the way of decay and of failure.

- WOODROW WILSON, June 29, 1916.



1. What is a paragraph? a sentence? a simple sentence? a clause? a compound sentence? a complex sentence? a phrase?

2. What are the two main uses of the period ? the semicolon? the exclamation point? an adjective? a preposition ?

3. When is a stanza a paragraph in disguise?

4. What quotation or quotations did you learn from Bayard Taylor's America ? from Doctor van Dyke's America for Me? from Katharine Lee Bates's America the Beautiful? from Samuel Francis Smith's America?

5. How do you find the subject in an interrogative sentence beginning with How, Do, Is, etc.?

6. What is the difference between a simple subject and a compound subject? a simple predicate and a compound predicate? the active voice and the passive voice? a transitive verb and an intransitive verb? an adjective phrase and an adverbial phrase? an adjective clause and an adverbial clause?



1. Give three paragraph topics for a composition on “How My State Helped Win the Great War."

2. Talk on one of these topics. 3. Write an example of each of the seven kinds of sentences.

4. Write three simple sentences, one with a compound subject, one with a compound predicate, and one with a compound subject and compound predicate.

5. Write a complex sentence containing the three kinds of phrases.

6. Tell how the rimes come in each stanza of America for Me and America the Beautiful. Use letters for the riming words. For example, in

Mary had a little lamb,

Its fleece was white as snow;
And everywhere that Mary went

The lamb was sure to go,

the rimes would be a, b, c, b. In

Tell me not, in mournful numbers,

Life is but an empty dream !
For the soul is dead that slumbers,

And things are not what they seem,

the rimes would be a, b, a, b.

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