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those who preach; teachers are those who teach; and lawyers are those who practice law. In the same way we classify the words of a sentence into parts of speech: a noun is a word that does a certain thing in the sentence; a verb is a word that does an entirely different thing in the sentence; and so for all the other parts of speech. Though there are more than four hundred thousand words in the English language, they fall into only eight groups or families when classified according to what they do in the sentence. These groups are nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. You have been using all of these eight parts of speech ever since you began to talk and in Part I of this book you have learned also their definitions. These two lessons, then, are only a review with added examples and explanations.

The parts of speech are the divisions into which words fall when grouped according to what they do in the sentence.

A noun is the name of anything, as :

book, multitude, wisdom, Victoria.

A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun, as :

I, who?, who, he, it, we, you, each.

An adjective is a word used to modify (a) a noun and (6) sometimes a pronoun, as:

(a) 1. It is a beautiful day.

2. It was a rare sight.

(b) 1. We all have strongly sworn to give him aid.

SHAKESPEARE: Richard II. 2. I speak not of you all.

- Gospel of John 13: 18. 3. I, sick and pale, clung to the raft.

You will notice that adjectives usually follow the pronouns that they modify. The little words a, an, and the, which do the work of adjectives, are commonly called articles.

A verb is a word or group of words used to express (a) action, (b) being, (c) or state of being, as : (a) 1. Cain slew his brother.

2. He is doing his best. (b) 1. Jefferson still lives.

2. Freedom exists only under law. (c) 1. The patient sleeps most of the time.

2. She is resting quietly.

Such expressions as is doing, is resting, was doing, was resting, may do, may rest, may have done, may have rested, etc., are called verb phrases.

EXERCISES

I

1. What is meant by “ the parts of speech”?
2. Name them.
3. Define those explained in this chapter.

II

1. Mention two nouns that name things that you can taste; two, things that you can touch; two, things that you can hear; two, things that you can see; two, things that you can smell; and four, things that you can neither taste, touch, hear, see, nor smell.

III 1. Name the six pronouns most often used.

2. Which is the only pronoun that begins with a capital letter?

IV

1. Give a sentence in which an adjective modifies they. 2. Name the three articles.

V 1. Illustrate the three things that verbs express.

2. What are some of the little words found in most verb phrases?

CHAPTER XLIV

PARTS OF SPEECH (Continued)

An adverb is a word used to modify (a) an adjective, (b) a verb, or (c) another adverb, as :

(a) 1. She is very pretty.

2. The weather is too hot for comfort. (6) 1. They were walking slowly.

2. I went immediately to the rescue. (c) 1. You read too rapidly.

2. They visit each other very rarely.

A preposition is a word used to show the relation between the (a) noun or (b) pronoun that follows it and some other word in the sentence, as :

(a) 1. He is a man of honor.

2. They were walking toward the trestle. (6) 1. It was handed to him.

2. My brother was with me.

A conjunction is a word used to connect (a) words, or (6) groups of words, as :

(a) 1. Richardson and Fielding were the first English novelists.

2. James or John will accompany you. (6) 1. The people discussed the question, but they did not arrive at a conclusion.

2. I will stay, if you will wait for me.

An interjection is an exclamatory word expressing sudden emotion, as :

hurrah! alas ! oh! ah ! pshaw !

EXERCISES

I

I. Define the parts of speech explained in this chapter.

II

1. Illustrate by three sentences the three uses of an adverb. 2. Show that so can be used in these three ways.

III

1. Name the three most common conjunctions.
2. Illustrate by and the two uses of conjunctions.

IV

The following sentence contains all the parts of speech; find them :

Alas! they had once been loyal friends, but the slanders of an enemy had estranged them.

V Write two other sentences containing all the parts of speech.

CHAPTER XLV

I. AMERICA

For Study and Composition America was so glorious during the scourge of the World War (1914-1918), that we cannot read or think too much about her. From all over the world there came tributes to our form of government, our love of freedom, our willingness to fight for noble causes, and our unselfish coöperation with others. You had a part in it all. You were too young to go to war yourselves, but your heart was in the great cause. You had a father or brother or uncle or cousin or dear friend who went to the front, and you helped to keep the home fires burning while they were away.

In this lesson I want to read with you some of the thoughtful and patriotic things that have been said about America.

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