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Level Culture. EVERY farmer knows that the common practice of New England, from time immemorial, in the cultivation of corn, potatoes, and other crops, has been that of hilling high during the process of hoeing. We have long been satisfied that this is wrong in principle, however long it may have had the sanction of experience. Of late years a farmer here and there has experimented in level culture; and we believe that where other things were equal, that is, on similar soil, a like degree of moisture, and other favorable circumstances, the results have demonstrated that level culture is preferable.
In this country we are peculiarly liable to suffer from droughts. There is an almost annual prayer for rain. Our leading idea should to save and economize moisture, and to prevent any unnecessary loss by evaporation. Now, one of the well-established laws of physics is, that the evaporation of moisture is in direct proportion to the surface exposed to the rays of the sun and the drying winds. Even in the proverbially moist climate of England, far less liable to droughts than the dry atmosphere of this country, ninety per cent. of the water falling from April to October is evaporated, while only one tenth passes off through the drains or the natural watercourses. This has been ascertained by careful and accurate investigation. In this country the proportion of loss by evaporation must obviously be considerably greater.
If now we consider for a moment how the amount of exposed surface, and the consequent loss by evaporation, is increased by the process of tillage, the importance of adopting the system of level culture will be quite apparent. An acre of perfectly level land exposes a surface of 43,560 square feet. Any disturbance of this surface by the processes of cultivation, no matter how level it may be, must inevitably increase the quantity of surface exposed, so that the same soil thrown into ridges or furrows, or into hills around the plants, to such an extent as to double the surface inevitably exposed, would present 87,120 feet to the influences of evaporation, or two acres of soil on one acre of land. This involves the loss of double the quantity of water by evaporation or exhalation through the air; a loss which directly affects the plants which may be growing in the soil, and often makes the difference between continued growth and absolute death. We cannot, of course, prevent an increase of evaporation as a result of cultivation. Some increase is inevitable ; but let us reduce this necessary loss to the minimum, by level culture, by absolute freedom from weeds, and frequent stirring, whick acts like a mulch.
The following table contains the approximate difference between the time of High Water at Boston and several other places. The reader is warned that this table will not always give the exact time of the tide, as the difference varies from day to day. It is hoped, however, it will be near enough to be useful.
The difference, if preceded by t, is to be added to, or if preceded by -, subtracted from, the time as given in the Calendar pages.
Baltimore, Md... +7 30 Key West, Fla.
-1 59 Point Judith, R. I........ - 3 57 Bath, Me..... +044 Nantucket, Mass. ........+ 0 55 Por land, Me.....
O 12 Beaufort, N. C. - 4 03 Newburyport, Mass...... - O 07 Portsmouth, N. H. .......
0 06 Bridgeport, Conn... -018 Newcastle, Del........... + 0 29 Salem, Mass.
0 16 Cape Henry, Va.
3 34 New Haven, Conn. ...... - 0 13 Sandy Hook, N. Y....... 3 58 Cape May, N. J... - 3 10 New London, Conn...... 2 06 Savannah, Ga., Dry Dock 3 16 Charleston, S. C. - 4 05 Newport, R. I.
3 44 St. Augustine, Fla...
3 08 City Point, Va..... +3 08 New Rochelle, N. Y. 007 Stonington, Conn.. -2 22 Cold Spring, N. J. ... -3 57 New York, Gov. Island.. 3 22
Washington, D. C., Navy
+841 Edgartown, Mass. .... +0 47 Philadelphia, Pa...... +2 15 West Point, N. Y. -027 Holmes Hole, Mass. ..... +0 14 | Plymouth, Mass... ......- Wilmington, Del...
CARRIAGE FARES IN BOSTON. For one adult, from one place to another within the city proper (except as here inafter provided), 50 cents. Each additional adult, 50 cents.
For one adult, from any place in the city proper, south of Dover Street and west of Berkeley Street, to any place north of State, Court, and Cambridge Streets, or from any place north of State, Court, and Cambridge Streets, to any place south of Dover Street and West of Berkeley Street, One Dollar. For two or more adulte, 50 cents each.
Children under four years, with an adult, no charge. Children between four and twelve years old, with an adult, 25 cents oach. From twelve at night to six in the morning, the fare for one adult is double the preceding rates, and 50 cents for each additional adult.
(Currected Sept., 1877, by William Brooks, P. O. Boston, from the latest information furnished by the
P. 0. Department.)
LETTERS IN THE U. 8. Note. - All domestic mail matter (except newspapers, magazines, and periodi
cals sent to actual subscribers from a known office of publication) must be
prepaid by postage stamps. Letters, – The Postage on all domestic letters not exceeding one half oz., is .03
For each additional half ounce, or fraction thereof, weight limited to 4. pounds
.03 Drop or Local Letters. — At offices where free delivery by carrier is established, for each half ounce or fraction
.02 At other offices, for each half ounce, or fraction
.01 Irregular Matter, part writing and part print: Letter rates are to be
charged on such matter, except as hereinafter provided. Registered Letters. —'The fee for registered letters, in addition to the regular rate of 3 cts. for each half ounce, or fraction, is, per letter .
.10 Postal Cards, with postage stamp imprinted upon them, and no writing on the face but the address, each
.01 Circulars, in an unscaled envelope, for each ounce, or fraction, unless deposited for delivery in a letter-carrier office.
.01 NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES, BOOKS, &C. Newspapers, Magazines, &c. (Regular subscribers.) – Allnewspapers to
subscribers only, daily, semi-weekly, weekly, monthly, or quarterly, one copy to each actual subscriber within the county where they are printed and published, wholly or in part, except those deliverable at letter carrier offices, free.
Newspapers and periodical publications mailed from a known office of publication or news agency, addressed to regular subscribers or news agents, issued weekly and oftener, for each pound, or fraction thereof
.02 Less frequently, for each pound, or fraction thereof
.03 Matter, in all cases, to be weighed in bulk at office of mailing.
Circulars, and newspapers (not weeklies), without regard to weight, de. posited in carrier offices, for delivery there, each one
.01 Weekly newspapers to transient parties, deposited in carrier offices for delivery there, each ounce
.01 Periodicals not over 2 ounces in weight, deposited in carrier offices for delivery there, each one
.01 Periodicals over 2 ounces in weight, deposited in carrier offices for delivery there, each one .
.02 Books.-For each two ounces, or fraction, not to exceed four pounds in weight, .01
MERCHANDISE IN THE U. S. Merchandise. - Samples of metals, ores, minerals, and small packages of
merchandise, flexible patterns and sample cards, phonographic paper, letter envelopes, postal envelopes and wrappers, plain and ornamental paper, cards, book manuscripts, prints, engravings, lithographs, photographs, and blauks, also seeds, cuttings. bulbs, roots, and scions, not exceeding four pounds in weight, for each ounce, or fraction thereof
.01 MISCELLANEOUS PRINTED MATTER. Miscellaneous, including pamphlets, occasional publications, transient news. papers, magazines, handbills, posters, prospectuses, proof sheets, printed music, and maps, for each two ounces, or fraction
.01 UNITED STATES MONEY ORDERS. Money Orders. — For any amount not over $150, and not exceeding $50 on
one order, are issued in the principal offices, on payment of the following
.10 For over $15, and not exceeding $30
.15 For over $30, and not exceeding $10
.20 For over $40, and not exceeding $50
.25 FOREIGN LETTERS. Foreign Letters should indicate on the outside the route by which they are
to be sent, as the difference by various routes is great. The rate given is for
HP For rates by special routes, and on particular dates, inquire at the
.15 Via Brindisi
.19 New Zealand, New South Wales, and Queensland, via San Francisco Australia, except Quoonsland and New South Wales, via San Francisco . .05
FOREIGN LETTERS, Continued.
.05 Belgium, via England, or direct steamer
*.05 Bermuda Brazil, via England
*.10 Buenos Ayres and Argentine Confederation, via England
.27 Canada, including New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, P. E. 1., and Brit. Columbia. .0:3 Ceylon, via San Francisco, or England . China, except Hong Kong, &c., which see below, via San Francisco
.05 Via England. Cuba .
*.05 France, including Algeria, via England, or via direct steamer
*.05 German Empire and Austria
*.05 Great Britain and Ireland
*.05 Guiana, British, and Dutch, via St. Thomas Guiana, French, via St. Thomas
.13 Guiana, French, via France
*.05 Honduras, British
.13 Hong Kong, Canton, Amoy, Swatow, Macao, and Foo Chow *.10 India, British, also French Colonies, via Brindisi
*.10 Japan, via England
*.10 Japan, via San Francisco
*.05 Manilla, Philippine Islands, via England
*.10 Mauritius, via England.
*.10 Mexico, by steamer Mexico, by overland routes
.03 Nassau, Bahamas
.05 Peru, Ecuador, and Chili
.17 Portugal, via Southampton or Liverpool Russia.
*.05 Sandwich Islands
.06 Singapore, via San Francisco
*.05 Turkey, European or Asiatic
*.05 Venezuela, via St. Thomas
.13 W. Indies (except islands at which mail st’m's touch, where the rate is 5 cts.) .13
FOREIGN POSTAL CARDS, MONEY ORDERS, &C. United States Postal Cards may be sent to Newfoundlland, Cuba, Great
Britain and Ireland, Japan, the Continent of Europe, Egypt, and Morocco, by affixing a 1-cent stamp on the face thereof, and writing nothing but the
address on the face. To Canada no extra stamp is required. Foreign Money Orders not exceeding $150, and not exceeding $50 on one order, are issued as follows:
To Gt. Britain, Ireland, and Switzerland, for each $10 or fraction thereof 25
.15 Over $5 and not exceeding $10.
.25 For every $10, or fraction thereof over $10, an additional
.25 To Canada (not Newfoundland), for orders not exceeding $10
.20 For every additional $10, or fraction over $10, an additional
,20 Newspapers, Samples, and Printed Matter for Foreign Coun
tries. - Newspapers not over 4 oz. in weight, to any country in Europe, to Cuba, Japan, Asiatic Turkey, Egypt, North Africa, and Morocco, each one.
.02 Pamphlets, Magazines, Books, miscellaneous Prints, and samples of mer
chandise, to any country in Europe, to Cuba, Japan, Asiatic Turkey,
Egypt, North Africa, and Morocco, each 2 ounces, and fraction thereof .02 To Canada (not Newfoundland), the postage on printed matter of all
kinds, whether transieut or to regular subscribers, is the same as the domestic rates for the same, Samples limited to 8 ounces
.10 Foreign Registered Letters. - To Great Britain, Ireland, European
States, Brazil, Japan, India, Egypt, Morocco, Cuba, and Spanish Possessions in North Africa, in addition to the regular postage, which must be prepaid for registered letters, each letter
HINTS FOR THE HOUSEHOLD. Drinking Water.– The instrumentality of drinking-water, and especially of well-water, in the production of fevers and bowel disorders, is a fact constantly observed. Surface water finds its way into wells, carrying with it a portion of the impurities which may lie upon the ground, and thus in time renders the water foul. This fouling is a slow process, since the ground acts as a filter, and removes the largest share of the impurities before the water reaches the well. It is a sure process, however, and one to guard against which no pains should be spared to keep the surface in the vicinity of the well free from all decomposing substances. "Dr. Derby states that, as a rule, a well receives drainage from a superficial circular area whose diameter is from one to three times the depth of the well, varying with the character of the soil. To keep the latter area in a thoroughly purified condition is, therefore, a good and safe rule to follow. By this rule, a well twenty feet deep should have no privy, pig-pen, barn-yard, or drain, or have slops or garbage thrown upon the surface, within thirty feet of it in any direction. Beside the leachings, wells, from not being properly covered, become the receptacles for all sorts of decaying rubbish from the surface, such as leaves, rotten wood, dead rats, toads, etc. The greatest danger from all these impurities is when the water is so low that the splash of the bucket stirs up the sediment, or when a copious rain causes a sudden rise in a very low well, accompanied with a thorough stirring up from the bottom.
That many farm-houses have water of surpassing purity, whether drawn with the “old oaken bucket” or a good modern pump, there is no denying; but that many others are strikingly defective is equally certain. We have seen, for instance, a well dug at the edge of the barn-yard, so as to supply both the stock and the family; another in a particularly filthy barn-yard, and the water used for drinking purposes when not too offensive; a third close to a back-door, with slops habitually thrown out close to it, so that, if they did not actually trickle down the well itself, they speedily found their way in through the soil. In the families drinking the water from these wells occurred fatal cases of typhoid fever. - Report of Massachusetts Board of Health, 1874.
Healthiness of Houses. — There are five essential points in securing the health of houses:
1. PURE AIR.
1. To have pure air, your house must be so constructed as that the out atmosphere shall find its way with ease to every corner of it. Once insure +b 0 the air in a house is stagnant, and sickness is certain to follow.
2. Pure water is common; but well-water of an impure kind is ofter? for domestic purposes; and when epidemic disease shows itself, persons using such water are almost sure to suffer.
3. Drains are a common source of disease, either by communicating with the well and infecting the water, or by tainting the air of the house. Drains should always be “trapped”; that is, they should, in one place called the “trap," be filled full with water, so that the bad air cannot pass into the house. Every householder should inspect his drains and know all about them.
4. Keep your house clean from top to bottom. Old papered walls of years' standing, dirty carpets, uncleaned furniture, are ready sources of impurity.
5. A dark house is always an unhealthy house; always an ill-aired house; always a dirty house. Want of light stops growth and promotes scrofula, rickets, etc., among the children.
People lose their health in a dark house; and if they get ill, they cannot get well again in it. -Abridged from FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE's Notes on Nursing.
Knowledge how to Live. As vigorous health and its accompanying high spirits are larger elements of happiness than any other things whatever, the teaching how to maintain them is a teaching that yields in moment to no other whatever; and therefore we assert that such a course of physiology as is needful for the comprehension of its general truths and their bearings on daily conduct is an essential part of a rational education. - HERBERT SPENCER.
HIGHEST MEDALS AWARDED.
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A CHOCOLATE AND BROMA.
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The house of WALTER BAKER & CO., established in 1980, has received the Highest
CHOCOLATE, BROMA, and COCOA PREPARATIONS. Referring to the Medal awarded to Messrs. BAKER & Co. at the Paris Exposition of 1867, the Paris L'Indicateur says, –
France, until the present time, has always held the first rank in the production of this
ired by some of the English houses, and frequent analyses have been made under the
ation of boards of health and sanitary associations in our large cities, to determine the pimy of the articles offered in this country. In every instance the articles manufactured | by WALTER Baker & Co. have been reported entirely pure and free from the admixture of any deleterious substances. It is the maintenance of this high standard in the quality of their goods which has given the establishment its world-wide reputation, and has placed it upon such an enduring foundation.
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LIST OF ARTICLES MANUFACTURED BY WALTER BAKER & CO.
German Sweet Chocolate,
Racahout des Arabes.
WALTER BAKER & Co., Dorchester, Mass.