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portant than what it aims to lead the reader to find for himself.
Verbal explanations of art must be given outside of its temple. Everyone one must go alone into the sacred threshold and catch a vision for himself. A teacher can only inspire and awaken expectations and point out the door. Criticisms of poetry are only valuable when on the poetic plane. Explanations of pictures or statues or music are helpful only when they indicate points of view.
In the same way action as a language is so distinct from words that it can never be explained by mere writing. Has there ever been a phrase so pointed, so fine, as to translate a smile?
One reason why action is such an important element in education is the fact that it gives the human mind such a different point of view. If we can understand the differences between our own primary languages, words, tones and action, we are prepared in almost the only way possible to appreciate the fact that every art is a language, a peculiar language which can never be translated into any other art. If an art does not say something that no other art can say it is not an art at all. A man of culture is a man who can read all of the artistic languages of his race.
The reader may console himself that the book is not more broken. In writing it I tried to introduce certain hints that would spontaneously cause a smile in order that the reader might have an example involuntarily awakened for his observation. A friend of mine who looked over the copy protested that these humorous attempts were undignified so I have made many modifications.
Seriously, the real continuity and theme of the book must be felt through observation of life.
One of my friends wrote regarding my “Browning and the Dramatic Monologue”: “Here is another book by Curry, explaining the obvious." If to him “Browning " was as obvious as Mother Goose, what will he say if he happens to look through this? He will no doubt be reminded of Ben King's poem
“Nothing to breathe but air,
Quick as a flash 'tis gone;
Nowhere to stand but on.” One of Ben King's most intimate friends, who was with him when he wrote this said to him, “It is too silly to be anything but ridiculous. Still, how many thousands have read the poem with delight.
If the reader will not reject the book but begin a closer observation of self and others, perhaps he may catch a hint of something he has not thought of before, and may find a key to some of the peculiar movements in our time, and to a better understanding of himself.
At any rate, it is an honest endeavor to furnish a key to self-study, self-control, and a help to a truer realization of the point of view of other people. These are most important factors in success. Moreover it is written to aid an undertaking, which to the writer is important. If, perchance, the fact that it is a gift to an institution be of interest to the reader he is asked not to skip the afterword.
OUR FIRST EXPRESSION
“ Turn, Fortune, turn thy wheel with smile or frown; With that wild wheel we go not up or down; Our hoard is little, but our hearts are great.
“Smile and we smile, the lords of many lands Frown and we smile, the lords of our own hands;
For man is man and master of his fate.” From “ Geraint and Enid ”
Tennyson. A Black Forest tradition considers it a good omen if both father and mother are present when their child first smiles. According to Delsarte, a smile is the first conscious expression of a human being.
Some close observers tell us that the smile is also the last expression that is left upon the human countenance. Who has not heard, a few hours after death, someone remark, “How pleasant the face looks!”
Even when death has been painful, after a few hours the contortions disappear, and the most important element of the smile is seen about the outer corners of the eyes. After about twentyfour hours the muscles begin to lose their activity, but the last expressive attitude to vanish is the primary element of a smile.
So the first conscious awakening and the last good-bye of the spirit are expressed by a smile.
The smile is the acceptance of life. It is a coming into sympathetic touch with others, the first thanksgiving for service rendered, the first recognition by the little child of the love of its mother. It marks the awakening of the inner life, the first conscious joy. A man smiles when he discovers that power is inborn, when he comes to know that he has been weak because he looked for power outside of himself.
The smile is embodied in the highest poetry of the race.
All myths of morning embody the smile,-Daphne, the rosy-fingered Aurora, and Athena born from a stroke of fire on the forehead of the sky—all reflect the smile.
In the best Greek art, the smile, kind and sincere, almost unseen, is held by all as the deepest expression of the Greek idea of Deity.
Primitive peoples, living near the heart of nature, have always felt that the smile has great significance.
In the centre of New England is a great lake containing over three hundred islands. The Indians looked down upon it from the Red Hill or from the height of Ossippee and called it Winnepesaukee, the “ smile of the Great Spirit.” Happy were those Indians who caught the first expression of the Infinite and Eternal Goodness, an expression of which Plato caught a glimpse, the expression which all good and great men have felt as they looked upon the beautiful face of the earth and sky.
It is but a hint of the Infinite and Eternal goodness of which the universe is the celebration.
Why in our day is the smile rarely if ever considered seriously? Why is it regarded as a mere accident?
Is it not because all modes of expression are neglected except words?
Since printing was invented, written words have been worshipped as about the only language-at least verbal expression is in general the only language seriously studied, and in our day, even this is usually studied as a mere convention-as an objective, mechanical thing.
To the modern scholar, a smile has no meaning at all—it is only a vague indefinite sign of physical feeling.
Again and again it has been said by reformers that all education is the development of character.
To the ancients, especially the Romans, the development of oratory was one of the highest phases of education, and Cicero has said, “ Oratory is a good man speaking well.”
Darwin made a study of expression because the actions or elements of the smile seemed to conflict with his hypothesis. His studies of expression, however, were confined to animals rather than to men. His observations regarding human expression were endeavors to identify them with animal movements. His attention was always fixed, consciously or unconsciously, on his theory of natural selection.
Expression is a necessary part of us. Asleep or awake we are always revealing the deep secrets of our motives and lives. Expression is the evidence to us of the very faculties of our being.
To improve the smile, one must improve the disposition and deepen one's sympathy with