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feeding grain pays in New England. Pigs should always be fed as much as they can be made to eat up clean, and no more. If fed too much, they will not thrive so well, and will waste their feed. This is the most simple and essential rule in their management, but is rather difficult of application.
Swill from the city is excellent feed for breeding-sows and store-pigs. The sows, while suckling their young, need the addition of some grain (oats and corn ground together, or wheat refuse). The swill alone is apt to make the young pigs too loose in the bowels, and is hardly nourishing enough for sows bearing the heavy drain of a large litter of pigs; but it is excellent for store-pigs, giving rapid and healthy growth. The few that are intended for slaughter should be fed all they can be made to eat of cooked corn meal and small potatoes, for about two months before being killed. This will pay well; for not only will the hogs thus fed gain weight enough to pay for the corn consumed, but the quality of the pork will be improved besides, to the amount of one or two cents per pound.
A good deal of the profit in feeding pigs will depend upon the breed used. Where the first cross between a rather coarse breed, like the Chester white, or common native hogs of the country, with a fine-boned hog, like the small Yorkshire or Essex, can be easily obtained, it will make the most profitable store-pig for ordinary feeding. The fine-boned breeds in general are sold at too high prices for the common farmer to use for breeding or fattening; and the large breeds are too great feeders. But a common, or Chester white sow, put to a Yorkshire small boar, or Essex boar, will produce pigs of remarkable qualities for easy feeding and rapid growth. The fine breeds are not so hardy and prolific breeders as the coarser ones, and the sows are indifferent milkers. Many sows will be found ill-natured and fierce with their pigs: such should be fattened and killed; also a sow which does not have more than six pigs at a litter should be killed. The black breeds (Berkshire and Essex) have not as yet become generally popular in New England, whether from the impression that the black color makes them suffer from the heat of the sun, or from the false notion that the pork is dark when dressed, it would be hard to say. The Yorkshire small breed seems now the most desirable cross for our native or grade Chester stock.
The pig-pens must be near water, as a good supply is most essential, and is too often neglected. They must have, also, a dry bed. Pigs seem to rather relish a bath in mud or mire, in warm weather, but must have a chance to keep dry if they wish. The more air and excrcise they can have, the healthier they will be. A very cheap and convenient yard and nest may be made of spruce boards, thus: Take eighteen pieces about five inches wide, an inch thick, and ten feet long; two pieces five inches wide, one inch thick, five feet long; eight pieces three inches wide, two inches thick, four feet long. Nail the ten-feet rails to the four-feet posts, leaving three inches space between each, so as to form a square yard four feet high, with posts at corners, and a post in the middle of each side. Five rails are used on each side of the yard. Three sides are made with long rails only; the fourth has three long rails, and two short ones reaching only half way, leaving an opening against which the sleeping-box is placed, which we are about to describe. This is made of cheap spruce matched boards, four feet by five on the floor, and four feet high, with a "lean-to" cover or roof, and is furnished with handles at each end, to move it. The side which is next the yard has a large opening the whole length, and the whole box rests on legs at the corners, raising the floor six inches from the ground, to keep it dry. This yard and box, with the pigs in it, are easily moved on to fresh ground when they become dirty, and the manure can then be easily loaded into a cart, and carted to a pile. Weeds and rubbish are also easily thrown into the yards from a cart, to be trampled and torn up by the pigs. By putting dry litter into the boxes, they will thrive in this arrangement in quite cold weather. A yard of twelve feet square will accommodate thus six or eight "suckers," or a less number of larger pigs, with less expense for lumber than in any other way. Only two hundred feet of spruce, worth about four dollars, being required. Three rules must be observed. 1. Feed all they will eat, and no more. 2. Give plenty of water. 3. Give a dry bed.
The Potato Beetle.
THIS pest, the Colorado bug (doryphora decemlineata, the scientific folks call him, but he'll smell as sweet with any name), has arrived, and taken up his abode in New England. He means business, and we must make up our minds, if we would raise potatoes hereafter, to deal with him as summarily as possible. They have been travelling eastward from the Rocky Mountains for about twenty-five years, and this year (1876) have appeared in the neighborhood of Boston, and even further to the east. In 1877, they will be numerous and voracious over the greater part of New England.
When young, they are very small,-perhaps the size of a pin's head. They grow to the size of a large pea or a small bean, and are a slimy, sluggish bug, of a pale reddish color, with five small black spots on each side. When full grown, they change to a winged beetle, with five black stripes on each wing-case. Hence the name Decemlineata, or ten lined. If not numerous, the bugs can easily be brushed off the vines by hand into a pail of soap-suds; but, if their numbers are great, recourse must be had to some more effectual remedy. Many have been
tried, with more or less success, but the one in which we feel the most confidence is Paris Green. This is arsenic, a deadly poison, and must be used with great care. If so used, it seems to be harmless, both to the man who uses it, and to the potato It has been used in the West for years, with success and safety. The poison is a powder, and should be mixed before applying. It is nearly insoluble in water, but probably the best method of applying it is to mix a spoonful of it with eight quarts of water. If mixed with ashes or flour, and dusted upon the vines, there is some danger of inhaling the powder, and getting it into the eyes, causing much inconvenience. Mixed with water, it may be applied with a watering-pot, or any convenient sprinkler. Keep the poison in a safe place, out of the way of children, and mark it poison. Don't inhale it, or let it come in contact with any sore or wound. When the bug appears, make a business of destroying them, and in most cases you may still raise an abundance of fine potatoes.
RULES FOR MAKING A WIFE HAPPY. as when you were wooing her.
Never find fault with her in a cross tone and manner, and especially before other people.
If your dinner does not suit you, do not spoil her appetite by scolding about it at the time, but give whatever suggestions are needed after dinner.
Do not humiliate her by groaning over every item of household expense as if she was extravagant. Either retrench in superfluities, or pay for them without murmuring.
Share your pleasures and your cares with her, and show that you value her society and her advice.
Do not speak lightly of her cares and fatigues, but sympathize in her troubles, whether small or great.
Try to gratify her fancies, such as a flower garden, or conveniences about her work. She will be reminded of your consideration or neglect many times every day by these little things.
RULES FOR MAKING A HUSBAND HAPPY.-Try to do not only what your husband wishes in household matters, but also when and how he wishes.
Show that you are anxious to avoid waste, and to be faithful in your department of labor.
Do not neglect neatness of person and surroundings.
Never speak slightingly or bitterly of or to your husband, especially in the presence of other people.
When your feelings have been hurt, do not allow your thoughts to dwell upon the injury, but resolutely banish it from your mind, and do some kindness in
Speak gently always, and do not allow your voice to become sharp and loud. Control of the voice helps to control the temper.
The tides given in the Calendar pages are for the port of Boston.
The following table contains the approximate difference between the time of High Water at Boston and several other places. The reader is warned that this table will not always give the exact time of the tide, as the difference varies from day to day. It is hoped, however, it will be near enough to be useful. The difference, if preceded by +, is to be added to, or if preceded by —, subtracted from, the time as given in the Calendar pages.
CARRIAGE FARES IN BOSTON.
For one adult, from one place to another within the city proper (except as hereinafter provided), 50 cents. Each additional adult, 50 cents.
For one adult, from any place in the city proper, south of Dover Street and west of Berkeley Street, to any place north of State, Court, and Cambridge Streets, or from any place north of State, Court, and Cambridge Streets, to any place south of Dover Street and West of Berkeley Street, One Dollar. For two or more adults, 50 cents each.
Children under four years, with an adult, no charge.
Children between four and twelve years old, with an adult, 25 cents each.
From twelve at night to six in the morning, the fare for one adult is double the preceding rates, and 50 cents for each additional adult.
(Corrected Sept., 1876, by William Brooks, P. O. Boston, from the latest information furnished by the P. O. Department.)
LETTERS IN THE U. S.
NOTE- All domestic mail matter (except newspapers, magazines, and periodi cals sent to actual subscribers from a known office of publication) must be prepaid by postage stamps.
Letters.The Postage on all domestic letters not exceeding one half oz., is
At offices where free delivery by carrier is established, per each half ounce
At other offices, per each half ounce Irregular Matter, part writing and part print: Letter rates are to be charged on such matter, except as hereinafter provided. Registered Letters. The fee for registered letters, in addition to the regular rate of 3 cts. for each half ounce or fraction, is, per letter.
Postal Cards, with postage stamp imprinted upon them, and no writing on the face but the address, each
Circulars, in an unsealed envelope, for each ounce, or fraction, unless deposited for delivery in a letter-carrier office.
NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES, BOOKS, &C. Newspapers, Magazines, &c. (Regular subscribers.) -All newspapers to subscribers only, daily, semi-weekly, weekly, monthly, or quarterly, one copy to each actual subscriber within the county where they are printed and published, wholly or in part, except those deliverable at letter carrier offices, free. Newspapers and periodical publications mailed from a known office of publication or news agency, addressed to regular subscribers or news agents, issued weekly and oftener, for each lb. or fraction thereof,
Less frequently, for each pound or fraction thereof
Matter, in all cases, to be weighed in bulk at office of mailing.
Circulars, and newspapers (not weeklies), without regard to weight, deposited in carrier offices, for delivery there, each one.
Weekly newspapers to transient parties, deposited in carrier offices for delivery, each ounce. .
Periodicals not over 2 ounces in weight, deposited in carrier offices for delivery there, each one
Periodicals over 2 ounces in weight, deposited in carrier offices for de-
For each two ounces, or fraction, not to exceed four pounds in weight, .01
Merchandise. -Samples of metals, ores, minerals, and small packages of merchandise, flexible patterns and sample cards, phonographic paper, letter envelopes, postal envelopes and wrappers, plain and ornamental paper, also seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots, and scions, not exceeding four pounds in weight, for each ounce, or fraction thereof
Miscellaneous, including pamphlets, occasional publications, transient newspapers, magazines, handbills, imprinted cards, posters, prospectuses, book manuscripts, proof sheets of books, maps, prints, engravings, lithographs, photographs, and blanks, for each two ounces, or fraction
UNITED STATES MONEY ORDERS.
Money Orders. For any amount not over $150, and not exceeding $50 on one order, are issued in the principal offices, on payment of the following
Foreign Letters should indicate on the outside the route by which they are to be sent, as the difference by various routes is great. The rate given is for 1⁄2 ounce or under. A star (*) against the rate denotes that prepayment is optional, except for registered letters; where there is no star, the postage must be prepaid.
For rates by special routes, and on particular dates, inquire at the
New Zealand, New South Wales, and Queensland, via San Francisco
Buenos Ayres and Argentine Confederation, by stm. fm N. York to Brazil
Via San Francisco, except Hong Kong, &c., which see below
German Empire and Austria
Canada, including New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, P. E. I., and Brit. Columbia. Ceylon, via Southampton.
China, Japan, and Java, by British mail, via Southampton
France, including Algeria, via England, or via direct steamer
Great Britain and Ireland
Hong Kong, Canton, Amoy, Swatow, Macao, and Foo Chow
W. Indies (except islands at which mail st'm's touch, where the rate is 5 cts.) .13 POSTAL CARDS, MONEY ORDERS, &C., FOR FOREIGN COUNTRIES.
United States Postal Cards may be sent to Newfoundland, Great Britain and Ireland, the Continent of Europe, Egypt, and Morocco, by affixing a 1-cent stamp on the face thereof, and writing nothing but the address on the face. To Canada no extra stamp is required. Foreign Money Orders not exceeding $150, and not exceeding $50 on one order, are issued as follows:
To Gt. Britain, Ireland, and Switzerland, for each $10 or fraction thereof
For every $10, or fraction thereof over $10, an additional
To Canada (not Newfoundland), for orders not exceeding $10 For every additional $10, or fraction over $10, an additional Newspapers, Samples, and Printed Matter for Foreign Countries.- Newspapers not over 4 oz. in weight, to any country in Europe, to Asiatic Turkey, Egypt, North Africa, and Morocco, each one .02 Pamphlets, Magazines, Books, miscellaneous Prints, and samples of merchandise, to any country in Europe, to Asiatic Turkey, Egypt, North Africa, and Morocco, each 2 ounces, and fraction thereof. To Canada (not Newfoundland), the postage on printed matter of all kinds, whether transient or to regular subscribers, is the same as the domestic rates for the same. Samples limited to 8 ounces Foreign Registered Letters. To Great Britain, Ireland, European States, British India, Egypt, Morocco, and Spanish Possessions in North Africa, in addition to the regular postage, which must be prepaid for registered letters, each letter
HINTS FOR THE HOUSEHOLD.
Baked Beans without Pork. When baked beans with pork disagree with any one, let him have the beans baked without pork, using instead a little butter or cream, which is better still. Here are the directions: For a large family, wash a quart of beans at night, and pour over them a quart of tepid water. In the morning, add two quarts of water, and when it begins to boil, turn it off and replace it with fresh boiling water. Change the water again after half an hour. Let them boil about an hour. Put them into a deep bean-pot, and pour water enough over them to cover them. Let them bake slowly four or five hours. An hour before taking them up, stir in a spoonful of salt, and a cup of cream, or of creamy milk, and a bit of butter.
Rhubarb Jam. - The rhubarb should be wiped, not washed; and it should be fresh and young. Peel the stalks, and cut them up into half-inch pieces; put into a preserving pan equal weights of rhubarb and loaf-sugar, and the juice of two lemons to every five pounds of rhubarb and sugar; or the stalks may be first boiled with half the quantity of sugar, and the other half added. Boil slowly, constantly stirring; and then boil three-quarters of an hour, skimming as long as scum rises, or till it becomes a smooth pulp and a thick jam, which leaves the bottom of the pan when stirred. The grated rind of one lemon may be added to each pound of rhubarb and sugar. A less expensive jam may be made with less sugar than the above, The jam should be put into pots and tied over.
Lime-water. - Take a piece of unslacked lime (never mind the size, because the water will only take up a certain quantity of it), put it into a perfectly clean bottle, and fill the bottle up with cold water; keep the bottle corked, and in a cool, dark place, such as a cellar. In a few minutes it is ready for use, and the clear lime-water can be poured off whenever it is needed. When the water is exhausted, fill the bottle again. This can be done three or four times, after which some new lime must be used, as in the beginning. There are many cases in which milk disagrees with a baby or child, when the addition of a little lime-water makes it digestible. In many instances, also, grown persons are able to take milk freely with benefit, by adding four tablespoonfuls of lime-water to a tumbler of cow's milk, when milk alone would cause distress or disturbance of the stomach.
Soaked Cracker.― Cover a hard pilot-biscuit, or hard cracker, with cold waer, and when the water is absorbed, cover it again with water and place it in the oven; when thoroughly heated and puffed, serve it with a little salt and a few spoonfuls of sweet, rich cream.
Cream Toast. Toast a slice of bread evenly and quickly, not allowing it to become hard, barely dip it in boiling water, then sprinkle some salt over it, and cover it with a few spoonfuls of sweet, rich cream.
Pleasant Drink in Fever.- Put half a pint of dried sour apples, washed clean, in a quart pitcher, and fill it with boiling water. When cold it is ready to drink, either with or without ice. Fresh sour apples may be used in the same way. General Hints for the Sick Room. Be very careful to have everything connected with the meals of the sick person as neat as possible. See that the gruel is palatable, well boiled, free from lumps, of a creamy consistency, and hot.
Keep all medicines out of sight of the patient; have no garments hanging in the room; keep the bed well aired and clean. Do not have any cotton comforters on the bed, they are very heavy and unsuitable for sickness.
When it is not possible to sweep the sick-room, wipe the carpet with a damp cloth; pin the cloth around a broom, and clean thoroughly under all the furniture which cannot be moved.
When children are sick, drink should be given to them only from very small but full glasses. The contents of a nut-shell will satisfy them if overflowing, while a large glass, half full, would leave them unhappy.
FRETFULNESS. All usefulness and all comfort may be prevented by an unkind, a sour, crabbed temper of mind—a mind that can bear with no difference of opinion or temperament. A spirit of fault-finding; an unsatisfied temper; a constant irritability; little irregularities in the look, the temper, or the manner; a brow cloudy and dissatisfied-your husband or your wife cannot tell why-will more than neutralize all the good you can do, and render life anything but a blessing.
REV. ALBERT S. BARNES.
THERE are two things that always pay-working and waiting. Either is useless without the other. Both united are invincible and inevitably triumphant. He who waits without working is simply a man yielding to sloth and despair. He who works without waiting is ever fitful in his strivings and misses results by impatience. He who works steadily and waits patiently may have a long journey before him, but at its close he will find his reward.
IF a person in a house on fire has the presence of mind to apply a wet cloth or handkerchief to his mouth or nostrils, a passage can be effected through the densest