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The Agricultural College. It may fairly be doubted whether the gift of Congress, made in 1862, to establish Agricultural Colleges in all the states of the Union has resulted in the national benefit which its projectors anticipated. In many of the states the amount received was too small to accomplish the object, without very large additional appropriations, which thc Legislatures, after accepting the grant of Congress, were unwilling to make. In such cases the grant was turned over to existing institutions, and the result, so far as any appreciable benefit to agriculture was concerned, was negative, or so slight as not to be perceptible. The money in these instances has been of some help to the institutions in whose hands it was placed, but it has not accomplished the good which the farming community had a right to expect.
The Massachusetts Agricultural College is generally admitted to be one of the best and most successful of all the institutions established under this national grant. The gift, with all its conditions, was accepted by the Legislature of 1863, and a Board of Trustees, consisting originally of one from cach county, was appointed to locate, and build, and run the institution. The Trustees selected by the Legislature were not men experienced in the management of educational institutions. Few, if any, of them, had had any experience whatever in such work, and it is not surprising that they made serious mistakes. But the Legislature itself made the most serious mistake in affixing a condition that the location should be in a town that should appropriate the sum of seventy-five thousand dollars, to be used in the erection of buildings. The Trustees were thus hampered by a condition which ought never to have been imposed upon them. Instead of locating the institution at a point best adapted to secure its future growth and prosperity, easily accessible to markets, casily reached by students and by liberal men, who would be glad to visit it, and become interested to give it strength and vitality, the Trustees were limited to the single town of Amherst, the only town that promptly complied with the conditions of the Act, by raising the required sum. That was the first great and fatal mistake. No amount of skill and experience in organizing the institution could overcome or remedy the evil of that. The financial weakness, the want of adequate support, and the want of confidence on the part of the public, can be traced directly to that.
The Trustees may fairly bc held responsible for some serious mistakes that followed, as the selection of men to build up and organize the college was left wholly with them. To this selection is due the fact that it was organized on a scale much too pretentious and expensive, considering the amount of income which might reasonably be expected from two-thirds of the fund established under the Act of Congress, one-third having been diverted by the Legislature to the Institute of Technology. This was the next very serious mistake, and it has proved to be one very difficult to overcome. It entailed expenditures for which the income of the fund could not provide, involving the constant application to the Legislature for help. This led to angry criticism, and this again to many unjust prejudices in the public mind.
An attempt the past two years by some of the professed friends of the college to induce the Legislature to revolutionize the present government, and to reorganize the Board of Trustees, would have been wholly inadequate to meet the difficulty, because it did not reach the real point of weakness, which is the want of money. So far as the ability to raise a liberal fund for the support of the college is concerned, the present Board is as efficient as any other. A fund of a hundred thousand dollars would make it possible to pay more liberal salaries, to add two or three professorships, and so to strengthen the faculty and the corps of instruction. That of itself would bring an increased number of students, and put life and vitality into the institution as nothing else would. A convention of the Governor and Council, the State Board of Agriculture, and the Trustees of the college was held at Amherst in June last, when an able Committee, made up from these three bodies, was appointed to consider the most feasible means of effecting this object, and of giving strength to the institution. It is a laudable effort, and it is to be hoped that the farming community will appreciate and sustain it. Massachusetts is not accustomed to falter in its support of education, and it has a traditional pride in success. We ought to have the ability and the disposition to take hold and make the college a triumphant vindication of the wisdom of the national government.
Soiling Milch Cows. The term “ soiling" is applied to the practice of feeding stock with food cut green for the purpose and taken to them daily in the barn or yard. This course is adopted'instead of pasturing, and it is claimed that it has sev. eral important advantages. The same number of cattle can be supported on the product of a smaller area, no grass or other fodder crop being destroyed or injured by trampling. The cows or other animals can be kept quiet, and in the shade if necessary, without being exposed to the hot sun. "It gives an opportunity, also, to study variety in the articles of food which is generally thought to be important in any well-considered system of feeding. It will readily be seen that merely keeping cattle in the barn through the summer, to be fed on dry fodder, after the manner of winter feeding, is not soiliny. To constitutc soiling, properly so-called, they must be fed on green food, cut daily, to be taken to them in their stalls or the enclosures where they are kept. This green food is most commonly grass, but a complete system of soiling implies a continuous supply of green food from the carly spring to the late fall, or through the season in which cattle are ordinarily pastured. Winter rye is sown in the fall in sufficient qnantity and it furnishes the first green crop in spring. Then follow oats, barley, corn or Hungarian grass, in turn, as they reach a suitable period of growth to use for this purpose. The feeding of fodder corn or the leaves of root crops, while the cows are at pasture and to sup: plement a short crop of grass in a time of drought, may be called a partial soiling.
The economy of the soiling system will depend very much upon the location. In the immediate neighborhood of large towns, where land is expensive, it has great advantages, as by it the production of milk is more uniform and in larger quantity; while farther back in the country, where pasturage is cheap, especially in sections where pasture lands are rough and cannot be brought into profitable cultivation, the little extra expense of cutting green food, will prevent its general adoption.
It must be evident on a momcnt's reflection that the production of a farm will be largely increased under this system, wlicre the land is level and capable of being ploughed and cultivated. Even light land, which is not very desirable for pasturage, can be maile to produce heavy crops of clover, orchard grass, Hungarian or green fodder corn, to say nothing of large crops of mangolds, sugar beets, turnips, etc., while the keeping of stock in small enclosures cnables us to save all the manure and to treat it so as greatly to improve its quality and value. This economy of manures makes a wonderful difference in the condition of the farm and improvement is sure to follow up to a high state of fertility. It must be evident, also, that there are other advantages. The farmer has complete control of the food of his cows and he can mollify it so as to produce the results he seeks to obtain. At pasture, cows will often cat plants that affect the flavor of milk and butter injuriously, and this will often make it impossible to make gilt-edged butter. Then again there is a great saving in fences, which often require constant watchfulness to keep them up, and not unfrequently great anxiety lest some of the more brcachy cows will be encroaching upon the crops of the ncighbors. Cows kept on the soiling system are always at home when you want them at milking time, and there are more of them, for a farm will carry a very much larger number under this system than under that of ordinary pasturing. One acre of good land will carry two cows the whole year, while it would take at least two acres to carry onc cow well for six months at pasture. It is a little more work to cut and carry the food for a herd of cows, but this is partially offset by the saving of time in driving to and from pasture, and more than offset by the greatly increased value of the manure.
But no fariner should undertake this method of fccding without careful study and preparation. There should be a continuous and abundant supply of nutritious food and that does not come without some calculation.
The crops we have indicated, ryc, clover, Hungarian grass, green foddercorn, etc., will offer sufficient variety and a continuous supply, if wisely managed, but, as in feeding ensilage, we believe in the addition of a small quantity of concentrated foods, and I know of nothing better than bran, cotton secd, or linseed meal. By the use of some one or all of these, we can provide an almost perfect cattle food. In using a purchased concentrated food, the greatly increased value of the manure is to be taken into consideration, as the question of economy will turn largely upon that.
FROM THE CENSUS OF 1880.
Population of the United States. Population of Fifty Prin-
POPULATION. Alabama 1,262,794 1,253,121 9,673
New York, N. Y....1,206,590 Arkansas 802,564 792,269 10,295
Philadelphia, Pa. California
. 846,984 864,686 572,006
Brooklyn, N. Y. . 566,689 Colorado
194,649 154,869 39.780 Connecticut
503,304 622,683 492,879
. 362,535 Delaware 146,654 137,182 9,472
St. Louis, Mo. Florida 267,351 257,631 9,720
Baltimore, Md. Georgia . 1,539,018 1,528,733
.... 332,190 10,315 Cincinnati, Ohio
255,708 Illinois 3,078,769 2,495,177 583,592
Cal. 233,956 Indiana 1,978,362 1,834,597 143,765 || New Orleans, La.
. 216.140 Iowa 1,624,620 1,363,132 261,488
Cleveland, Ohio 160,142 Kansas 995,966 886,261 109,705 | Pittsburg, Pa.
156,381 Kentucky 1,648,708 1,589,237 59,471
Buffalo, N. Y.
155,137 Louisiana. 940,103 885,964
54,139 Washington, D. C. . . . 147,307 Maine 648,945 590,076
58,869 Newark, N. J. Maryland
. . 135,400 931,632 851,981 82,648 Louisville, Ky: .
123,645 Massachusetts 1,783,012 1,339,919 443,093
Jersey City, N. J.
... 120,728 Michigan 1,636,331 1,247,985 388,346 Detroit, Mich.
780,806 513,107 267,699 Milwaukee, Wis. . . 115,578 Mississippi
1,131,592 1.122,424 9.168 | Providence, R, I.. . 104,850 Missouri 2,168,804 1,957,564 211,240
Albany, N. Y.
. 90,903 Nebraska 452,433 355,043
97,390 Rochester, N. Y. . 89,363 Nevada
62,265 36,623 25,642 New Hampshire
Alleghany, Pa. . 78,681 346,981 300,961 46,023 Indianapolis, Ind. New Jersey
. 75,074 1,130,983 909,398 221,585 Richmond, Va.
.63,803 New York
5,083,810 3,872,372 1,211.438|| New Haven, Conn. North Carolina 1.400,047
. 62,882 1,396.368 3,679 Lowell, Mass. .
. 59,485 Ohio 3,198,239 2,803,496 394,743|| Worcester, Mass.
58,295 Oregon 174,767 144,327 30,440| Troy, N. Y.
56,747 Pennsylvania 4,282,786 3,695,253 587,533 Kansas City, Mo. . 55,813 Rhode Island
276,528 202,598 73,930 | Cambridge, Mass. 52,740 South Carolina
995,622 987,981 7,641 Tennessee
Syracuse, N. Y.. . 51, 791 1,542,463 1,525,881 16,582 Columbus, Ohio. 51,665 Texas.
1,592,574 1,478,058 114,516 Paterson, N. J..... Vermont
. 50,887 332,286 291,340 40,946 Toledo, Ohio Virginia 1,512,806 1,498,139
14,667 Charleston, S. C. . 49,999 West Virginia 618,443 600,214 18,229 Fall River, Mass. 49,006 Wisconsin
1,315,480 910,063 405,417 | Minneapolis, Minn.. 46,887 TERRITORIES.
40,441 24,419 16,022 Nashville, Tenn. 43,461 Dakota 135,180 83,387 51,793 Reading, Pa.
43,280 Dist. of Columbia 177,638 160,523 17,115 Hartford, Conn. 42,553 Idaho.
32,611 22,629 9.982 Wilmington, Del. Montana
. 42,499 39,157 27,642 11,515 | Camden, N.J.
41,658 New Mexico 118,430 108,498 9,932 St. Paul, Minn.
143,906 99,974 43,932 | Lawrence, Mass. Washington
. 39,178 75,120 59,259 15,861 Dayton, Ohio
38,677 Wyoming 20,788 14,943 5,845 Lynn, Mass.
38,281 Total in the U. s. 50,152,866 43,475,5066,677,360 || Oakland, Cal.
BONDED INDEBTEDNESS OF CITIES AND TOWNS IN N. E.
Debt STATES. and Towns. and Towns
per Capita. Maine,
116,098 $11,635,550 $100.22 New Hampshire,
81,242 2,952,400 36.34 Vermont,
23,513 607,900 25.85 Massachusetts,
1,122,084 73,696,019 65.68 Rhode Island.
181,554 11,424,750 62.93 Connecticut.
295,300 12,846,564 43.52 Total.
75 1,819,791 113,163,183 62.18
(Prepared Sept., 1881, at the Post Office, Boston.)
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