COURTS IN THE STATE OF VERMONT. (Corrected September, 1884. Legislature meets in October, 1884, and may make changes.) Supreme Court.

County Courts. Gen. term at Montpelier, Oct. or Nov. Addison Co., at Middlebury, 1st Tu.

Addison Co., at Middlebury, 1st Mo. in June and 20 Tu. in Dec. aft. 3d Tu. in Jan.

Bennington Co., at Manchester, 1st Bennington Co., at Manchester, 2d Tu. in June, and Bennington, 1st Tú. in Tu. after 4th Tu, in Jan.

Dec. Caledonia Co., at St. Johnsbury, 2d Caledonia Co., at St. Johnsbury, 1st Tu. in May.

Tu. in June and Dec. Chittenden Co., at Burlington, 1st Chittenden Co., at Burlington, 1st Tu, in Jan.

Tu. in Apr. and 3d Tu. in Sept. Essex Co., at Guildhall, 4th Tu, in Essex Co., at Guildhall, 3d Tu. in Aug.

Mar. and Sept. Franklin Co., at St. Albans, 1st Th. Franklin Co., at St. Albans, 2d Tu. aft. 2d Tu. in Jan.

in Apr. and Sept. Grand Isle Co., at North Hero, 3d Grand Isle Co., at North Hero, last Tu. in Jan.

Tu. but one in Feb., and last Tu, in Aug. Lamoille Co., at Hyde Park, 3d Tu. Lamoille Co., at Hyde Park, 4th Tu. in Aug.

in Apr. and 1st Tu. in Dec. Orange Co., at Chelsea, 6th Tu. aft.

Orange Co., at Chelsea, 1st Tu, in 4th Tu. in Jan.

June and 3d Tu, in Dec. Orleans Co., at Irasburg, 4th Tu, in Orleans Co., at Irasburg, 1st Wed. May.

aft. 1st Tu. in Sept. and 1st Tu. in Feb. Rutland Co., at Rutland, 1st Th. aft. Rutland Co., at Rutland, 2d Tu. in. 4th Tu. in Jan.

Mar. and Sept. Washington Co., at Montpelier, 3d Washington Co., at Montpelier, 2d Tu. in May.

Tu. in Mar. and Sept. Windham Co., at Newfane, Mon. Windham Co., at Newfane, 2d Tu. following 2d Tu. aft. 4th Tu. in Jan. in Mar, and Sept.

Windsor Co., at Woodstock, 1st Th. Windsor Co., at Woodstock, 4th Tu. aft. 4th Tu, next aft. 4th Tu, in Jan. in May, and 1st Tu. in Dec.

(Corrected in September, 1884. Legislature meets in January, and may make changes.)

Supreme Court of Errors. Tolland Co., at Tolland, 1st Tu, in First Judicial District. (Hartford, June., Sept., and Dec., and 20 Tu. Apr. Windham, Tolland, Litchfield and Mid Windham Co., at Brooklyn, 1st Tu. dlesex Co's) at Hartford, 1st Tu. Jan., Apr. crim.; 20 Tu. in May and Nov.; at Mar., May, and Oct.


1st Tu. Feb. and 4th Tues. Second' Judicial District. (New Aug.; 1st Tu. Oet., crim. London Co.), at Norwich, last Tu. May Writs may be made returnable in the counties

of Hartford, New Haven or Fairfield, on the first and 3d Tu. Oct.

Tuesday of any month except July and August. Fairfield Co., at Bridgeport, 3d Tu. in Mar, and 4th Tu. in Oct.

Courts of Common Pleas. New Haven Co., at New Haven, 1st Fairfield Co., at Danbury, 1st Mo. Tu, in June and Dec.

in Feb., Apr., June, Dec.; at Bridgeport,

1st Mon. Jan., Mar., May, Sept., Oct., Superior Court.

Nov.; and may adjourn from either Fairfield Co., Civil only, at Bridge- place to Norwalk or Stamford for the port, 2d Tu. Feb.; at Danbury, 3d Tu. trial of court cases only. Sept. - criminal, and such civil as may Hartford Co., at Hartford, 1st Mo. be transferred thereto by the Court; at in Jan., Mar., May, Sept., and Nov. Bridgeport, 3d Tu. Feb., 2d Tu. Sept., Litchfield' Co., at Litchfield, 1st Mo. 3d Tu. Oct.; at Danbury, 2d Tu. May. May and 4th Mo. Sept.; at Winchester,

Hartford Co., at Hartford, for civil 1st Mo. Jan., Apr., and Sept.; at Cabusiness only, 2d Tu. Oct., 4th Tu. Jan.; naan, 1st Mo. Mar., July, and Nov.; and for criminal business only, 1st Tu. Mar., at New Milford, 1st Mo. Feb. and Aug. June, and Dec., and 2d Tu. Sept.

New Haven Co., at New Haven, 1st Litchfield Co., at Litchfield, 1st Tu. Mo, in Jan., Mar., May, and Nov., and June, ciril causes by Court only; 3d Tu. 3d Mo. Sept. Aug. and 1st Tu. Dec., civil; 1st Tu. New London Co., at Norwich, 1st Apr., 2d Tu. Oct. crim. only.

Tu. Feb. and Oct.; at New London, 1st Middlesex Co., at Middletown, 2d Tu. in Apr. and Aug. Tu. Feb. and Nov.; at Haddam, 3d 'Tu.

Writs may be made returnable in the county of Apr. and 4th Tu. Sept.

Hartford on the 1st Monday of any month except New Haven Co., at Waterbury, 1st July and August, and in the county of New HaTu. May and 2d Tu. Dec.; crim., last Tu. ven on the 1st and 3d Monday of any month. Mar. and Sept. At New Haven, civil,

The District Court 1st Tu. Jan., 4th Tu. Sept.; crim. 1st Tu. in Jan., April, July, Oct.

Of Waterbury includes Waterbury and New London Co., at New London, towns adjoining, except Cheshire; also 1st Tu. Jan. (crim.), 3d Tu. Mar. 2d Tu. Southbury and Woodbury. Terms, 1st Sept.; at Norwich, 1st Tu. May (crim.), Mo. Jan., till Fri. bef. 1 Mo. July; and 1st Tú. June and ist Tu, Nov.

1st Mo. Sept., till Fri. bef. Dec. 25.


(Corrected September, 1884. Legislature meets in January, and may make changes.)
Supreme Judicial Court.

Plymouth Co., at Plymouth, 3d Tu.

Oct. Barnstable Co., at Barnstable, 1st Worcester Co., at Worcester, 3d Tu. Tu, of May.

after 2d Tu. Sept. Berkshire Co., at Pittsfield, 2d Tu.

Superior Court. of May.

Barnstable Co., at Barnstable, Tu. Bristol, Nantucket, and Dukes

after 1st Mon. of Apr., and 2d Tu. of

Oct. Cos., at New Bedford, 2d Tu. of Nov.; also at Taunton, 3d Tu. Apr.

Berkshire Co., at Pittsfield (civil), Essex Co., at Salem, 3d Tu. of Apr. 21 Mo. of Jan. and Júly.

4th Mo. of Feb. June, and Oct.; (crim.) and 1st Tu. Nov. Franklin Co., at Greenfield, 2d Tu.

Bristol Co., at Taunton, 1st Mo. of of Apr.

Mar. and Sept.; and at New Bedford,

1st Mo. of June and Dec. Hampden Co., at Springfield, 4th Tu. of Apr.

Dukes Co., at Edgartown, last Tu.

of May and Sept. Hampshire Co., at Northampton, 3d Tu. of Apr.

Essex Co., (civil), at Salem, 1st Mo.

of June and Dec.; at Lawrence, 1st Mo. Middlesex Co., at Lowell, 3d Tu. of Mar., and at Newburyport, 1st Mo. Apr.; also at Cambridge, 3d Tu. Oct.

of Sept.; (crim.) at Lawrence, 1st Mo. Norfolk Co., at Dedham, 3d Tu. of Oct., at Newburyport, 2d Mo. of May, Feb.

and at Salem, 4th Mo, of Jan. Plymouth Co., at Plymouth, 2d Tu. Franklin Co., at Greentield, 3d Mo. May.

of Mar., and 2d Mo. of Aug. and Nov. Suffolk Co., at Boston, 2d Tu. Sept. Hampden Co., at Springfield (rivil), and 1st Tu. Apr.

2d Mo. of Mar. and June, and 4th Mo. Worcester Co., at Worcester, 2d Tu.

of Oct.; (crim.) 3d Mo. of May, and 1st

Mo. of Dec.

Hampshire Co., at Northampton, A law term for the Commonwealth (civil) 30 Mo. of Feb., 1st Mo. of June,

and 3d Mo. of Oct.; (crim.) 2d Mo. of shall be held at Boston on the 1st Wed. of Jan. of each year, which term may

June, and 3d Mo. of Dec. be adjourned from time to time, to

Middlesex Co., (civil), at Lowell, 2d places and times most conducive to the Mo. of Mar., and 1st Mo. of Sept., at despatch of business and the interests Cambridge, 1st Mo. of June, and 2d of the public; and there shall be en-Mo. of Dec.; (crim.) at Cambridge, 2d tered and determined therein questions Mo. of Feb. and 1st Mo. of June ; and of law arising in the counties of Barn- at Lowell, 3d Mo. of Oct. stable, Middlesex, Norfolk, and Suffolk; Nantucket Co., at Nantucket, ist and also all questions of law arising in Tu. of July and Oct. other counties where special provisions

Norfolk Co., at Dedham (civil), 4th are not made therefor. And law terms of said court shall Mo. in Apr., Sept., and Dec.; (crim.) 1st

Mo. in Apr., Sept., and Dec. also annually be held as follows:

Plymouth Co., at Plymouth, 2d Mo. Berkshire Co., at Pittsfield, 2d Tu. of Feb. and June, and 4th Mo. of Oct.. of Sept.

Suffolk Co., at Boston (civil), 1st Tu. Bristol, Nantucket, and Dukes Jan., Apr., July, and Oct.; (crim.) 1st Cos., at Taunton, 4th Tú. Oct.

Mo. of every month. Essex Co., at Salem, 1st Tu. Nov.

Worcester Co., (civil), at Worcester,

1st Mon. of Mar., Mon. after 4th Mon. Hampden Co., at Springfield, 2d Mo. of Aug. and 2d 'Mo. of Dec.; and at after 2d Tu. of Sept.

Fitchburg, 2d Mo. of June and Nov.; Hampshire and Franklin Cos., at (crim.) at Worcester, 3d Mo. of Jan., 2d Greenfield, Mo. next after 2d Tu. of Mo. of May, and 3d Mo. of Oct.; and at Sept.

Fitchburg, 2d Mo. of Aug.


(Corrected September, 1884.) Muricipal Courts are held, crim. cester, Holyoke, Lawrence, Lee, Lowdaily, civil, every Sat., in Boston, as ell, Lynn, Marlborough, Newton, Somfollows: In Boston (old city), Roxbury erville, and Williamstown. Also at District, South Boston, East Boston Chelsea, for Chelsea and Revere ; Haver(including Winthrop), Dorchester Dis- hill, for Haverhill, Bradford, and trict, Charlestown District, Brighton Groveland ; Nerrburyport, for NewburyDistrict, and West Roxbury District. port and Newbury; and Springfield for

Springfield, Agawam, Longmeadow, Police Courts are held daily at Hampden, West Springfield, and WilBrookline, Chicopee, Fitchburg, Glou- braham.

DISTRICT COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS. (Corrected Sept., 1884. Legislature meets in January, and may make changes.) No. Berkshire. For Adams, No. 1st of S. Middlesex. For Ashland, Adams, Cheshire, Clarksburg, Florida, Framingham, Holliston, Sherborn, Sudand Savoy, at No. Adams, crim., daily, bury, and Wayland, at S. Framingham, 9 A.M.; civil, weekly; at Adams, crim., crim., daily ; civil, every Mon. daily; civil, 1st and 3d Wed. each month. E. 'Norfolk. For Randolph, Brain

Central Berkshire. For the towns tree, Cohasset, Weymouth, Quincy, of Dalton, Hancock, Hinsdale, Lanes- Holbrook, and Milton, at Quincy, crim., borough, Peru, Pittsfield, Richmond, daily, 9 A. M. ; civil, every Mon. Washington, and Windsor, at Pittsfield, 1st of Plymouth. For Brockton, crim., daily, 9 A. M. ; civil, every Sat. Bridgewater, E. and W. Bridgewater, at

So. Berkshire. For Alford, Egre- Brockton, crim., daily ; civil, every Tu. mont, Great Barrington, Monterey, Mt. 2d of Plymouth. For Abington, Washington, New Marlboro', and Shef- South Abington, Rockland, Hingham, field, at Great Barrington, crim., daily, Hull, Hanover, Scituate, So. Scituate, at 9 A. M.; civil, every Sat. at 10 A. M. and Hanson, civil and crim, at Abing

1st of Bristol. För Taunton, Reho-ton, every Mon., Wed., Th., and Sat. ; both, Berkley, Dighton, Seekonk, Attle- at ủingham, every Tu. 'and Fri. Writs borough, Norton, Mansfield, Easton, returnable on Wed. and Raynhan, at Taunton and Attle- 3d of Plymouth. For Plymouth, borough, crim., daily ; civil, every Mon. Kingston, Plympton, Pembroke, Dux

2d of Bristol. For Fall River, Free- bury, and Marshfield, at Plymouth, town, Somerset, and Swansea, at Fall crim., daily ; civil, every Mo. River, crim., daily ; civil, every Mon. 4th of Plymouth. For Middlebor

[20 and 31 Dist. Courts of Bristol have concur- ough, Wareham, Lakeville, Marion, rent jurisdiction in Westport and Freetown.) 3d of Bristol. For New Bedford; crim., at Middleborough, every Tu.,

Mattapoisett, and Rochester, civil and Fairhaven, Acushnet, Dartmouth, and Wed., and Sat., and at Wareham, every Westport, at New Bedford, crim., daily; Mon., Th., and Fri. Writs returnable civil, every Monday. 1st of Essex. For Salem, Beverly, Wareham, 2d and 4th Th., each month.

at Middleborough, 1st and 3d Tu., at Danvers, Hamilton, Middleton, Topsfield, and Wenham, at Salem, crim., Petersham,

1st of N. Worcester. For Athol, daily, 9 A. M.; civil, every Wednesday. Templeton, Gardner, and 'Hubbardston,

Phillipston, Royalston, E. Hampden. For Palmer, Brim- crim. at Gardner every Mon., Wed., field, Munson, Holland, and Wales, at and Fr. ; at Athol every Tu., Th., and Palmier, crim., daily, 9 A. M.; civil, 1st

Sat; civil, return days for writs, at and 3d Sat. of each month.

Hampshire. For the towns of Hamp- Gardner, 1st and 3d Wed., at Athol, 2d shire Co., at Northampton, on Mo. and

and 4th Th. every month.

1st of So. Worcester. For SturTu. each week ; at Amherst, 1st and 3d Wed. each month ; at Cummington, 2d bridge, Southbridge, Charlton, Dudley, Wed. each inonth ; at Belchertown, 1st bridge, Mo., Wed., and Fri., at Webster,

Oxford, and Webster, crim., at Southand 3d Th. each month; at Huntington, Tu., Th., and Sat., civil, at Southbridge, 2d and 4th Th. each 2d, and 30 Fri. each month ; at asť: Mo., Webster, Tu., weekly. hampton, 2d and 4th Sat. each month.

2d of S. Worcester. For Blackstone, [The cerms at Cummington may be held or

Uxbridge, Douglas, and Northbridge, not, at the discretion of the justice.)

for trials by jury, in Blackstone or Ux1st of N. Middlesex. For Ayer, bridge, at such times as the public conGroton, Pepperell, Townsend, Ashby, venience may require; when not in sesShirley, Westford, Littleton, and Box- sions for trials by jury, the court shall borough, at Ayer, crim., daily, 9 A. M.; be held for crim. business in Blackstone civil, 1st and 3d Mon, of each month. every Mo., Wed., and Fri., in Uxbridge,

Central Middlesex. For Acton, every Tu., Th., and Sat. ; for civil busiBedford, Carlisle, Concord, Lincoln, ness, in Blackstone, every Mo., in UxMaynard, Stow, Lexington, at Concord, bridge, every Sat. crim., daily; civ., 1st and 3d'Wed. ea. mo. 3d of S. Worcester. For Milford,

1st of E. Middlesex. For Wilming- Mendon, and Upton, at Milford, crim., ton, No. Reading, Reading, Stoneham, daily ; civil, 1st and 3d. Wed. each mon. Wakefield, Melrose, Malden, Everett, Central Worcester. For Worcesand Medford, crim., at Malden every ter, Millbury, Sutton, auburn, LeicesMo., Tu., Fri., and Sat., at Wakefield ter, Paxton, w. Boylston, Boylston, every Wed. and Th. ; civil, weekly, at Holden, and Shrewsbury, at Worcester, Malden, Sats., and Wakefield, Weds. crim., daily, 9 A. M. ; civil, every Sat.

2d of E. Middlesex. For Water- 1st of E. Worcester. For Northtown, Weston, and Waltham, at Wal borough, Southborough, Westborough, tham, crim., daily ; civil, every Sat. and Grafton, crim., Westbor', every Mo.,

3d of E. Middlesex. For Cambridge, Wed., and Fri., at Grafton, every Tu., Arlington, and Belmont, at Cambridge, Th., and Sat.; civil, at Westborough, crim., daily ; civil, every Th.

every Mo., at Grafton, every Tu. 4th of E. Middlesex. For Woburn, 2d of E. Worcester. For Clinton, Winchester, and Burlington, at Wo Berlin, Bolton, Harvard, Lancaster, and burn, crim., daily; civil, every Sat., Sterling, at Clinton, crim., daily ; civil,

2d and 4th Sat. of each month.

10 A. M.

(Corrected September, 1884, Legislature meets in January, and may make changes.),

When the appointed day falls on every mo. except Nov.; Northtield, 2d a holiday, or day of national or state Tu. May and Sept. ; Orange, 2d. 'Tu. election, the court icill be held on the Mar, and Dec., and 3d Tu. June ; Connext secular day thereafter.

way, 3d Tu. May ; Shelburne Falls, 2d Barnstable. At Barnstable, 2d Tu. Tu. Feb., 4th Tu. May, and 4th Tu. Oct. Jan., Feb., Mar., Aug., Sept., Dec., and Hampden. At Springfield, 1st. Wed. 3d I'u. Apr. and June; Harwich, 2d every month except Aug.; at Holyoke, Mo. after 1st Tu. May, and Mo. after 3d Wed. Jan., Mar., June, and Oct.; 3d Tu. Oct. ; Wellfleet, 3d Tu. May and at Palmer, 2d Wed. Feb., May, and 4th Tu. Oct.; Provincetown, Wed. Sept., and 4th Wed. Nov. ; and, at after 3d Tu. May and Wed. after 4th Westfield on the 3d Wed. Feb., May, Tu. Oct. ; Falmouth, 3d Tu. Nov. Sept., and Dec.

Berkshire. At Pittsfield, 1st Tu. in Hampshire. At Northampton, 1st Jan., Feb., Nar., Apr., May, June,Sept., Tu. of every mo. ; Amherst, 2d Tu. Jan., Oct., and Dec., 3a Tu. July, and Wed. Mar., June, Aug., and Nov.; Belcheraft. 180 Mo. Nov.; Lee, Wed. aft. 1st town, 2d Tu. May and Oct., and WilTu. in Jan., Apr., and Oct., and Wed. liamsburg, 3d Tu. May and Oct. after 3d Tu. July; Adams, Th. after Middlesex. At Cambridge, 1st, 2d, 1st Tu. Jan. and Oct., Wed. after 1st and 4th Tu. ea. mo. ex. Aug. ; Lowell,

3d Tu. Mar., and Th. after 3d Tu. in July; Tu. Jan., Mar., May, July, Sept., Nov. Gr. Barrington, Wed. after 1st Tu. in Nantucket.' At Nantucket, on Th. Feb., May, Sept., and Dec.

after 2d Tu, of every month. Bristol. At Taunton, 1st Fri. Mar., Norfolk. At Dedham, 1st and 3d June, Sept., Dec.; New Bedford, 1st Fri. Wed., Quincy, 2d Wed., Hyde Park, 41b Feb., May, Aug., and Nov.; Fall River, Wed. every month except Aug. 1st Fri. Jan., Apr., July and Oct.

Plymouth. At Plymouth, 2d Mo. Dukes Co. At Vineyard Haven, 3d each mo. except Feb., July, and Aug. ; Mo. Apr. and 1st Mo. Sept. ; Edgar- Abington, 4th Mo. Feb., Mar., Sept., and town, 3d Mo. Jan. and July, and 1st Dec. ; Brockton, 2d Mo. Feb. and July, Mo. Mar. and Dec.; W. Tisbury, 1st and 4th Mo. May and Nov.; MiddleborMo. June, and 3d Mo. Oct.

ough, 4th Mo. Jan., Apr., Aug., and Essex. At Salem, 1st Mo. each mo., Oct. ; Hingham, 4th Mo. in June. and 3d Mo. each mo. except Aug. ; Suffolk. At Boston, every Mo. in the Lawrence, 2d Mo. Jan., Mar., May, year, except 1st, 2d, and 4th Mo. Aug. June, July, Sept., and Nov.; Haver- Worcester. At Worcester, 1st and bill, 2d Mo. Apr. and Oct. ; Newbury- 3d Tu. of every mo. except Aug. ; Fitchport, 4th Mo. Jan., Mar., May, June, burg, 4th Tu. ev. mo. ex. July and Aug.; July, Sept., Nov.; Gloucester, 4th Mo. Milford, 2d Tu. A pr. and Sept. ; Temple. April and Oct.

ton, 2d Tu. May and Oct.; and Barre, Franklin. At Greenfield, 1st Tu. in Wed. aft. 2d Tu. of May and Oct.

Courts of Insolvency in Mass. are held by the Judges of Probate and Insol-

vency in each county, at times appointed by themselves.

(Corrected Sept., 1884.)
Barnstable, H. P. Harriman, Wellfleet. | Hampden, W. S. Shurtleff, Springfield.
Berkshire,'J. S. Robinson, No. Adams. Middlesex, Geo. M. Brooks, Concord.
Bristol, Wm. E. Fuller, Taunton. Nantucket, T. C. Defriez, Nantucket.
Dukes, Joseph T. Pease, Edgartown. Norfolk, G. White, Newton L. Falls.
Essex, George F. Choate, Salem. Plymouth, Jesse E. Keith, Abington.
Franklin, C. C. Conant, Greenfield. Suffolk, John W. McKim, Boston.
Hampshire, W.G. Bassett, Easthamp'n. | Worcester, Adin Thayer, 'Worcester.

COUNTY COMMISSIONERS' MEETINGS IN MASSACHUSETTS. (Corrected September, 1881. Legislature meets in January, and may make changes.) Barnstable, at Barnstable, on the 2d | Tu. of Apr., the 1st Tu. of Oct., and the Tu. of Apr. and Oct.

4th Tu. of June and Dee. Berkshire, at Pittsfield, on 1st Tu. Hampshire, at Northampton, on 1st Jan., Apr., July, and Oct.

Tu. of Mar., Sept., and Dec., and on the Bristol, at Taunton, on 4th Tu. Mar. Tu. aft. the 2d Mo. of June. and Sept.

Middlesex, at Cambridge, on the 1st Dukes Co., at Edgartown, Wed. aft. Tu. of Jan. and the 1st Tu. June ; and 3d Mo. May, and Wed. ait. 2d Mo. Nov. at Lowell, on the 1st Tu. Sept.

Essex, at Ipswich, on 2d Tu. of Apr.; Nantucket, 1st Wed. of each month. at Salem, on the 2d Tu. July; at New- Norfolk, at Dedham, on the 3d Tu. buryport, on the 2d Tu. of Oct.; and at of Apr., the 4th Tu. of June and Sept., Lawrence, on the last Tu. of Aug.; and and the last Wed. of Dec. on the 4th Tu. of Dec., at Ipswich, Plymouth, at Plymouth, on the 1st Salem, or Newburyport, as they shall Tu. of Jan., the 3d Tu. of Mar., and the order at their next preceding term. 1st Tu. of Aug.

Franklin, at Greenfield, 1st Tu. Mar. Worcester, at Worcester, on the 4th and Sept., and 2d Tu. June and Dec. Tu, of Mar., the 3d Tu. of June, the 2d

Hampden, at Springfield, on the 2d | Tu. of Sept., and the 4th Tu. of Dec.

FACTS FOR FARMERS. THE seeds of many weeds that grow among the cultivated grasses that are cut for hay, like sorrel, the white or ox-eye daisy, dock, etc., are not destroyed in passing through the digestive organs of the animal unless they are actually crushed in mastication. They retain their vitality, and will readily germinate, under favorable conditions, just as well as if they had not passed through the animal stomach.

THE vitality of weed-seeds, like the ox-eye daisy, chickweed, sorrel, etc., is destroyed by fermentation in a moist compost heap, with a heat anywhere froin 90° to 110°, in from five to seven days. If the heap is dry, even with this heat, the vitality may not be destroyed.

In a common pig-pen, into which it is a general practice to throw large quantities of weeds in summer, the conditions as to temperature required to destroy the vitality of the seeds are not present, and if the seeds of such weeds are mature enough to germinate at all, they ought not to be put there. It is cheaper to burn them and done with it.

WHEN the flowers of the white daisy first expand the seeds are not in a condition to germinate, but they reach this condition in a very few days. Fields infested with this weed ought, therefore, to be cut early, very soon after the first blossoms are fully expanded. If cut promptly the seeds will not have reached sufficient maturity to germinate. But if the cutting is delayed until the blossoms generally appear those that bloomed out first will have matured their seeds, and the manure made from hay so cut and cured will be infested with seeds capable of germination and growth.

WHEN manure is made from hay filled with the white daisy and other weeds, and fed to horses and other cattle, it ought to be composted with muck or other substances and allowed to ferment and heat in order to destroy the vitality of the seeds scattered through it. The work required to compost manure is the chief objection to it, but the manure is improved by the operation, and it is the only safe way to use it. Working over the heap diffuses the moisture and promotes the heating, one of the essential conditions for the destruction of the vitality of weed seeds.

CLEAN culture, the freedom from weeds and foul growths of every kind, is the cheapest and the wisest in the long run. Weeds will not ordinarily infest a field in a high state of cultivation and well manured. If a field is weedy it is an indication that it is time to plough it up and re-seed. Sheep will destroy the white daisy and many other weeds, but scrub dogs will be likely to destroy the sheep.

JUNE grass, or, what is the same thing, Kentucky blue grass, is one of our earliest and most common grasses, but in old fields that have been exhausted by long cropping, the roots of this grass are attacked by the larvæ of the June bug, or May beetle, as it is often called, so that the tops turn white, with a fungus growth just above the last leaf. This fungus is not apt to form and attach itself to the stem of the grass unless the cells have become weakened in some way, like that indicated above, that is, either from poverty of the soil or from attacks upon the roots by the May beetle. The only remedy seems to be to plough up and reseed, with a liberal manuring.

« ElőzőTovább »