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PROBATE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS, (Corrected Aug., 1880. Legislature meets in January, and may make changes.) Barnstable. At Barnstable, 2d Tu. Hampden. - At Springfield, 1st Tu. Jan., Feb., March, Aug., Sept., Dec., Jan., Feb., March, Ap., May, June, July, and 3d Tues. April and Juue; Har- Sep., Oct., and Dec.; Palmer, 2d Tues. wich, 2d Mo. af. 1st Tu. May, and Mo. af. Feb. May, and Sept., and 4th Tues. Nov.; 3d Tu.ct.; Wellfieet, 3d Tu. May, and 4th Westfield, 3d Tu. Feb., May, Sept., Dec. Tu. Oct.; Provincetown, Wed. ar. 3d Tu. Hampshire. - At Northampton, lat May,and Wed. af. 4th Tu.Oct.; Falmouth, Tues. of every mo.; Amherst, 2d Tues. 3d Tu. Nov.

Jan., Mar., June, Aug, and Nov.; BelBerkshire.- At Pittsfield, 18t Tues. chertown, 20 Tu. of May and Oct.; and in Jai Feb., March, April, May, June, Williamsburg, 3d Tues. May and Oct. Sept., Oct., and Dec., 3d Tu. July, and Middlesex.- At Cambridge, 1st, 2d, Wed. after 1st Mon. Nov.; Lee, Wed. aft. and 4th Tu. ea. mo. ex. Aug.; Lowell, 3d 1st Tu.in Jan., Ap., and Oct., and Wed. af. Ta. Jan., Mar., May, July, Šep., and Nov. 34 Tu. July: Adains, Th. aft. 1st Tu. Jan. Nantucket. - At Nantucket, on Th. and Oct., Wed. af. Ist Tu. Mar., and Th. aft. 2d Tu, of every mo. al. 3d Tu. in July; Gr. Barrington, Wed. Norfolk. - At Dedham, 160 and 3d after 1st Tu. in Feb., May, Sep., and Dec. Wed.; Quincy, 2d Wed., Hyde Park, 4th

Bristol. - At Taunton, 1st Fr. Mar., Wed. every mo. exc. Aug. June, Sep., Dec.; New Bedford, 1st Frid. Plymouth.- At Plymouth, 2d Mon. Feb.,

May, Aug., and Nov.; Fall River, 1st ev.mo., ex. July and Aug.; Wareham, 4th Fri. Jan., Apr., July, and Oct.

Mon. Oct.; E. Bridgewater, 4th Mo. Feb. Dukes County. - At Holmes' Hole and Dec.; Hingham,4th Mo. Mar.; Middlevillage in Tisbury, 3d Mo. Ap.and 1st Mo. boro', 4th Mon. Jan. and Ap., apd 2d Mon. Sept. ; Edgartown, 3d Mo. Jan. and July, July, Abington, 4th Mo. May, Aug., and and 1st Mo. Mar. and Dec.; W. Tisbury, Nov.; Hanover, 4th Mo. June; Bridgewa. 1st Mo, Jane and 3d Mon, Oct.

ter, 4th Mo. Sep.; North Bridgewater, 3d Esser. - At Salem, 1st Mon. of each Mon. April and Oct. mo., and 3d Mon. of ea. mo., except Aug.; Suffolk. - At Boston, every Monday Lawrence, 2d Monday Jan.,

Mar., May, in the year, exc. 2d and 4th Mon. in Aug. June, Jul., Sept., and Nov.; Haverhill, zd Worcester. - At Worcester, 1st and Mon. Apr. and Oct.; Newburyport, 4th 3d Tu. of every mo. except Aug.; Fitch. Mo.Jan., Mar., May, June, July, Sep., and burg, 4th Tu.ev'y mo. exc. July and Aug.; Nov.; Gloucester, 4th Mo. Ap. and Oct. Milford, 2d Tu.of Ap. and Sep.; Temple

Franklin. - At Greenfield, 1st Tues. ton, 2d Tu. of May and Oct.; and Barre, in every month, except Nov.; North- Wed. next after 20 Tu. of May and Oct. field, 2d Tues. May and Sept.; Orange, AT When the appointed day fulls on a 20 Tu. Mar. and Dec., and 3d Tu. June; holiday, the court will be holden by adConway, 3d Tu. May; Shelburne Falls, 2d journment at such time and place as the Tu. Feb., 4th Tu. May, and 4th Tu. Oct. jud.ge may appoint.

COURTS OF INSOLVENCY IN MASSACHUSETTS. Courts of Insolvency in Mass. are held by the Probate Judges in each county,

at times appointed by themselves. JUDGES OF PROBATE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS. (Cor. Sept. 1880.) Barnstable Co., Jos. M. Day, Barnstable. | Hampden Co.,W.S. Shurtleff, Springfield. Berkshire Co., J.T. Robinson, No.Adams, Middlesex Co., Geo. M. Brooks, Concord. Bristol Co., Eilm. H. Bennett, Taunton. Nantucket Co., Thaddeus C. Defriez Dukes Co., Joseph T. Pease, Edgartown. Nantucket. Essex Co., Geo. F. Choate, Salem.

Norfolk Co., G. White, Newton L. Falls. Franklin Co., C. C. Conant, Greenfield. Plymouth Co., Wm.H.Wood, Middleboro'. Hampshire Co., William G. Bassett, Suffolk Co., John W. McKim, Boston. Easthampton,

Worcester Co., Adin Thayer, Worcester. COUNTY COMMISSIONERS MEETINGS IN MASSACHUSETTS.

(Corrected Ang., 1890. Legislature meets in January, and may make changes.) Barnstable, at Barnstable, on the 2d Hampden, at Springfield, on the 2d Tues, of April and Oct.

Tues. of April, the 1st Tues. of Oct., and Berkshire, at Pittsfield, on 1st Tu. of the 4th Tues, of June and Dec. Apl., iy, and Sept., and list Tu. Dec. Hampshire, at Nor hampton, the

Bristol, at Taunton, on the 4th Tues. 1st Tu. of Mar., Sept., and Dec., and on of March and Sept.

the Tues. next after the 2d Mon. of June. Dakes Co., at Edgartown, on the Wed. Middlesex, at Cambridge, on the 18t next after the 3d Mon. of May, and the Tues. of Jan., and the 1st Tues. of June; Wed. next after the 2d Mon.of Nov. and at Lowell, on the 1st Tues. of Sept.

Esser, at Ipswich, on the 21 Tues, of Nantucket, Ist Wed, of each month. April; at Salem, on the 2d Tues. of July; Norfolk, at Dedham, on the 3d Tues. at Newburyport, on the 21 Tues. of Oct.; of April, the 4th Tues. of June and Sept., and at Lawrence, on the last Tues, of and the last Wed. of Dec. Aug.; and on the 4th Tues. of Dec., at Plymouth, at Plymouth, on the 1st Ipswich, Salem, or Newburyport, as they Tues. of Jan., the 3d Tues. of March, shall order at their next preceding term. and the 1st Tues. of Aug.

Franklin, at Greenfield, on the 1st Worcester, at Worcester, on the 4th Tues, of March and Sept., and the 2d Tu, of March, the 3d Tu. of June, the Thes. of June and Dec,

20 Tu. of Sept., and the 4th Tu. of Dec.

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The Beet-Sugar Industry. WHEN it was ascertained that we were producing only about one-sixth, or possibly a fifth of the amount of sugar required for home consumption, and that we were importing something like six hundred thousand tons and more a year to supply our own wants, the question naturally came up, Why can't we do something to mect this demand, and thus free ourselves from a dependence upon importations? If the sugar-cane, the sugar-maple, and sorghum will yield us only one sixth part of what we consume to sweeten existence, is there not some other source of supply?

It was found on inquiry tha Europe, with climatic conditions not unlike our own, produced from seven to eight hundred thousand tons of sngar every year, or about one half the amount required for consumption there, from the sugarbeet, and it was the most natural thing in the world to ask why we couldn't clo the same.

It was found, also, that the establishment of this industry there had stimulated the rapid introduction of sound principles into farm-practice, and had exerted a vast influence in developing the agriculture of every country where it had been introduced, so that improved farm management was the result of successful attempts to build up the manufacture. Why, then, could we not repeat the results which had proved so important in Europe, and thus build up a new commercial industry, and at the same time infuse new life into American agriculture.

It was well known that we could raise the sugar-beet in most of our northern latitudes, and many farmers had been in the habit of raising it for feeding to stock, knowing well that it contains a higher percentage of saccharine matter, and greater nutritive qualities, bushel for bushel, than the mangold. They knew that its yield was much less, and so the question constantly recurred, whether, as a matter of economy, it was to be preferred to the mangold for feeding purposes ? It could be made to produce from twenty to thirty tops to the acre under exceptionally favorable circumstances, but under equally favorable circumstances the mangold would yield forty. to fifty tons, and so the general conclusion was in favor of the latter, though some stoutly maintained the superior economy of the sugar-beet, and it was gaining ground, though very slowly, against its competitor.

Recently numerous experiments have been made, and large amounts of capital have been raised to prosecute this industry, and to demonstrate the fact that we can produce our own sugar, without taking advantage, it seems to us, of the experience and the knowledge which has been gained in Europe, of the conditions requisite to success. The experience of many years there has worked out important problems which it will not do for us to ignore. These relate to the kind and quantity of fertilizers to be used, the size of the beets most economical for the manufacture of sugar, the necessity for a long rotation, the intelligent selection of seed, some varieties containing á very much greater amount of saccharine matter than others, and to many other points, all of which have an important bearing on the final results. We have not sufficiently recognized the fact, that to raise the sugar-bcet for stock is one thing, and to raise it for the economical manufacture of sugar is quite another.

Take, for instance, the matter of the size of the beet. The sugar-maker must have a small beet, while the farmer, who is growing the beet to feed to stock, naturally seeks to produce a large one. Now just see the difference in composition. Accurate investigation of beets raised in precisely similar conditions, on the same land, and with the same manure, showed that beets weighing from a pound to a pound and a half, contained 15.10 per cent. of cane-sugar, while those weighing from ten to fourteen pounds cach, contained only 9.70 per cent. The former contained 2.90 per cent. of foreign substances in solution, while the latter contained 4.30 per cent. The difference is so marked, that it is quite apparent that success or failure would be likely to turn upon this point alone, if there were no others.

Now see the difference in saccharine matter, as modified by the manure used, and especially the condition in which it is applied. Bects manured with fresh horse-manure yielded only 9.73 per cent. of canc-sugar, while bects from the same seed, and on the same land, manured with sulphate of potash, contained 13.87 per cent. of cane-sugar. The result is very striking. When fresh stable manure of any kind is used, the saccharinc matter, in the form of cane-sugar, will be very low compared with beets properly fertilized. A large-sized heet, grown with rank, stimulating manure, will contain a large percentage of for

eign substances, either saline, nitrogenous, or non-nitrogenons, and experience has clearly shown that for every percentage of foreign substances in solution, about one and a half per cent. of sugar in the juice will become uncrystallizable. In other words, success will depend on minute and careful attention to details, many of which appear to have been ignored in procuring beets for the extraction of sugar.

It is cvident, therefore, that if we are to expect the bcet-sugar industry to be a success, the farmer must co-operate, and work in harmony with the manufacturer, and be willing to comply with the conditions which experience has demonstrated to be essential to success.

Forage Crops. The fodder question, of course, lies at the foundation of every system of stock and mixed farming in New England, and in fact everywhere else. With an abundant supply of feeding-stuffs we can increase the stock on the farm, and increased stock will increase the manure, and more manure will give us higher results, and not only maintain, but increasc thc fertility of our lands. It rcally solves the problem of successful farming:

We need say nothing of the grasses. We have them as the basis of supply, and all we have to do is to give them more thought and attention, especially more manure. We may bring them to a far higher state of productiveness, as we certainly ought to, but still we must supplement them with other plants and other substances if we seek to obtain the best results. We have the root crops to help out our winter supplies, and they may be increased almost indefinitely if we can procure the labor to raise them, and provide the means of storage when they are raiserl.

We should adopt the plan of stocking higher, and then supplement the feed in the pasture with crops raised for the purpose, like green fodder-corn, or millet, or rye, clover, oats, or something of the kind, or, what is perhaps better, with oil-meal, either cotton-seed or linsced meal, bought for this use. Most of us have to buy some fertilizers for the want of sufficient barn manure. But how much better it would be to fertilize our lands and our crops through cattle foods, especially oil-cakes. Why should we suffer our linseed and our cottonseed meals to go to England, and to be fed there, rather than to our own cattle? Is it good cconomy? If the English farmer can afford to buy them, with the transportation of three thousand miles added to their cost, why cannot we do the same? If our pastures are running down, as most farmers say they are, is there any surer way to bring them up than to put on the cattle and feed them extra with foods raised or purchased for this object? The oil-mealstion the cotton-seed and linsced, because they are most accessible — contain the real essence of cattle foods in a highly concentrated form. They should be fed in connection with coarser fodder, like green corn, or properly cured stalks, green clover, millet, and other substances, to furnish the requisite bulk; but fed judiciously, they not only furnish the very best, but an abundance of the best manurc. Á certain amount of coarse food, like the grasses of our pastares, or corn-folder, millet, or any similar seeding-stuffs, is requisite to create a healthful action of the organs of digestion. Such articles ought to form a part of the regular dict of most farm animals; but concentrated food is equally important in an economical point of view, and we makc a mistake if we neglect to supply it. The time will surely come when we shall sce that the addition of feeding substances is the cheapest fornt in which to purchase fertilizers to maintain and increase the fertility of our soils.

Then there is the vetch. It is extensively raised in Europe, in climatic conditions very likc our own, and fed green to cattlc kept on the soiling system, and to cattle at pasture in times of drought and short fced, and it forms a most important addition to other forage crops. Why is it not raised here? Vetches are about as easily grown in field culture as pease, and sown broadcast with oats or rye, they furnish an immense bulk of food greatly relished by all kinds of stock, and very nutritious. There are other plants worthy of mention, but the idea we wish to convey is, that we should greatly increase our forage crops so as to enable us to carry' more stock as a means of obtaining economical supplies of manure. If this system were generally adopted, and our pastures liberally ailed with feeding substances raised on the farm, or purehased in the form of concentrated cattle foods, we could nearly double our present stock, and we should be on the high and sure road to prosperity.

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POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. The returns of the census of 1880 are not complete at the time the Almanac goes to press. It appears, however, that the population of the United States is about 49,000,000. The population of the New England States is given below. The figures are still liable to some variation, but are without doubt very nearly correct.

Increase in 1880.

1870.

10 years. Maine

649,004 626,9:5

22,059 New Hampshire .

347,211 318,300

28.911 Vermont

334,454 330,551

3,904 Massachusetts

1,783,812 1,457,351 326,46! Rhode Island

276,710 217,353 5!),357 Connecticut

623, 116 537,154 85,602

Total.

4,014,308

3,487,924

526,394

SAVINGS BANKS. These institutions, which are scattered thickly throughout New England, are of the greatest value to our people. They furnish a convenient and safe place for keeping the savings of the thrifty, and they undoubtedly cause much money to be saved which would otherwise be wasted. Let no family be content till a Savings

Bank book is begun for the younger members. It will give them an excellent start in life. Moreover these small sums being brought together are made available for buildings and improvemnts which without them could not be made. They form a large part of the capital of the country, and it is the capital of the country which enables the labor of the country to maintain itself, and make further savings. Work, learn, save. These are the watchwords for us in New England, so shall we maintain the proud position won by our fathers, and so shall we maintain and increase our prosperity.

.

THE PUBLIC DEBT, Sept. 1, 1880.
Debt bearing interest
At Six per cent,

$229,440.150 00
At Five per cent.

480,410,450 00 At Four one-half per ct. . 250,000,000 00 At Four per cent.

734,241,350 00 Refunding Certificates

1,106,450 00 Navy Pension Fund, at three per cent.

14,000,000 00

1,713, 198,400 00 Debt on which int. las ceased since maturity 6,128,035 26 Debt bearing no interest

Old Dem'd and Leg. Tend. $346,741,896 00
Certificates of Deposit. 11,300,000 00
Fractional Currency: 7,181,995 37
Gold and Silver Certificates. 20,835,140 00

386,059,831 37
Total principal

$2,105,386,266 63 Total accrued interest

15,851,139 94 Total debt

$2,121,237,406 57 Cash in the Treasury

196,668,332 23 TOTAL DEBT less amount of cash in the Treasury $1,924,569,074 34

Total debt, less amount in the Treasury Sept. 1, 1879. $2,029,766,204 56
Decrease the past year : .

$105,197,130 22

INCREASE OF LONDON. WITHIN the Metropolitan Police Area during 1877, there were 14,410 new houses built; and 270 new streets and two new squares, covering a length of over 39 miles, were opened. The yearly average of new houses in the metropolis, for 20 years has been 10,810, and the average length of new streets opened during the same period, 44 miles.

POETRY, ANECDOTES ETC.

SABBATA IN THE COUNTRY.

ONE DAY AT A TIME. THE creaking wagon's in the shed,

ONLY one day The busy fail is heard no more;

To bear the strain The horse is littered down and fed, Of living, and to battle with the pain. Thc harness hangs above his head,

Only one day The whip behind the door.

To satisfy
His leathern gloves and hooked bill With food and covering, as the bours

To-day the woodman throws a.side; slip by.
The blacksmith's fiery forge is still,
The wooden wheel of thc old mill

Only one day

To-morrow's care (bear. Sleeps in the mill-dam wide.

To-morrow, if it comes, itself shall Upon the wall the white cat sleeps,

Only one day By which the churns and milk-pans

Then waste it not (not. lie;

In futile planning where thc Lord is A drowsy watch the house-dog kecps, And scarcely from his dull cye pceps,

Only one day Upon the passer-by:

God gives to me And swectly over hill and dale

At once. Oh, may I use it faithfully! The silvery-sounding church-bells ring;

THERE is a spirit which I feel, that Across the moor and down the dale

delights to do no evil, nor to avenge They come and go, and on the gale Their Sabbath tidings fling.

any wrong; but delights to endure all

things, in hope to enjoy its own in the From farm and field, and grange grown end. Its hope is to outlive all wrath gray,

and contention, and to weary out all From woodland walks and winding exaltation and cruelty, or whatever is ways,

of a nature contrary to itself. It sees The old and young, the grave and gay, to the end of all temptations. As it Unto the old church come to pray,

bears no evil in itself, so it conceives And sing God's holy praise. none in thought to any other. THOMAS MILLER.

JAMES NAYLOR, a Quaker, in 1660.

SAVE. To save is absolutely the only way to make a solid fortune. There is no other certain way on earth. Those who shut their eyes and ears to these plain facts, will be forever poor, and for their obstinate rejection of the truth, mayhap will die in rags and filth. Let them so die, and thank themselves. But, no! They take a sort of recompense in cursing fortune. Great waste of breath! They might as well curse mountains and eternal bills. For I can tell them Fortune does not give away her real and substantial goods. She sells them to the highest bidder, to the hardest, wisest worker for the boon. + UNOLE BEN."

TO-DAY.
MAKE a little fence of trust

Around to-day;
Fill the space with loving work,

And therein stay.
Look not through the sheltering bars

Upon to-morrow;
God will help thee beat what comes

Of joy or sorrow.

A SEA-SHELL.
SEE what a lovely shell,

Small and pure as a pearl,
Lying close to my foot!

Frail, but a work divine;
Made so fairly well,

With delicate spire and whorl;
How exquisitely minute

A miracle of design!
The tiny cell is forlorn,

Void of the little living will
That made it stir on the shore.
Did he stand at the diamond door

Of his house in a rainbow frill ?

Did he push when he was uncurled, A golden foot or a fairy horn

Through his dim water-world ? Slight, to be crushed with a tap

Of my finger-nail on the sand;
Small, but a work divine;

Frail, but of force to withstand,
Year upon year, the shock
Of cataract seas that snap
The three-decker's oaken spine,

Athwart the lodges of rock,
Here on the Breton strand.

ALFRED TENNYSON.

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