men. It will make a man honest; it will make him a hero; it will make him a saint. It is the state of the just dealing with the just, the magnanimous with the magnanimous, the sincere with the sincere, man with man. .

– THOREAU: A Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers.

3. The majority of people have not learned this secret; they read for information or for refreshment; they do not read for enrichment.

- MABIE: Books and Culture. (6) 1. Liberty always carries with it a certain license, the overflow of its powerful current; and liberty is the prime characteristic of an age of expansion.

- MABIE: Short Studies in Literature.

2. Cattle, jewels, and plate were sold as long as they lasted to meet the piled-up taxes; but in time there was nothing left to sell, and the plantation began to go.

- PAGE: Red Rock.

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Justify the four periods in the first paragraph of this chapter.

II Write three sentences with the colon following “ thus," “ in these words,

as follows.”

III Write three short sentences like the three " It will ” sentences in the selection from Thoreau. You might tell what athletics or good reading will do for a person. Use the semicolon properly.



The comma belongs distinctively to the sentence. It is used to separate words or groups of words which are closely related, and thus helps one to understand a sentence. It also indicates a slight pause in the reading, as :

1. Lord Chatham thought that ships could be got ready, but Lord Anson thought otherwise.

2. Sidney Lanier, who was born in Macon, Georgia, February 3, 1842, died in Lynn, Polk County, North Carolina, September 7, 1881.

3. Gordon, the hero of the African campaign, was an earnest Christian.

4. Unless public opinion supports the law, it will be of no avail.

5. Mr. President, there is but one thing to be done.
6. Oh, the bells, bells, bells !
7. "I see him," said Rebecca.
8. That is not, however, what I mean.
9. This has been a hot, dry, dusty day.

10. “The newspapers of the country,” said he, “have not reported me correctly."

II. Sheridan, Sherman, and Grant were Federal generals.

In sentences like the last, it was once customary to omit the comma before and,” or," "nor”; but to-day the most careful writers do not omit it. Of course, if the series contains but two members Sheridan and Sherman were Federal generals

no comma is used.

The dash is used chiefly to denote a break in the sense, as :

1. The night was stormy and — but first let me tell where we were.

2. Pessimists declare and not altogether without reason that the art of conversation is among the lost arts.

The interrogation point is used after every question, as :

1. Who said so?
2. “Where was it found?” asked the judge.

When several questions follow one another in a series, it is best to begin only the first with a capital, as :

When did you see him? where? in what company?

The exclamation point is used (a) after every exclamatory sentence, and may be used instead of the comma (b) after oh, ah, alas, etc., as:

(a) How beautiful the sky looks!
(6) Alas! our hopes were doomed to disappointment.

Quotation marks are used (a) at the beginning and at the close of a direct quotation. They are used also (b) to set off the two parts of a divided quotation and may be used (c) instead of italics in writing the names of books, magazines, and newspapers, as :

(a) “I would rather be right than president,” said Clay. (b) I would rather be right,” said Clay, “than president.”

(c) I looked through several copies of the “New York Times” and of “Harper's Monthly” to find a criticism of “The Jungle Books."

The only safe rule for punctuation is to cultivate the habit of observing closely what you read.


Explain the quotation marks, the exclamation points, and the interrogation points in this extract from a famous novel :

“I see him,” said Rebecca. “He leads a body of men close under the outer barrier of the barbican. They pull down the piles and palisades; they hew down the barriers with axes. They have made a breach in the barriers ! they rush in ! they are thrust back! Front de Beuf heads the defenders; I see his gigantic form above the press. They throng again to the breach, and the pass is disputed, hand to hand, and man to man. Front de Bæuf and the Black Knight fight hand to hand in the breach, amid the roar of their followers, who watch the progress of the strife. Heaven strike with the cause of the oppressed and of the captive !” She then uttered a loud shriek, and exclaimed, “He is down! he is down!”

“Who is down?” cried Ivanhoe.

“The Black Knight,” answered Rebecca faintly; then instantly again shouted with joyful eagerness, “But no! but no! he is on foot again, and fights as if there were twenty men's strength in his single arm.”

- WALTER SCOTT: Ivanhoe.



1. What is a paragraph ? a sentence?

2. What is the difference between direct and indirect quotations?

3. When is a stanza a paragraph in disguise ? 4. What three things should one do before making a speech? 5. Name and define the four kinds of sentences. 6. Name the eight marks of punctuation.

7. Write eight sentences, each illustrating a different mark of punctuation.

8. What is the only safe rule for punctuation?



All your life you have been learning to classify things. You classify books into dictionaries, novels, short stories, grammars; you classify flowers into roses, geraniums, daisies, violets; you classify trees into oaks, hickories, cedars, pines; you classify animals into horses, cows, dogs, cats; you classify professional men into preachers, teachers, lawyers, doctors. These are by no means all of the classes into which we might divide books, flowers, trees, animals, and men; but these classes are sufficient to show how quickly the mind detects resemblances in groups of things, and makes these resemblances the basis of classification.

Classes of Words.

When we talk about “the parts of speech,” we mean nothing more than the classes into which words are divided according to what they do in the sentence. When we divided men into preachers, teachers, lawyers, and doctors, we were classifying them according to what they do: preachers are

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