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DISTRICT COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS. (Corrected August, 1876. Legislature meets in January, and may make changes.) No. Berkshire. - For the towns of | Bridgewater, E. and W. Bridgewater, at Adams, Cheshire, Clarksburg, Florida, Brockton, crim., daily; civil, every Tues. and Savoy, at Adams, crim., daily, 2d of Plymouth. - For Abington, 9 A. M.; civil, weekly, at north village So. Abington, Rockland, Hingham, Hull, of Adams, and 1st Wed. of each month Hanover, So. Scituate, and Hanson, crim., at south village.
at Abington, every Mon., Wed., Thurs., Central Berkshire.--For the towns and Sat., at Hingham, every Tues, and of Dalton, Hancock, Hinsdale, Lanesbor- Frid.; civil, at Abington, 1st and 3d ough, Peru, Pittsfield, Richmond, and Wed., and at ling 4th Frid. of eyWindsor, at Pittsfield, crim., daily, ery month. 9 A. M.; civil, every Saturday.
3d of Plymouth.– For Plymouth, So. Berkshire. - For Afford, Egre- Kingston, Plympton, Pembroke, Dux mont, Great Barrington, Monterey, Mt. bury, Marshfield, and Scituate, crim., at Washington, New Marlboro', and Shef- Plymouth, every Mon., Wed., Thu., and field, at Great Barrington, crim., daily, Sat., at Scituate, every Tues. and Frid.; at 9 A, M.; civil, every Sat., at 10 A. M. civil, at Plymouth, 1st and 3d Wed., and 1st of Bristol. - For Taunton, Re- at Scituate,
4th Frid. of every month. hoboth, Berkley, Dighton, Seekonk, At- 4th of Plymouth.–For Middlebotleborough, Norton, Mansfield, Easton, rough, Wareham, Lakeville, Marion, and Raynham, at Taunton, crim., daily; Mattapoisett, and Rochester, crim., at civil, every Mon.
Middleborough, every Tues., Wed., and 2d of Bristol, - For Fall River, Sat., and at Wareham, every Mon., Thu., Freetown, Somerset, and Swansea, at Fall and Frid.; civil, at Middleborough, 18t River, crim., daily; civil, every Mon. and 3d Wed., and at Wareham, 4th Fri.,
3d of Bristol. - For New Bedford, of every month. Fairhaven, Acushnet, Dartmouth, and 1st of So. Worcester.- For SturWestport, at New Bedford, crim., daily; bridge, Southbridge, Charlton, Dudley, civil, every Mon.
Oxford, and Webster, crim., at South1st of Essex.- For Salem, Beverly, bridge, Mon., Wed, and Fri., and at WebDanvers, Hamilton, Middleton, Tops- ster, Tues., Thurs., and Sat., 9 A. M.; field, and Wenham, at Salem, crim., civil, at Southbridge, Mon., Webster, daily, 9 A. M.; civil, every Wed.
Tues., weekly. E. Hampden. - For Palmer, Brim- 2d of So. Worcester.- For Blackfield, Monson, Holland, and Wales, at stone, Uxbridge, Douglas, and NorthPalmer, crim., daily, 9 A. M.; civil, 1st bridge, for trials by jury, in Blackstone and 3d Sat. of each month.
or Uxbridge, at such times as, in the 1st of No, Middlesex.- For Ayer, discretion of the justice, the public conGroton, Pepperell, Townsend, Ashby, venience may require ; when not in sesShirley Westford, Littleton,and Boxbor- sion for trials by jury, the court shall be ough, at Ayer, crim., daily, 9 A.M.; civil, held for crim. business, in Blackstone, 1st Mon, of each month.
every Mon., Wed., and Fri., in Uxbridge, Central Middlesex. For Acton, every Tues., Thurs., and Sat.; for civil Bedford, Carlisle, Concord, Lincoln, May- / business, in 'Blackstone, every Mon., in nard, Stow, and Lexiugton, at Concord, Uxbridge, every Sat. crim., daily'; civil, 1st and 3d Wed, of 3d of so. Worcester. For Milford, each month,
Mendon, and Upton, at Milford, crim., 1st of E. Middlesex.- For Wil- daily ; civil, 1st and 3d Wed, each mon. mington, No. Reading, Reading, Stone- Central Worcester,-For Worcesham, Wakefield, Melrose, Malden, Ever- ter, Millbury, Sutton, Auburn, Leicester, ett, and Medford, crim., at Malden, every Paxton, W. Boylston, Boylston, Holden, Mon., Tues., Frid., and Sat., at Wakefield, and Shrewsbury, at Worcester, crim., every Wed. and Thurs.; civil, at Malden, daily, at 9 A. M.; civil, every Sat. every Sat., and at Wakefield every Wed. 1st of E. Worcester. - For North
1st of ś. Middlesex.-For Ashland, borough, Southborough, Westborough, Framingham, Holliston, Hopkinton, Na- and Grafton, crim., Westborough, every tick, Sherborn, Sudbury, and Wayland, Mon., Wed., and Fri., at Grafton, every at so. Framingham, crim., daily; civil, Tues., Thurs., and Sat., 9 A. M.; civil, every Mon,
at Westborough, every Mond., at GrafE. Norfolk. For Randolph, Brain- | ton every Tues. tree, Cohasset, Weymouth, Quincy, Hol- 2d of E. Worcester.-For Clinton, brook, and Milton, at Quincy, crim., dai- Berlin, Bolton, Harvard, Lancaster, and ly, 9 A. M.; civil, every Mon.
Sterling, at Clinton, crim., daily.; civil, 1st of Plymouth.– For Brockton, | 2d and Ath Sat. of each month.
MUNICIPAL AND POLICE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
(Corrected August; 1876. Legislature meets in January, and may make changes.) Municipal Courts are held daily in the city of Boston, as follows: In Bos. ton (old city), Roxbury District, South Boston, East Boston, Dorchester District, Charlestown District, Brighton District, and West Roxbury District.
Police Courts are held daily at Cambridge, Chelsea, Chicopee, Fitchburg, Gloucester, Haverhill, Holyoke, Lawrence, Lee, Lowell, Lynn, Newburyport, Newton, Somerville, Springfield,' and Williamstown.
PROBATE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS. (Corrected Sept. 1876. Legislature meets in January, and may make changes.) Barnstable. - At Barnstable, 2d Tu. Hampden.- At Springfield, 1st Tu. Jan., Feb., March, Aug., Sept., Dec., Jan., Feb., March, Ap., May, June, July, and 3d Tues. April and June.; Har- Sep., Oct., and Dec.; Palmer, 2d Tues. wich, 2d Mo. af. 1st Tu. May, and Mo, af. Feb., May, and Sept., and 4th Tues. Nov.; 30Tu. Oct.; Orleans, 3d Tu. May and 4th Westfield, 3d Tues, in Feb., May, Sept., Tu. Oct.; Wellfleet, Wed.af.3d Tu. May, and Dec. and Wed. af. 4th Tu. Oct.; Provincetown, Hampshire. - At Northampton, 1st Th, aft. 3d Tu. May, and Th. aft. 4th Tu. Tues. of every mo.; Amherst, 23 Tues. Oct.; Falmouth, 3d Tu. Nov.
Jan., Mar., June, Aug. and Nov.; BelchBerkshire.- At Pittsfield, 1st Tues. ertown, 2d Tues. of May and Oct.; and in Jan., Feb., March, April, May, June, Williamsburg, 3d Tues. May and Oct. Sept., Oct., and Dec., 3d Tu. July, and Nantucket. - At Nantucket, on Th. Wed. after 1st Mon. Nov.; Lee, Wed. aft. aft. 2d Tu. of every mo. 1st Tu.in Jan., Ap., and Oct., and Wed, af. Norfolk.- At Dedham, 1st and 3d 3d Tu. July; Adams, Th. aft. 1st Tu. Jan. Wed. ; Quincy, 2d Wed., Hyde Park, 4th and Oct., Wed. af. 1st Tu. Mar., and Th. Wed. every mo. exc. Aug. af. 3d Tu. in July; Gr. Barrington, Wed. Middlesex.- At Cambridge, 1st, 2d, after 1st Tu, in Feb., May, Sep., and Dec. and 4th Tu, ea. mo. ex. Aug.; Lowell, 3d
Bristol.- At Taunton, 1st Fr. Mar., Tu. of Jan., Mar., May, July, Sep., and Jun., Sep., Dec.; New Bedford, 1st Frid. Nov. Feb., May, Aug., and Nov.; Fall River, 1st Plymouth.- At Plymouth, 20 Mon. Fri. Jan., Ap., Oct., and 20 Fr. July. ev.mo., ex. July and Aug.; Wareham, 4th
Dukes County. At Holmes Hole Mon. Oct.; E. Bridgewater, 4th Mo. Feb. village in Tisbury, 3d Mo. Ap.and 1st Mo. and Dec.; Hingham, 4th Mo. Mar.; MiddleSept. ; Edgartown, 3d Mo. Jan. and July, boro', 4th Mon. Jan. and Ap., and 2d Mon. and 1st Mo. Mar. and Dec.; W. Tisbury, July; Abington, 4th Mo. Nay, Aug., and 1st Mo, June and 3d Mon, Oct.
Nov.; Hanover, 4th Mo. June; BridgewaEssex.-At Salem, Ist Mon. of each ter, 4th Mo. Sep.; North Bridgewater, 3d mo., and 3d Mon. of ea. mo., except Aug.; Mon. Apr. and Oct. Lawrence, 2d Monday Jan., Mar., May, Suffolk.- At Boston, every Monday June, July, Sept., and Nov; Haverhill, in each month. 2d Mon. Apr. and Oct.; Newburyport, Worcester. - At Worcester, 1st and 4th Mon. Jan., Mar., May, June, July 3d Tu. of every mo. except Aug.; FitchSept., and Nov.; Gloucester, 4th Mo. Ap. burg, 4th Tu. of Ap. and Sep.; Milford, and Oct.
2d Tu. of Ap. and Sep.; Templeton, 2d Franklin.- At Greenfield, 1st Tues. Tu, of May and Oct.; and Barre, Wed. in every month, except Nov.; North- next after a Tu. of May and Oct. field, 2d Tues, May and Sept., Orange, HP When the appointed day falls on a 2d Tu. Mar. and Dec., and 3d Tu. June; holiday, the court will be holden by adConway,3d Tu. May; Shelburne Falls, 4th journment at such time and place as the Tu. May, 2d Tu. Feb., and 4th Tu. Oct. judge may appoint. JUDGES OF PROBATE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
(Corrected Sept. 1876.) Barnstable Co., Jos. M. Day, Barnstable. | Hampden Co., Wm. S. Shurtleff, Springf". Berkshire Co., J. T. Robinson, No.Adams, Middlesex Co., Geo. M. Brooks, Concord. Bristol Co., Edm. H. Bennett, Taunton. Nantucket Co., Thaddeus c. Defriez, Dukes Co., Joseph T. Pease, Edgartown. Nantucket. Essex Co., Geo. F. Choate, Salem. Norfolk Co., G. White, Newton L. Falls. Franklin Co., C. C. Conant, Greenfield. Plymouth Co.,Wm.H.Wood, Middleboro'. Hampshire Co., Samuel T. Spaulding, Suffolk Co., Isaac Ames, Boston. Northampton.
Worcester Co., Henry Chapin, Worcester. COUNTY COMMISSIONERS' MEETINGS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
(Corrected Sept. 1876. Legislature meets in January, and may make changes.) Barnstable, at Barnstable, on the 2d Hampden, at Springfield, on the 2d Tues, of April and Oct.
Tues, of April, the 1st Tues. of Oct., and Berkshire, at Pittsfield, on 1st Tu. of the 4th Tues. of June and Dec. Apl., July, and Sept., and last Tu. Dec. Hampshire, at Northampton, on the
Bristol, at Taunton, on the 4th Tues. 1st Tu. of Mar., Sept., and Dec., and on of March and Sept.
the Tues. next after the 2d Mon, of June. Dukes Co., at Edgartown, on the Wed. Middlesex, at Cambridge, on the 1st next after the 3d Mon. of May, and the Tues, of Jan., and the 1st Tues, of June; Wed, next after the 2d Mon. of Nov. and at Lowell, on the 1st Tues. of Sept.
Essex, at Ipswich, on the 2d Tues, of Nantucket, 1st Wed, of each month. April; at Salem, on the 2d Tues. of July; Norfolk, at Dedham, on the 3d Tues. at Newburyport, on the 2d Tues, of Oct.; of April, the 4th Tues. of June and Sept., and at Lawrence, on the last Tues, of and the last Wed, of Dec. Aug.; and on the 4th Tues, of Dec., at Plymouth, at Plymouth, on the 1st Ipswich, Salem, or Newburyport, as they Tues. of Jan., the 38 Tues. of March, shall order at their next preceding term. and the 1st Tues. of Aug.
Franklin, at Greenfield, on the 1st Worcester, at Worcester, on the 4th Tues. of March and Sept., and the 2d Tu. of March, the 3d Tu. of June, the Tues, of June and Dec.
2d Tu. of Sept., and the 4th Tu. of Dec. To Keep Roots in Winter. One of the difficulties to be met with in raising large quantities of roots, is that of storage for winter use. Most farmers have to put them in the house cellar, That is objectionable. They are apt to heat when piled in large masses, and in the course of the winter, unless uncommonly well ventilated, they are liable to taint the air of the house and render it unhealthful. No doubt many fevers and otber diseases, and many deaths, could be traced directly to impurities in the air caused by storing roots and other decaying organic substances in the cellar, or to want of pure air from imperfect drains, from the sink, or the privy. Farmers cannot be too careful to study perfect cleanliness and purity all about the house,
Our winters being cold, roots of course require more protection than they would in England, or in the middle or southern states. But if stacked up in smooth piles two and a half or three feet high, conical at the top, and of any length that may be desired, then covered carefully with ten inches or a foot of straw, and over that a few inches of earth beaten firm with the back of the spade, they will keep sound and well. The main bulk of the soil should not be put on till just before the ground freezes up.
If the straw is thick enough, two or three inches of soil may be applied when the roots are stored, say about the middle of November, and as much more the last of that month. Ruta-bagas will not usually require quite as much protection as mangolds. They resist the frost a little better.
Of course, the stack should be near the barn, so as to be easily accessible when the roots are wanted in feeding stock, and the pile should be opened on mild days, so as not to expose the roots to a temperature so low as to freeze them. The stack should be built on a dry place, and not in a hollow where the water will stand. The straw will not be injured for use as bedding, and this method is inexpensive, and so far as we have seen efficient. We have seen potatoes protected in this way with perfect success. Why not try it and see if we cannot avoid the necessity of lumbering up the house cellar with tons of decaying roots, or else go to work and fix up a root cellar in or under the barn,
Health of the Farm-House. IN theory, life in the country ought to be more buoyant and healthful than life in the city. There the natural conditions are more favorable to long life than are generally to be found in the crowded centres of population. Practically, however, the results do not seem to justify the conclusion. The cases of disease and lowtoned health in farmerg' families are far more numerous than they ought to be, - far more so than they would be under conditions favorable to health, to a high standard of vitality and long life. If we seek for the cause of this anomaly we shall find it in the neglect to observe and study the conditions of health, and the poisons that surround the house, and are tolerated when they ought to be promptly abated or removed. These poisons are of various kinds, and arise from various sources. Among the most fatal are bad air and imperfect ventilation. Poisonous vapors and gases are always generated from the refuse matters about the house and the barn. These gases are often so subtle as to be imperceptible to the senses, and hence they are all the more dangerous. Badly ventilated cellars, where vegetable matters are decaying, are highly deleterious to health, and often the drains from the sink or the privy are neglected and choked up till they become extremely offensive, and are allowed to remain so for weeks and months together. Now it is perfectly well known that most fevers have their origin in noxious exhalations or germs from decaying organic matter. A very large proportion of the diseases that afflict humanity are to be ascribed to a plain disobedience of the laws of health. If they cannot be traced to bad and defective drainage, they are due to bad air. The close rooms of our modern houses, and the use of coal stoves, give us a far lower tone of public health than existed among our ancestors with their old open fireplaces, their large and open chimneys, and their out-of-door life.
The habit, far too prevalent in the country, of sleeping in small and ill-ventilated bed-rooms, often connected with the kitchen, or leading off from it, is the cause of much sickness and many deaths. Perfect ventilation requires at least three thousand cubic feet of fresh air per hour for a grown person, and sleeping-rooms should be so constructed as to allow at least a thousand cubic feet of space to each occupant. A door left open into a kitchen, or a room that has been occupied through the evening, is not an equivalent for open space in the room itself. But the worst of it is, that the bed-room is on the ground floor,
The few feet of earth near the surface is loaded with carbonic acid and other poisonous gases, and carbonic acid is one of the gases that are fatal to life. The exhalations of the human body itself are highly charged with this gas, and if the room is small enough it would require but a short time for the air surrounding us to become so loaded with it as to cause a speedy death. In smaller quantities, especially if we are sleeping near the ground, it is a certain but slower poison. It greatly lowers the tone of health and the activity of the vital forces by keeping the requisite amount of oxygen away from the tissues of the body. These poisonous, impure, and decayed vapors, arising from the insensible exhalations from our own bodies, not only keep off the pure air, but send back into our bodies their fermenting impurities. Both science and observation have conclusively shown that the air near and under the surface of the
earth is far more injurious to health than that several feet above it. The highest living authority on this subject says, "A few feet under the surface there is already as much carbonic acid as there is in the worst ventilated human dwellings.” It is not merely cold or damp air, but air charged with carbonic acid or other deadly gases that come up under our dwellings, and, sooner or later, cause certain diseases. These gases travel under ground and through the soil. They may not often appear in sufficient quantities to cause sudden sickness or death, but they undermine the constitution, lower the vital forces, and prepare the way for the attack of fatal diseases. No farmer who allows the above nuisances on his premises has any right to complain of the ways of Providence when he is suffering from rheumatism, when his wife begins to go down with consumption, or when his child dies in convulsions, or from pneumonia or cholera infantum. It is no mysterious dispensation. It is a plain case of open violation of the laws of health.
The antidote for many of the poisons about the house and the barn is perfect cleanliness, and the use of abundant absorbents, like fine dry loam or coal ashes, They should be kept constantly on hand, and often applied where they are needed, and where they will do most good. Wherever offensive odors are discovered use them freely, especially in the pig-pen and the barn-yard. Air and ventilate the cellar as often as it is possible to do so, and let in the sunlight into the cellar, into the house, into the barn, Wash the cellar every year with lime or whitewash. It is some protection against poisonous gases, and it gives a sense of cleanliness.
If every farmer in New England would raise and eat more fruit and less pork, if he would study to secure perfect purity of air in and around the house, keep the cellar and the lower portions of the house constantly aired and ventilated, sleep in the second story, and let the blessed sunlight into the premises, the death-rate would be greatly diminished, and the healthfulness of our “climate” increased fully fifty per cent. Isn't that result worth an effort ?
Millet for Milk. WITH our variable climate, and the recurrence of a drought in midsummer, it has become a matter of necessity to provide some extra feeding substance to meet the exigency of short and dry pastures. No prudent farmer, who has a stock of cattle to look after, can afford to neglect this precaution. If he has a dairy farm, or a lot of cows in milk, he will be sure to suffer serious loss unless he can furnish a constant supply of succulent and juicy food to meet the want of green grass in the pastures, which is sure to occur in a continued drought.
The common practice throughout New England has been to sow Indian corn, to cut up green during the latter part of summer. A half acre or more, sown thickly in drills or broadcast, will produce an amazing quantity of palatable food for cows in milk and other cattle, and thus enable a farm to carry a much greater stock than would otherwise be practicable. It serves to bridge over a period of temporary scarcity, without drawing upon the resources provided for the following winter.
But experience and careful observation have shown that, though the condition of a stock of cattle may be maintained with a liberal daily supply of green foddercorn, it is more difficult to maintain the product of milk. Some farmers, indeed, maintain that the milk is sure to fall off as soon as they begin to feed out the corn fodder; and it appears to be certain that there is less milk in it than in the nutritive pasture and mcadow grasses.
But millet, or “ Hungarian grass,” the Panicum Germanicum of the botanists, possesses nearly all the advantages of the ordinary green grasses of our meadows and pastures. It is an annual, to be sown some time in June, at a time when we can usually judge of the character of the season and its effect upon the growth of the forage crops, and of the necessity of providing for additional feeding substances. It is of little use to sow it earlier, as it will make no growth till the season is so far advanced as to furnish the requisite degree of heat. Its growth is rapid after it is once “ well set.” Sown about the middle of June, it will be fit to cut for hay about the 10th of August; but it may be sown as a forage crop as late as July, when it will be fit to cut green for a daily feeding of stock towards the end of that month, and so on through the month of August. If sown thickly, it yields a juicy and succulent crop, from which two or three tons of hay can be cured; or it may be cut green to feed out when the pastures are short. For producing milk, it is undoubtedly superior to green corn fodder. The weight of millet per acre will be less than that of fodder-corn; but the labor required on an acre is no greater, and there is a vastly greater possibility of milk. It possesses, therefore, greater advantages, and its culture for forage has greatly extended throughout New England.
The soil for millet should be light and warm and in good heart, to produce a rapid growth. If the land is in poor condition, there should be a generous surface application at the time of sowing: Half a bushel of seed is the least that should be used. If sown too thin, it will grow too stout; or “ stalky," while thick seeding will give a finer and better crop for hay. Many prefer to use three pecks of seed, and claim that the quality of hay will be all the better for it.
Economy in Cooking Meats. EVERY practical housekeeper knows that there is necessarily some loss in the cooking of meats, and that this loss varies somewhat according to the process adopted. Beef, for example, loses one pound in every four, in boiling, one pound and three ounces in roasting, and one pound and five ounces in baking. The same weight-four pounds — of mutton loses in boiling, fourteen ounces, in roasting one pound and four ounces, and in baking one pound and six ounces.
Of course this loss consists, to a considerable extent, of water. Fresh lean beef contains not far from seventy-eight per cent. of water, including the blood.
There is always some fat. Even in what is called lean beef, there is generally over three per cent. of fat, and this is partly lost, or melted out, in roasting and baking. But, though due so largely to the evaporation of water and the escape of fat, this loss is none the less serious, for the water, mixed as it is with the blood, and holding more or less of saline substances in solution, constitutes what is called the juice of the meat; and, if it were completely extracted, the meat would become a mere tasteless mass, comparatively innutritious.
The object, therefore, in cooking meats, should be to preserve these rich juices as much as possible, How is this to be done? If the meat is subjected to great heat when first put over the fire, the fibres near the surface are contracted suddenly, and the escape of the juice is prevented, so that the meat may be said to be cooked in its own moisture. If to be boiled, it is put at once into boiling water; if to be roasted, it is exposed at once to a quick fire, and thus the rich juices are retained in it. If the fire is slow at the outset, in roasting, or if, in boiling, the meat is put into cold or only warm water, very much of the richness, as well as of the nutritive quality, is lost, and the piece becomes hard and dry.
There are cases, however, where the object is to extract the juices, as in making soups, broths, beef tea, &c., where the meats are more properly put into cold water, and either simmered over a slow fire, or gradually, but quickly, brought to a boil. Soft water is best for these preparations, since it has greater solvent power than hard, which holds in solution certain mineral substances, like lime; while, in ordinary boiling, where we simply wish to cook the meat in the best way, and not to remove the juices in which the flavor and richness consist, hard' water is better.
From what has been said, it will appear that meat is composed of water colored with blood, fibrin, and fat. A thin piece of lean beef may be washed in clean water till its color is entirely gone, only a white mass of fibres being lest. There are the muscles of the living animal, and the whitened mass is called fibrin, and, with its mixture of fat, constitutes the substance of the meat. In highly-fed and fattened animals, the fat is often collected by itself in various parts of the body, as in the suet in and around the bones, or deposited in large masses under the skin, instead of being evenly distributed through the fibrous mass of muscular tissue, producing what is called well marbled beef.
THE PUBLIC DEBT.
At Six per cent. - $984,999,650 00
$1,697,320,100 00 Debt bearing interest in currency
14,000,000 00 Debt bearing no interest
Old Dem'd and Leg. Tend. $369,401,336 50
462,606,447 95 Matured debt.
3,021,210 26 Total principal
$2,176,947,758 21 Total accrued interest
$2,201,240,703 17 Cash in the Treasury Coin
$106,058,762 03 TOTAL DEBT less amount of cash in the Treasury $2,095,181,941 14 Total Debt, less amount in Treasury, September 1, 1875 $2,125,808,789 70
2,095,181,941 14 Decrease the past year