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less neglect, and to subject such towns to very heavy penalties. No doubt they ought to be indicted, and it is perhaps the duty of individuals who suffer loss of time and inconvenience to enter complaints ; but travellers are long suffering and patient, and so it clearly becomes the duty of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals to see that the selectmen of every town comply with the law. If there is any case of cruelty to animals concerning which there can be no question, it is to mislead or to fail to guide a traveller and to compel his horse to go five or ten miles out of his way at the end, perhaps, of a long journey on a hot summer's day. This is not a supposed case. We could mention numerous instances, and it is a common complaint.
FACTS FOR FARMERS. A COMMON pump will last longer, and keep in repair better, if the pumping is done with a long slow stroke, rather than a short quick one, and the same amount of water is more easily raised.
THERE is nothing to be had in this world, that is, nothing worth having, without some difficulties. To raise good apples is attended with some trouble when the canker worms prevail. A mixture of tar and printers' ink will keep them off, but it must be followed up from about the middle of March till the middle of April, and from about the middle of October till the ground freezes. Tack a strip of tarred paper tightly around the trunk, and daub on with an old paint brush.
A LITTLE iron or wooden trough around the trunk of an apple tree, filled with kerosene oil, is a pretty sure protection against the cankers
It ought to have some covering to prevent the rain and the leaves from getting in. It is a trifle more expensive than printers' ink, but a little less trouble.
AMONG the best market apples to raise are the Williams and the Grapenstein. The Williams ought to be allowed to ripen on the tree. It is like the peach in that respect. Mulch the land with old meadow-hay, so as to prevent the bruising of those that fall. The Williams is one of the most beautiful apples we have, and is always salable.
If you are supplying milk to customers, either directly or through contractors, there is nothing so important to insure success as to get rid of the animal heat as soon as the milk is drawn from the cow, This can be done by setting the pail into very cold water, or surrounding it with ice, till the milk is quite cold. Get it down below 60° as soon as possible.
To insure good butter, the first requisite is good cows; the second, good food, with either a little Indian meal or good clover hay every day; and the third, perfect cleanliness and skill in handling. With these conditions, none ought to fail. How is it that we find so much poor butter thrust upon the market ?
To get rid of the small stones on cultivated land, or on lands laid down to grass, a man with a close-pronged dung-fork will do more work, and do it much easier, than two men picking by hand. Let those who have stony land to contend with try it and see. They will never stoop to pick by hand again, and it will be safe to run the mowing machine over every field.
HARD-Wood ashes, unleached, must be regarded as one of the best fertilizers we have for all plants and soils requiring potash. If it contained nitrogen, in which it is deficient, it might be regarded as a complete fertilizer. But nitrogen can easily be supplied from other sources. as the crude Chili saltpetre or guano. It is bad economy to sell ashes They are worth more to use on the farm than any peddler will give is them. Leaching removes the potash.
The best time to skim milk and to churn the cream is just before it becomes sour. After cream becomes sour, the longer it stands “to ripen,' the more it depreciates. The quicker it is then skimmed and churned, the better. It should not be churned too new.
IF cream is colder than the surrounding air, it takes up moisture and impurities from the air. But if the air colder than the cream, it takes up moisture and whatever escapes from the cream. In the first case the cream really purifies the air. In the second the air helps to purify the
No farmer need be afraid to spread stable or compost manures on the surface, exposed to sun and air, with an idea that it will lose by evaporation. The loss is very much less than most farmers suppose. If the land is level, so that there is little or no wash, the loss is very trifling.
The elements which constitute the chief value of farm-yard manure are potash, phosphoric acid, and nitrogen. The first two ingredients are not volatile, and of course they do not evaporate. Nitrogen as found in stable manure at some stages of fermentation is slightly volatile, but as usually applied it is latent and cannot evaporate.
The soil is an absorbent, and seizes and holds the gases given off by fermenting manures applied on or near the surface. The fear to apply stable manures as a top-dressing for grass-lands, at any season of the year, lest there should be great loss by evaporation, is not well founded.
Most farmers are in the habit of hauling cartloads of loam or muck and throwing it into the pigsty. Much of this is no doubt waste labor. They have an idea that it ali becomes valuable manure. But neither the feet nor the snout of the hog adds a particle of plant-food to this mass. A small amount as an absorbent of urine may do some good.
The practice of carrying potato vines to the barnyard or the pigsty to be worked over into manure is all very well where the plants are sound and healthy. But where the potato-rot has prevailed it ought never to be done. The rot is a fungus growth that originates in the leaf, and carrying this to the manure-heap is a sure method of spreading the disease over the farm.
ON most farms in this part of the country, there are patches of coarse wild grasses and bushes, which ought to be cut, though they may be of little or no value. The tendency of such waste places is to increase, but cutting every year will at last eradicate them, and leave the land to be used for other purposes.
TURKEYS that are intended for the Thanksgiving market should be kept growing straight ahead. If their crops are not full when they come home at night, fill them up with grain. You can't half starve a turkey from the time it is weaned till a few weeks before market, and then make an extra bird of it by any process of stuffing.
The cutworm is a great nuisance, both in cultivated and on grass lands. The damage it does to growing crops is often enormous. There seems to be no better way to prevent it than clean culture and fall ploughing. To plough late in the fall not only removes from it all vegetable matter on which it feeds, but destroys vast numbers by freezing them out. The moths that produce the cutworms fly in the night. There are many species of them.
Good roads and good schools are the best investments any town can make. The first are for the good of every citizen now, and the second for the welfare and intelligence of generations that are to come. A neglect of the roads renders the selectmen liable to indictment for cruelty to animals, and the neglect to put up necessary guideboards is about equally bad. When will our country towns learn that it is true economy to look after these important duties?
(Prepared Sept., 1886, at the Post Office, Boston.)
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THE HOUSEHOLD. THE TABLE. — We should never speak of what is unpleasant at the table. If we have bad news to tell, this is not the place to tell it. Sickness, accident, death, and whatever is painful to hear, should not be discussed, any more than what is disagreeable. Neither is the table the place to talk of work or business details; but subjects should be chosen that all are interested in. No one should be allowed to scold or find fault at mealtimè. Cheerful conversation is good for digestion as well as enjoyment. Each one should be in his best mood at the table, and the hours which families spend together there ought to be the happiest of the day. - Lessons on Manners.
TO KEEP THE HANDS SOFT AND SMOOTH WHILE DOING HOUSEWORK. After washing dishes, or any like work, wash the hands carefully and wipe dry. Then rinse thoroughly in vinegar and water, one half each. A bottle of the mixture should be kept handy.
TO KEEP WOOLLENS FROM MOTHs. - Brush thoroughly, then sew tightly in cotton bags. For coats or any heavy garment, hang by a hoop through the shoulders, or by loop in the usual way; and upon taking them out they are free from wrinkles, odor of camphor, etc.
TO AVOID SHRINKAGE IN WASHING ALL-WOOL GOODS. - Dissolve a sufficient quantity of soap in warm water, adding a little sal-soda to soften it.
Wash, wring, and then rinse in clean warm water, using no cold or very hot water, after which shake well and dry quickly. Do not rub on soap, or use a washboard. Avoid all patent washing powders or liquids.
EXERCISE OUT-OF-DOORS. — Every woman should take a certain amount of exercise out-of-doors. It is necessary for good health and good nature too. If by doing so you will be obliged to leave some of the work in the house undone, who will know or care one hundred years from now ? — The Household.
CORN MUFFINS FOR BREAKFAST. - Pour a quart of boiling milk over a pint of fine corn meal. While still hot, add a tablespoonful of butter and a little salt, stirring the batter thoroughly. Let it stand until cool; then add a small cup of wheat flour and two eggs well beaten. When mixed sufficiently, put the batter into shallow tins (or better yet, into gem pans), well greased, and bake in a brisk oven a half hour, or until of a rich brown color. Serve hot.
POTATO PIE. — Boil the potatoes until soft, then peel and rub them through a sieve; to a quarter of a pound of potatoes add one quart of milk, three teaspoonfuls of melted butter, four beaten eggs, and sugar and nutmeg to taste. Bake as you would a custard pie.
TO CLEAN OIL-CLOTH. — Use tepid skimmed milk, with an equal quantity of cold tea, and no soap.
CHOCOLATE DROPS. – Two and a half cups pulverized or granulated sugar (or maple sugаr may be used), one-half cup cold water; boil four minutes; place the saucepan in cold water, and beat till cold enough to make into little balls ; take half a cake of Baker's chocolate, shave off fine, and put it in a bowl set in the top of a boiling tea-kettle to melt, and when balls are cool enough, roll them in the chocolate with a fork. This makes eighty. Or, while making into balls, mould an almond meat into the centre of each ball, roll them in coarse sugar, and you have delicious
cream almonds.” Or, mould unbroken halves of walnut meats into soft sugar, and, when cold, roll them in the chocolate. When finished, take out and lay on buttered paper until cold. — Practical Housekeeping.