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Adjective Phrases.

1. He is a man of experience. 2. "The flowers in the garden are dying. 3. Shrewd but honest, he won the respect of all his associates. 4. The vase on the table was broken.

Adverbial Phrases.

1. In a moment the gale had turned into a hurricane.
2. He spoke with great moderation.
3. That event occurred many years ago.

4. Without a moment's delay the officer hurried to the scene, but in vain.

In many cases (a) an adjective phrase may be replaced by an adjective, and (b) an adverbial phrase by an adverb,

as:

(a) a man of courage a courageous man

out of breath — breathless
a task of great difficulty — a difficult task
with eyes of fire

- with fiery eyes

(6) on purpose — purposely

without any feeling - unfeelingly
in a rough manner roughly
every hour — hourly

A group of related words not containing a subject and predicate but used as a part of speech is called a phrase.

EXERCISES

I

Convert these phrases into single words and tell what part of speech each word is :

without mercy without refinement of wood

not to be moved
in jest
not long ago

in this manner
in a cruel manner

a

every day

II

Read this extract first for its cleverness; then tell what part of speech each italicized phrase is :

The Letter S

Did you ever think what a strange letter S is? It is a serpent in disguise.

Listen — you can hear it hiss. It gives possession and multiplies indefinitely by its touch. It changes a tree into trees and a house into houses. Sometimes it is very spiteful and will turn a pet into a pest, a pear into a spear, a word into a sword and laughter into slaughter, and it will make hot shot at any time. The farmer has to watch it closely. It will make scorn of his corn and reduce every peck to a speck. Sometimes he finds it useful. If he needs more room for his stock, it will change a table into a stable for him, and if he is short of hay, he can set out a row of tacks. It will turn them into stacks. He must be careful, however, not to let his nails lie around loose. The serpent's breath will turn them into snails. If he wishes to use an engine about his farm work, he need not buy any coal or have water to run it. Let the serpent glide before his horses. The team will turn to steam. If you ever get hurt, call the serpent to your aid. Instantly your pain will be in Spain. Be sure to take it with you the next time you climb a mountain if you desire to witness a marvel. It will make the peak speak. But don't let it come around while you are reading now. It will make this tale stale.

CHAPTER LIV

SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES

Compare these sentences :

1. The thunder roared. The lightning flashed. 2. The thunder roared and the lightning flashed. 3. The water looked muddy. It tasted brackish. 4. The water looked muddy and it tasted brackish. 5. Man proposes. God disposes. 6. Man proposes, but God disposes. 7. I killed two birds. I brought back only one. 8. I killed two birds, but I brought back only one. 9. I must remain. You must take my place. 10. I must remain or you must take my place. II. This is the tree. I am much mistaken. 12. This is the tree or I am much mistaken.

The sentences numbered 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 are simple sentences because they contain only one subject and one predicate. Sentences 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 are compound sentences. They contain two parts or clauses connected by and, but, or. Each clause has its own subject and predicate and makes a complete statement by itself. Each clause is really a simple sentence; but, when two or more simple sentences are joined by conjunctions to form one compound sentence, they cease to be called simple sentences and are called independent clauses.

A simple sentence contains one subject and one predicate.

A group of related words containing a subject and predicate but forming only a part of a sentence is called a clause.

An independent clause is one that makes a complete statement.

A compound sentence is one composed of two or more independent clauses joined by one or more conjunctions.

EXERCISES

I

1. What is the chief difference between a clause and a phrase?

2. Write six simple sentences.

3. Join these six simple sentences into three compound sentences, using and in the first, but in the second, and or in the third.

II

Tell which sentences are simple and which compound in these selections. Give reasons :

1. The American Revolution was fought for an idea.

WOODROW WILSON, January 31, 1916.

2. I shall never myself consent to an entangling alliance, but I would gladly assent to a disentangling alliance.

- WOODROW WILSON: Memorial Day Speech, 1916.

:

3. Hell is paved with good intentions.

SAMUEL JOHNSON: Boswell's Life of Johnson.

4. The memory of the just is blessed, but the name of the wicked shall rot.

- Proverbs 10: 7.

5. We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately. - BENJAMIN FRANKLIN: At the Signing of the Declaration

of Independence, July 4, 1776.

6. Sir Ralph the Rover tore his hair,

He cursed himself in his despair :
The waves rush in on every side;
The ship is sinking beneath the tide.

- ROBERT SOUTHEY: The Inchcape Rock.

7. I murmur under moon and stars

In brambly wildernesses;
I linger by my shingly bars;

I loiter round my cresses.

-TENNYSON: The Brook.

8. The Assyrian came down like a wolf on the fold, And his cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold.

- BYRON: The Destruction of Sennacherib.

9. Slowly and sadly we laid him down,

From the field of his fame fresh and gory;
We carved not a line, and we raised not a stone,
But we left him alone with his glory.

CHARLES WOLFE: The Burial of Sir John Moore.

10. There lived we many years;

Time dried the maiden's tears;
She had forgot her fears,

She was a mother;

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