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ALL farmers have noticed that in some seasons the apples nearly all fall from the trees when quite small, say half an inch to an inch in diameter. A careful investigation was instituted to find out the cause of this great loss, and over eight hundred specimens were picked up and carefully examined. Of these little green apples all but three were found to have been punctured by the curculio or plum weevil, and in every crescent-shaped mark was found a small worm or an egg. Most farmers have supposed this premature dropping off due to the larva of the codling moth, but only four or five of these worms were found in the eight hundred specimens.
The most effective and practical remedy against the attacks of the curculio is to let either pigs or hens run in the orchard. With a few plum trees near the house, or in the garden, it is an easy matter to arrange this. With a large orchard at a distance from the farm buildings it is somewhat more difficult, but there is no more healthful way of raising pigs than to give them the range of an orchard and let them help themselves. The cost of keeping, over and above the grass they will eat, will be much less than if they are kept in close confinement, while the improvement of the fruit crop will give a good interest on the land. Try it two or three years and see.
WHEN apples are plenty they can be fed to cows, to pigs, and to horses, not only with safety but with positive advantage. Sweet apples that are approaching maturity are always good, and sour apples that are ripe contain a great deal of nutriment; but sour apples, so green that they rot before mellowing, are not fit to feed out to cows. There is little nutriment in a small green apple compared with what it will contain when ripe. Give only a few at first, and increase gradually to half a bushel a day. Winter apples ought not to be fed out till cold weather.
Grow peach trees on poor land, and do not give them too much manure. The great mistake, too often made, is overfeeding. It creates a rapid and luxuriant growth, but it is tender and cannot endure our winters. Many of the diseases of the peach tree are due to this cause. Some old and well fined stable manure may be used without running much risk, but special mineral fertilizers, in which a little sulphate of ammonia will supply sufficient nitrogen, and high grade muriate of potash, with some standard superphosphate, will give far better results. Five pounds of muriate of potash to each tree, worked in late in the fall, will be enough.
WHEN peach trees are young, some other crop may be grown among them in alternate rows. Pear trees, blackberry and raspberry bushes, or some annual crop, are often grown without material injury. But after the trees have come into full bearing other cultivation ought to be given up. It is not a good plan to cultivate a peach orchard after midsummer. Such an operation as digging potatoes is too much of a cultivation of the land late in the season. It is apt to induce a late fall growth, which is to be avoided. Peach trees may be shortened back late in November, after the fall of the leaf, or early in the spring.
THERE is an article called Buhach, got up in California, and put up in boxes like baking-powder cans, that is sure death to most insects. We cannot say how it compares with pyrethrum or Persian insect powder for use on currant bushes, cabbages, potatoes, and other plants to keep off insects; but it appears to be pure and fresh and effective in most cases, and it is certainly worth a careful trial. Pyrethrum ought to be kept in tight packages. The oil, which constitutes its active principle, is volatile and escapes on long exposure to the air.
THE PUBLIC DEBT, Sept. I, 1884.
(Not including bonds issued to Pacific Railroad Compauies.) Debt bearing interest At Three per ct.
250,000,000 00 At Four per ct.
737,683, 150 00 At Four and one-half per ct. 214,571,350 00 Refunding Certificates.
271,900 00 Navy Pension Fund at 3 % :
$1,216,526,400 00 Debt on which int. has ceased since maturity $14,188,585 26 Debt bearing no interest
Old Dem’d and Leg. Tender . $316,739,376 00
$1,841,704,203 57 Total accrued interest
10,351,844 11 Total Debt
$1,852,056,047 68 Cash in the Treasury .
414,541,952 97 Total debt, less am't of cash in the Treasury, Sept. 1, '84, $1,437,514,094 71
Total debt, less am't of cash in the Treasury, Sept. 1, '83, 1,536,518,765 09 Decrease the past year
TIDE TABLE. The tides in the Calendar page are given for the port of Boston, in standard time.
The following table contains the approximate difference between the time of High Water at Boston and several other places. The reader is warned that this table will not always give the exact time of the tide, as the difference varies from day to day. It is hoped, however, it will be near enough to be useful.
The difference, if preceded by t, is to be added to, or if preceded by-, subtracted from, the time as given in the Calendar pages.
405 + 308 - 3 57 - 021 + 047 .- 1 59
New Bedford, Mass..
- 3 30
-006 Newbury port, Mass. :- 007 Salem, Mass.
- 0 16 Newcastle, Del. . + 0 29 Sandy Hook, N.Y.
- 3 58 New Haven, Conn. .-013 Savannah, Ga., Dry Dock 3 16 New London Conn. - 206 St. Augustine, Fla.
- 3 08 Newport, R.I.
-3 44 Stongington, Conn. - 2 22 New Rochelle, ny.
0 07 Vineyard Haven, Mass. +014 New York, Gov. Island - 3 22 Washington, D.C., Navy Norfolk, Va. - 2 16
+841 Philadelphia, Pa. . +2 15 West Point, NY.
- 0 27 Plymouth, Mass. -0.10 Wilmington, Del..
2 23 Point Judith, R.I.
- 3 57 Wood's Holl north side 3 36 Portland, Me.
south side 2 53
+ 0 55
CARRIAGE FARES IN BOSTON. For one adult, from one place to another within the city proper (except as hereinafter provided), or from one place to another in East Boston, or from one place to another in South Boston, or from one place to another in Roxbury, 50 cents. Each additional adult, 50 cents.
For one adult, from any place in the city proper, south of Dover Street and west of Berkeley Street, to any place north of State, Court, and Cambridge Streets, or from any place north of State, Court, and Cambridge Streets, to any place south of Dover Street and west of Berkeley Street, One Dollar. For two or more passengers, 50 cents each.
Children under four years with an adult, no charge. Children between four and twelve years old, with an adult, half-price. From twelve at night to six in the morning, the fare is 50 cents above the preceding rates for each passenger.
No charge for one trunk; each additional trunk, 25 cents.
By the Carriages of the Herdic Phaeton Co., and by any of the one-horse cabs, you can ride for 25 cents for ordinary trips.
POETRY, ANECDOTES, ETC.
FROM ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S The winds that once the Argo bore
ADDRESS AT GETTYSBURG. Have(lied by Neptune's ruined shrines, But, in a larger sense, we cannot dediAnd her hull is the drift of the deep-sea cate, we cannot consecrate, we canfloor,
not hallow this ground. The brave Though shaped of Pelion's tallest pines. men, living and dead, who struggled You may seek her crew in every isle, here, have consecrated 'it far above our Fair in the foam of Ægean seas,
power to add or detract. The world But out of their sleep no charm can wile will little note, nor long remember,
Jason and Orpheus and Hercules. what we say here ; but it can never forAnd Priam's voice is heard no more
get what they did here. It is for us, the
living, rather, to be dedicated here to By windy Iliurn's sea-built walls; From the washing wave and the lonely far so nobly carried on.
the unfinished work that they have thus
It is rather for shore
us to be here dedicated to the great task No wail goes up as Hector falls. On Ida's mount is the shining snow,
remaining before us — that from these
honored dead we take increased devotion But Jove has gone from its brow away, to the cause for which they here gave And red on the plain the poppies grow the last full measure of devotion that Where Greek and Trojan fought that
we here highly resolve that the dead day.
shall not have died in vain-that the Mother Earth! are thy heroes dead ?
nation shall, under God, have a new Do they thrill the soul of the years no
birth of freedom, and that the govern, more?
of the people, by the people, and Are the gleaming snows and the poppies for the people, shall not perish from the red
earth, All that is left of the brave of yore? Are there none to fight as Theseus fought,
MAXIMS ON MONEY. Far in the young world's misty dlawn? The art of living easily as to money is Orteach as the gray-haired Nestor taught? to pitch your scale of living one degree Mother Earth! are thy heroes gone ? below your means.
Comfort and enjoyGone? — in a nobler form they rise;
ment are more dependent upon easiness Dead ?
we may clasp their hands in in the detail of expenditure than upon OUTS,
one degree's difference in the scale. And catch the light of their glorious eyes,
Guard against false associations of pleaAnd w reathe their brows with immor
sure with expenditure - the notion that tal flowers.
because pleasure can be purchased with Wherever a noble deed is done,
money, therefore money cannot be spent There are the souls of our heroes stirred; without enjoyment. What a thing costs Wherever a field for truth is won,
a man is no true measure of what it is There are our heroes' voices heard.
worth to him; and yet how often is his
appreciation governed by no other standTheir armor rings on a fairer field ard, as if there were a pleasure in expen
Than Greek or Trojan ever trod, diture per se. Let yourself feel a want For Freedom's sword is the blade they before you provide against it. You are wield,
more assured that it is a real want; and And the light above them the smile of it is worth while to feel it a little in order God!
to feel the relief from it. When you are So, in his isle of calm delight,
undecided as to which of two courses you Jason may dream the years away;
would like best, choose the cheapest. But the heroes live, and the skies are This rule will not only save money, but bright,
save also a good deal of trifling indeAnd the world is a braver world to-cision.
SHE DWELT AMONG THE
She dwelt among the untrodden ways, Bright suns without a spot;
Beside the springs of Dove, But thou art no such perfect thing; A maid whom there were none to praise, Rejoice that thou art not!
And very few to love : Heed not though noneshould calltheefair; A violet by a mossy stone, So, Mary, let it be,
Half hidden from the eye! If nought in loveliness compare
Fair as a star, when only one
Is shining in the sky.
When Lucy ceased to be;
The difference to me!
THE FARMER'S LIFE. Fretting is both useless and unneces- Nor think a life of toil severe; sary. It does no good, and a great dea- No life has blessings so sincere; of harm; yet it is almost a universal sin- its meals so luscious, sleep so sweet; More or less, we are all given to it. We Such vigorous limbs, such health comfret over almost everything. In summer
plete; because it is too bot, and in winter because A mind so active, brisk, and gay, it is too cold. We fret when it rains be- As his who toils the livelong day. cause it is wet, and when it does n't rain A life of sloth drags hardly on ; because it is dry; when we are sick, or Suns set too late, and rise too soon; when anyboily else is sick. In short, if Youth, manhood, age, all linger slow anything or everything does n't go just To him who rothing has to do. to suit our particular whims and fancies,
TIMOTHY DWIGHT. we have one grand general refuge – to tret over it.
Home is the natural centre of the DESCRIPTION OF A FINE cow. world; but too niuch staying there un
fits one to make bome what it should She's long in her face, she's fine in be. It is necessary for the father and horn,
mother to break up the routine of their She'll quickly get fat, without cake or days, to go out into a fresh world, to corn,
change air and sky and scenery, to see She's clear in her jaws, and full in her new faces, and be surrounded by new chine,
interests. It is even better that they She's heavy in flank, and wide in her should be tired, confused, perplexed by loin,
unwonted cares, than that they should She's broad in her ribs, and long in her forever tread the old, dull round of rump,
th A woman goes back to her A straight and flat back, with never a home with a better appreciation of huunp;
its value for having spent some time She's wide in her hips, and calm in her away from it. Many an excellent eyes,
woman is disagreeable simply because She's fine in her shoulders, and thin in she is wearied, worried, and woru with her thighs,
too long spinning in one groove. She's light in her neck, and small in
GAIL HAMILTON. her tail, She's wide in her breast, and good at
SONG. the pail; She's fine in her bone, and silky of skin, Faith and unfaith can ne'er be equal
In love, if love be love, if love be ours, She's a Grazier's without, and a Butcher's within.
powers; Unfaith in aught is want of faith in all.
It is the little rift within the lute TEACH SELF-CONTROL. That by and by will make the music
mute, Give self-control, and you give the es- And, ever widening, slowly silence all. sence of all well-loing in mind, body, and estate. Morality, learning, thought. The little rift within the lover's lute, business success — the master of himself or little pitted speck in garnered fruit, can master these.
That, rotting inward, slowly moulders Everyone allows this. Everyone sees all. that it is self-control that bestows the It is not worth the keeping: let it go; blessings of perseverance, punctuality, But shall it? answer darling; answer, due observance of all duties, kindness, courtesy.. Why, then, is it not one of the first aims of those who bring up
And trust me not at all, or all in all.
TENNYSON. youth to teach self-control? How can it be taught? Never, at any
DUTY THE BEST GUIDE. rate, unless with government there is freedom. If a boy's life be always squared Thus man is made equal to every for him, if his dread of punishment event. He can face danger for the alone be appealed to, if his own judg- right. A poor, tender, painful body, he ment and conscience be never left free can run into flame or bullets, or pestito choose between the evil and the good, lence, with duty for his guide. He feels how shall he learn self-government ? the insurance of a just employment. I Depend upon it, neither boys nor nations am not afraid of accidents, as long as I can grow into the fulness of manhood, am in my place. . . . Life is hardly reof self-reliance, and self-mastery, unless spectable, – is it? if it has no generous they drink deep of freedom.. He whose guaranteeing task, no duties or affeceye is always on that of a director can tions, that constitute a necessity of exnever learn to direct himself. A few isting. Every man's task is his lifemischiefs for the time would be well preserver. The conviction that his made up in after life if, in school as well work is dear to God and cannot be as out, discipline were combined with spared, defends him. larger liberty. CHARLES BUXTON.
R. W. EMERSON.
WIT AND HUMOR.
“BAGGAGE not allowed in the seat, A WIDE VIEW. _“You have a wide sir,” said the conductor.
“I have no view from these mountains," said an baggage in the seat,” said the passenEnglishman to a shepherd in some re
ger. “Aren't these two valises yours?"
* Two valises ! Why, I have n't any," mote district in the heights of Aberdeen. “That's true,” said the shepherd. arising from his seat.'" Oh, excuse me, “You can see,” said the travellers (there
said the conductor, and he left, remarkwere two), “ America from here." | ing: “The biggest feet I ever saw.” “Muckle farrer than that,” be replied. “An' how can that be?” " When the
ANSWERS TO CHARADES, ENIGmist drives off, ye can see the mune.”
MAS, ETC., IN LAST YEAR'S WHAT A CROW IS WORTH. - A gen
ALMANAC. tleman giving evidence before a Par
ANSWERS TO CHARADES. liamentary committee, said that in 1. Tom-boy. some districts the number of crows upon 2. Muff, Fin- Muffin. a farm would average at least fifty; 3. Season. that the birds were of great service in
ANSWER TO ENIGMA. destroying wire-worms, and where they did not exist the farmer was obliged to
Skates (made of wood and iron). bire boys to do the work of the crow,
PROVERB. paying them at the rate of three-half- Faint heart never won fair lady. pence per hundred worms. Mr. Bright ANSWERS TO CONUNDRUMS. inquired how much a boy could earn 1. Not any. They are all carried. worm-killing, and was told ninepence, 2. Because it makes ice nice. but when asked if a boy made ninepence 3. Because he sells what he needs a day at the rate of three-halfpence a (kneads) himself. hundred wire-worins, how many of 4. The letter m. those noxious creatures he destroyed in
THE HAT STORY. a day, the witness, turning restive,
To determine the hatter's loss, ask replied that he did not come there yourself what he had after the transacto answer arithmetical questions. Mr. Bright, however, was not to be put oft tion less than he had before in money in that way.
or hats. It is plain he bad one hat less, He asked if a boy did the
which the cheat had carried off. As to work as well as a crow. “A crow is worth fifty boys,” was the rash reply. I had to redeem from his neighbor the
the money part of the transaction, he Then quoth Mr. Bright: “If a boy is fifty dollar counterfeit bill. But, havworth ninepence a day, a crow worth fifty boys, how much is the crow worth ing done this, he was not fifty dollars
poorer than when his customer came to the farmer in money?". Not unnat- in, for that customer left seven dollars urally, the gentleman lost his temper,
and a half of good money. The latter, but in vain. Paper, pen, and ink were handed to him, and, after battling with therefore, lost forty-two dollars and á the figures awhile, he announced that a crow was worth just 378. 6d. a day to the farmer. He was then asked to in
CHARADES. form the committee what, at that rate, 1. All grades of men must do my first, was the yearly value of the bird ; and, Or idle they will be: of course, could not make it less than Great numbers of my next in town, £681 7s. 6ů (about $3400 !!).
If you go there, you'll see.
And it should be the workman's care THE TRAVELLER'S PUZZLE. This is an old story, and it may amuse
To keep my whole in good repair. readers to exercise their wits over it. 2. The first is a half, the second is a ball, A man was once travelling with a wolf,
and the whole is a half. a goat, and a cabbage. He was obliged to cross a river in a boat so small that
ENIGMA. he could only take one thing at a time, The lover feels me in his breast, either the cabbage, the goat, or the Oh! do not deem him weak; wolf, but not two of them together. I have a tongue, all men allow, He was somewhat puzzled as to how to manage. If he took the wolf, the goat I add a charm to winter nights,
Although I never speak. would eat the cabbage while he was gone ; if he should take the cabbage,
I glad both rich and poor ; the wolf would kill the goat; if, finally,
guess, he should take the goat first, the wolf
You'll find me out, I'm sure. left behind would not eat the cabbage, it is true, but what could he take over
CONUNDRUMS. on the second passage ? Not the wolf, 1. Why are nose and chin often at because he could not leave him with the variance? goat while he went back for the cab- 2. How can a leopard change his bage ; not the cabbage, for he could not spots ? leave that with the goat while he was 3. Why are hot rolls for breakfast like gone to get the wolf. Finally he hit caterpillars ? upon a way to do it, and did it success- 4. Why do pioneers march at the head fully. How did he do it?
of the regiment?