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Our Forage Crops. ONE of the lessons the farmer of New England ought to learn is, that the true economy of applying manures in a mixed husbandry, where the dairy must take the lead, lies in stimulating the growth of foraye crops, which will bear it. Our practice, and that of our fathers, has been to rob our grass lands to feed the hoed crops, while good judgment ought to teach us to give our manures far more liberally to our grass lands, to get our profit from a higher yield, not merely of the immediate crop, but from a greater thickening of the sod, which so improves the texture and fertility of the soil. There is nothing like a thick, heavy sward, fat with innumerable strong grass-roots, to prepare land for a hoed crop, or for a grain crop to follow. For clay soils especially, and for lighter loams, a heavy sod, thick with age, and fat with organic remains of rich top-dressings and great masses of decaying roots, is worth more for the subsequent crop than any amount of manure we can expect to apply.
This improvement the liberal and frequent application of manure to grass
can be obtained with little or no cost, because the increased growth of grass will pay for the manure and the cost of putting it on, with a profit into the bargain. Land will constantly grow better under this treatment; indeed, it is the easiest, cheapest, and quickest method of bringing up poor land, because it encourages nature to take hold and help us. The growth of the blade is attended with a corresponding growth of root; and a sod filled, thickened, built up, and stuffed to repletion with roots, and the organic matter applied to the surface, with the portion of foliage that falls, even with the most careful harvesting, furnishes the best conditions for increasing fertility.
Let us not grudge our grass-lands their full share of the best manures on the farm. Give them in liberal doses and often. Give them the coarser manures immediately after the grass is cut, or late in the season, as the winter is closing in; either time will do; but give the finer composts and chemical fertilizers carly in spring. The main point is, to manure the grasses, to manure them often and liberally, to force them to the most luxuriant growth and to the greatest root-power. If this is done, the hoed crops can get along with less feeding, and still do well.
THE PUBLIC DEBT.
At Six per cent. $723,553,950 00
$1,818,670,500 00 Debt bearing interest in currency
14,000,000 00 Debt bearing no interest
Old Dem'd and Leg. Tend. $346,743,256 00
456,572,834 10 Matured debt .
11,973,050 26 Total principal
$2,301,216 984 36 Total accrued interest
$2,329,107,901 61 Cash in the Treasury Coin
$300,002,881 54 TOTAL DEBT less amount of cash in the Treasury
Total Debt, less amount in Treasury, September 1, 1877.
Decrease the past year
POETRY, ANECDOTES, &C.
ITHAT TO TEACH A CHILD. Ho! ye who at the anvil toil,
What shall I teach my child? Teach And strike the sounding blow, him that it is better to die than to lie; Where from the burning iron's breast that it is better to starve than to steal; The sparks fly to and fro,
that it is better to be a scavenger or While answering to the hammer's ring wood-chopper than to be an idler And fire's intenser glow,
and dead-beat; that labor is the price Oh! while ye feel 'tis hard to toil of all honest possessions; that no one
And sweat the long day through, is exempt from the obligation to labor Remember it is harder still
with head, or hands, or heart; that To have no work to do.
an honest man is the noblest work
of God;” that knowledge is power; Ho! ye who till the stubborn soil, that labor is worship, and idleness is
Whose hard hands guide the plough, sin; that it is better to eat the crust of Who bend beneath the summer sun, independent poverty than to luxuriate
With burning cheek and brow, amid the richest viands as a dependYe deem the curse still clings to earth ant. Teach him these facts till they From olden time till now;
are woven into his being and regulate But while ye feel 'tis hard to toil his life, and we will insure his success, And labor all day through,
though the heavens fall. Remember, it is harder still To have no work to do.
THE WOMAN. Ho! all who labor-all who strive - Not as all other women are Ye wield a lofty power:
Is she that to my soul is dear; Do with your might, do with your Her glorious fancies come from far, strength:
Beneath the silver evening star;
And yet her heart is ever near.
Great feelings hath she of her own,
God giveth them to her alone, A weary, wretched life is theirs And sweet they are as any tone Who have no work to do.
Wherewith the wind may choose to CAROLINE F. ORNE.
Yet in herself she dwelleth not, DESPATCH OF BUSINESS.
Although no home were half so fair;
No simplest duty is forgot; BEWARE of stumbling over a propen- Life hath no dim and lowly spot sity which easily besets you from not That doth not in her sunshine share. having your time fully employed, — I mean what the women call dawdling. She doeth little kindnesses, Your motto must be, Hoc age (Do
Which most leave undone or dethis). Do instantly whatever is to be
spise; done, and take the hours of recreation For naught that sets one heart at ease, after business, never before it. When And giveth happiness or peace,
Is low esteemed in her eyes. a regiment is under march, the rear is often thrown into confusion because she hath no scorn of common things; the front does not move steadily and
And, though she seem of other birth, without interruption. It is the same Round us her heart entwines and with business. If that which is first
clings, in hand is not instantly, steadily, and And patiently she folds her wings, regularly dispatched, other things ac- To tread the humble paths of earth. cumulate behind, till affairs begin to
JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL. press all at once, and no human brain can stand the confusion. SIL WALTER SOOTT. NEATNESS is a point in minor morals
which deserves much more attention
than it receives. There is such a comPERISA policy and cunning,
fort in order and tidy habits, that as a Perish all that fears the light; source of refined pleasure they should Whether losing, whether winning, be taught, encouraged, and persisted
Trust in God, and do the right. in.
SAY NOT, THE STRUGGLE
BEAR all the inconveniences of life
The labor and the wounds are vain, restless niyhts, ill health, unwelcome The enemy faints not, nor faileth, news, the faults of servants, contempt, And as things have been, they re- ingratitude of friends, malice of enemain.
mies, calumnies, our own failings, lowIf hopes were dupes, fears may be liars; ness of spirits, the struggle in over
It may be, in yon smoke concealed,' coming our corruptions; bear all these Your comrades chase e'en now the with patience and resignation to the fliers,
will of God. Do all this as unto God, And, but for you, possess the field.
with the greatest privacy.
BISHOP WILSON. For while the tired waves, vainly breaking,
SPEAK THOU TAE TRUTA. Seem here no painful inch to gain,
Let others Far back, through creeks and inlets SPEAK thou the truth. making,
And trim their words for pay;
In pleasant sunshine of pretence
Down on thy watch-tower stoop; But westward, look! the land is Though thou shouldst see thine heart's bright.
Borne from thee by their swoop.
Face thou the wind. Though safer
In shelter to abide;
The safe must first be tried.
“But these are pronounce many words. To pray is to trifles,” remarked the visitor. “ It
say, Let thy will be done; it is to form may be so," replied the sculptor; “but a good purpose; it is to raise your recollect that trifles make perfection, heart to God; it is to lament your and perfection is no trifle.”
weakness; it is to sigh at the recollec
tion of your frequent disobedience. THE BABE.
This prayer demands neither method, On parent's knees a naked new-born nor science, nor reasoning; it is not
necessary to quit one's employment; it child, Weeping, thou sat'st, while all around wards its Creator, and a desire that,
is a simple movement of the heart tothee smiled; So live, that, sinking to thy last long to his glory. The best of all prayers
whatever you are doing, you may do it sleep, Thou then may'st smile while all around is, to act with a pure intention, and
with a continual reference to the will FROM TIIE PERSIAN. of God.
HEALTA IMPORTANT TO HAP
REMEMBER that your will is likely
EXCELLENCE is never granted to erous living without excess; early man but as the reward of labor. rising, and moderation in sleeping. Good manners are a part of good If these rules are not attended to, morals. happiness becomes so extremely difficuit that few persons can attain to it.
Face all things: even Adversity is SIDNEY SMITH. polite to a man's face.
GRAMMAR IN RHYME. ANSWERS TO CHARADES, ENIG-
MAS, fC., IN LAST YEAR'S AL
ANSWERS TO CHARADES.
1. Grandson. 2. Semi-circle. 3. A NOUN 's the name of any thing,
ANSWER TO ENIGMA.
ANSWER TO LOGOGRIPH.
ANSWERS TO ARITHMETICAL Puz-
ZLES. - 1. 15873x7=111111.
2. Twe(ive Twe)nty=Twenty. Her head, his face, your arm, my hand.
ANSWERS TO CONUNDRUMS.
1. Because it keeps you dry all day.
heavens for thousands of years. VI.
4. Because they never complain
of eleven, VIII.
My first and my second contain; The PREPOSITION stands before
For my third, you must take four A noun, as in, or through the door.
parts of the seven IX.
Composing a grammar. Then plain The INTERJECTIONS show surprise, To your view you will find that my As, Oh, how pretty! ah, how wise !
whole is displayed,
Denoting a message that is quickly The whole are called Nine Parts of
2. Which reading, writing, speaking My first is a kind of butter; my teach.
second is a kind of licker; my whole
is a kind of charger.
I am not of flesh and blood,
Yet have I many a bone;
No limbs, except one leg,
And can't stand on that alone. Somewhat surprised, the old man ejaculated, “ Well! what on airth’ll that My friends are many, anıl dwell fellow do next?”
In all lands of the human race;
But they poke my poor nose into VERY QUIET.— A traveller, describ
the mud, ing a very quiet village, sail, “It was
And shamefully spatter my face; still - very still, so still at night that I could almost hear my bed tick.”
Thrust me into each other's ribs,
Stick me in gutter and rut;
I have never a window and never a cons in a country town were disputing
Yet I oft myself am shut.
1. What would the captain of a ship my life, I will!”
do, if he had no eggs? A POUCH of roasted salt carried in 2. What is the best time to read the the pocket is said to be a preventive of book of Nature ? scasickness; but a more certain way is 3. When will there be but 25 letters to buy a barrel of four and stay at in the alphabet ? home.
4. What kind of hair had Moses' dog?
Our Hay Crop. The great effort of every farmer should be directed to increase the quantity and to improve the quality of the materials used for feeding stock.
Grass and hay are the great leading crops of New England, and always must be in this latitude. We depend upon them for the maintenance of our stock - upon the one through the summer months, and upon the other through our long and severe winters. No other crop, therefore, exceeds the grass crop in importance. It might almost be said that no other one compares with it. It is the basis of our beef, it is the basis of our milk, of our butter, and of our checse; and these articles lie at the very foundation of our prosperity, since the dairy must be regarded as the great leading feature of our agriculture.
In the management of our hay crop we have made very great improvement within the last quarter of a century. In the methods of cuiting and curing grass for hay, the improvement in mechanical inventions has led to an entire revolution. It is far more under our control than it used to be, when we were dependent upon the scythe, the fork, and the hand-rake. The work of cutting and curing is more easily and rapidly performed, and a vast amount of time is saved for other equally pressing farm operations. The importance of this great step of progress can hardly be over-estimated. In another respect also we have greatly improved upon the old methods, and that is in the time of cutting grass for hay; for whereas it was formerly the custom to begin haying soon after the 4th of July, it is now a very common practice to begin about the middle of June. We have certainly gained two weeks throughout this State, and probably throughout New England, over the old method; and the result is, better hay, and, considering the increased second crop in consequence of early cutting, more of it. There are other points in which we have made very marked and decided progress in the last few years, as, in the time of sowing, the more correct notions in regard to the extent of curing, the more liberal use of seed, and especially in the higher cultivation of our lands and the more perfect methods of laying down to grass.
But improvement ought not to stop here. We can greatly increase our supplies, both for summer and winter feeding, and it should be the great study of every farmer to accomplish this result. The quantity may be increased by higher tillage, better cultivation, but the quality nust depend largely upon better methods of curing, and upon a wiser selection of seed. It is a problem for each one to work out on his own farm.
Chemical Fertilizers. THE use of chemical fertilizers has come to be quite extensive. It is a comparatively new feature in our system of farming, and must be regarded as of vast importance, from the fact that it increases the possibilities of production almost beyond calculation. It is of the highest consequence, therefore, that we learn how to use them with the greatest economy and skill. In the purchase, we should take the precaution to see that the seller has complied with the law. No man who is doing business in open violation of a just and equitable law is fit to be trusted; and if he sells us a spurious article, we have no remedy. He should state what he sells, and sell what he states. It is the part of discretion to require that he shall have paid his license, and to buy of no one who has not. No farmer who buys with ordinary prudence need be cheated, as the law now stands; and if the article is not what it is represented to be, there is an adequate remedy.
Chemical fertilizers ought to be regarded and used chiefly as supplementary to stable manures; that is, they should be used in connection with them and to eke out a short and inadequate supply. They should be selected for this purpose with reference to the wants of the special crop. The stable manure, made up of all the wastes of the farm, is good for the land and good for crops in general; but we cannot supply it in sufficient quantity to meet the want of any special element of plant-food which a particular crop requires, without withholding the just proportion from other lands. Stable manures, for instance, contain potash in small quantities; but some special crop, like onions or clover, requires large quantities of potash; and to add mixed manure in quantities to supply that special want of the plant, would be to rob other crops and other lands. Now, how much better it would be to use a reasonable quantity of stable