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summer more stock than he can winter well, it shows that his tillage lands have greater need of his manure and his attention, in order to bring up their proportional productiveness. The precise point on which he will bring his labor and his resources to bear most effectively, will, therefore, be, governed very much by his circumstances, and the location of his farm; and here tlie individual judgment and good sense must guide his operations.
It is to be considered also, that upon the farm there will always occur seasons of comparative leisure, when there seems to be nothing pressing to do, and when the time of the owner or the hired labor can be devoted to the improvement of such portions of the farm as need it the most. In this case the cost of the improve. ment will be small compared with what it would be if it were made a specialty, to be carried out whether it interfere with other work or not. If every farmer were active and enterprising enough to snatch these opportunities of comparative lei. sure, and devote them to permanent improvements, the face of the country would soon present a far more attractive and promising appearance.
The simplest and most obvious improvement to be effected will be to cut the bushes, and to clean up generally by getting rid of the foul growths that overrun so many of our neglected pastures. There is nothing intricate about this, and no need of any instruction as to how it is to be done. It is simply a matter of muscle and will, of energy and perseverance; for in many cases just doing it once, and letting it alone ever after, is not sufficient. It is a thing to be followed up every year or every two years, till a conquest is achieved.
The best way, undoubtedly, is to cut the bushes first, and to stock heavily with sheep, feeding them daily, when the pasture is not sufficient to nourish them completely, with cotton-seed meal, beans, or some other purchased food. This we know to be an economical and an effectual method, as we have seen it tried with the most satisfactory results in a pasture that was too rough and rocky to admit of ploughing. Many kinds of bushes and shrubs were killed completely the first year, and others in two or three years, by the sheep themselves, while the fertility of the laud was greatly increased. A few kinds of shrubs like huckleberry bushes and alders were not completely destroyed in three years, but the sumachs, the blackberry vines, and many other specics were killed out entirely.
If a pasture can be broken up, after the bushes are cleared off, that is, perhaps, the most effective method of subduing it, though it is to be remembered that an old turf, if closely set with grass roots, is better for grazing than any newly-seeded land can be. It requires some years to produce the firm and thick matting of grass roots so desirable in a pasture sward. As to applying manures to the surface of pastures, it would be useless to recommend it, as no farmer has enough for his cultivated crops,
to say nothing of any other land, unless it be in the shape of some concentrated fertilizer, like plaster, superphosphate, or ashes.
Many of our rough hill-sides, that have been used as pastures time out of mind, would be better and far more profitable if allowed to grow up to wood, to which they should constantly have been devoted. If the soil is ordinarily rich, the growth of wood will pay as well as anything.
When to Cut Grain. FARMERS are not aware of the loss they suffer in letting grain, like wheat, rye, and oats, stand too long, and get over-ripened. This is one of the most common wastes of the farm, and one which it is generally easy to prevent. We do not refer to the much greater loss from the shelling out in the necessary processes of harvesting, though that ought not to be overlooked, for when grain is a little too ripe the loss from this source is very considerable. The grain is actually heavier, sweeter, and whiter, when it is cut ten days or more before it is fully ripe. It will measure more, and it will make more and better flour. When grain is still sost, in the milk, as we say, it contains but little woody fibre. The starch, gluten, and sugar, in which the actual nutritive value so largely consists, are then most abundant. As the process of ripening goes on, the woody fibre increases, The husk or outer covering, rapidly thickens, and loses its tine color, becomes dull and husky as it appears in the biu, and it is actually worth less than if it had been cut earlier.
Cut oats while still green, or when only slightly turned,
Common Salt. The basis of common salt is chlorine. It is this element that imparts to it its preserving qualities. The best specimens of rock salt now in the market contain inore than ninety-eight per cent. of chloride of sodium, while Turk's Island - a coarse salt that we get from the West Indies -- contains nearly ninety-seven per cent., the balance being chiefly sulphate of lime and sulphate of soda.
In packing meat, for which salt is most extensively used, the object is not simply to preserve it, but to keep it in a palatable condition, and in its natural color. Pure chloride of sodium, or commercial salt, will do this very well, if it is properly applied. It does not necessarily affect the tenderness of the meat, or change its color except to a very limited extent, but it prevents decny.
We use the coarse and hard qualities of salt, in preference to fine, in packing meat for long keeping, because they dissolve more slowly, and gradually contract the fibres of the meat into greater compactness, while they keep the brine or pickle in a state of moderate concentration, and do not so readily enter mechanically into the substance of the meat, so as to overcharge it. We can, therefore, apply them in excess to make up for any losses of brine by leakage. Fine salt will do very well in laying down meat for family use, where we wish to preserve it only a comparatively short tune; but it is not so good for long keeping.
From fifty to fifty-six pounds of coarse salt are commonly taken for a barrel of beef or pork, the bottom and top of the barrel being always covered with a layer of this salt. Most of the kinds of salt in use in this country are made from brines or from sea water. If the salt is impure, and contains any considerable quantity of chloride of calcium or chloride of magnesium, it will impart a sharp and disagrecable taste, and injure the color of the meat. The purer the salt is, the better will be the fiavor of the meat.
Meat-packers sometimes add a little nitre, in the form of nitrate of potassa (saltpetre), to improve the color. It is harmless if it is used in small quantities, The goveroment requires its beef and pork for army and navy use to be packed with Turk's Island or Onondaga coarse salt.
Make Home Attractive, It is of the utmost importance in the life of a farmer, as it is in that of every other man, to make home attractive, not merely to the stranger, but to all the family. Order and neatness in all the domestic arrangements will, of course, conduce largely to this end. No dwelling can have the air of comfort, and chcerfulness, and thrist, without this essential condition. The simple want of order and neatness is enough of itself to make home repulsive, especially to children brought up under the influence of it; and every parent ought to realize this fact.
A well-tilled garden, especially the cultivation of flowers about the house, is well calculated to aid in the work of adorning and beautifying the home, and it affords some pleasant and attractive occupation for leisure hours. The influence of flowers blooming in the window, and in neat beds in the front yard, or in the garden, is almost beyond calculation, while graceful vines trailing, over the doorway give a charm to even the poorest dwelling, and make the humblest cottage attractive to every beholder.
The following table contains the approximate difference between the time of High Water at Boston and several other places. The reader is warned that this table will not always give the exact time of the tide, as the difference varies from day to day. It is hoped, however, it will be near enough to be useful.
The difference, if preceded by + is to be added to, or if preceded by —, subtracted from, the time as given in the Calendar pages. h.m. h. m. !
h. m Baltimore, Md....... +7 30 | Key West, Fla.
- 1 59 Point Judith, R. I.....
- 3 57 Bath, Me... +04+ Nantucket, Mass.
+0 5.5 Portland, Me. Beaufort, N. C.
-4 03 Newburyport, Mass.. - 0) 07 Portsmouth, N. H. ....... - (0) Bridgeport, Conn..... 0 18 Newcastle, Del...
+ ( 29 Salem, Mass...
0 16 Cape Ileury. Va.
3 34 New Haven, Conn. - 0 13 Sandy Hook, N. Y.... 3 58 Cape May, N. J....
3 10 New London, Conn...... - 2 06 Savannah, Ga., Dry Dock :-3 16 Charleston, SC. .... 4015 Newport, R. I.
3 44 St. Augustine, Fla..... City Point, Va..... +3 08 New Rochelle, X. Y... 007 Stonington, Conn..... - 2 22 Cold Spring, N. J. ...... - 3 57 New York, Gov. Island.. -- 3 22 Washington, D. C., Navy Eastport, Me.. - 0) 21 Norfolk, Va....
...- 2 16
+841 Edgartown, Mass. .... +0 47 Philadelphia, Pa......... +2 15 West Point, N. Y........-027 Holmes llole, Mass. + 0 14 | Plymouth, Mass... ......-010 | Wilmington, Del..... - 2 23
CARRIAGE FARES IN BOSTON. For one adult, from one place to another within city proper (except as hereinafter provided), 50 cents. Each additional adult, 50 cents.
For one adult, from any place in the city proper, south of Dover Street and west of Berkeley Street, to any place north of State, Court, and Cambridge Streets, or from any place north of State, Court, and Cambridge Streets, to any place south of Dover Street and West of Berkeley Street, One Dollar. For two or more adults, 50 cents cach.
Children under four years, with an adult, no charge.
From twelve at night to six in the morning, the fare for one adult is double the preceding rates, and 50 cents for each additional adult.
U., S. STAMP DUTIES on notes, deeds, and other documents, are now all abolished, except the stamp on bank checks, or orders, which is two cents.
POST-OFFICE REGULATIONS. (Corrected Sept., 1875, by William Brooks, P. O. Boston, from the latest information furnished by the
P. 0. Department.)
LETTERS IN THE U. S. NOTE – All domestic mail matter (except newspapers, migazines, and periodi
cals sent to actual subscribers from a known office of publication) must be
prepirid by postage stamps. Letters, - The Postage on all domestic letters not exceeding one half oz., is .03
For each additional half ounce, or fraction thereof, weight limited to 4 pounds
.03 Drop or Local Letters. - At offices wher free delivery by carrier is established, per each half ounce
.02 At other offices, per each half ounce
.01 Irregular Matter, part writing and part print: Letter rates are to be
charged on such matter, except as hereinafter provided. Registered Letters. –The fee for registered letters, per letter in addition to the regular rate of 3 cts. for each half ounce or fraction, is
.10 Postal Cards, with postage stamp imprinted upon them, and no writing on the face but the address, each
.01 Circulars, in an unsealed envelope, for each ounce, or fraction, unless deposited for delivery in a letter-carrier office.
.01 NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES, BOOKS, &C. Newspapers, Magazines, &c. (Regular subscribers.) -All newspapers to
subscribers only, daily, semi-weekly, weekly, monthly, or quarterly, one copy to each actual subscriber within the county where they are printed and published, wholly or in part, except those deliverable at letter carrier offices, frce.
Newspapers and periodical publications mailed from a known office of publication or news agency, addressed to regular subscribers or news agents, issued weekly and oftener, for each lb. or traction thereof,
.02 Matter, in all cases, to be weighed in bulk at office of mailing. Less frequently, for each pound or fraction thereof
.03 Circulars, and newspapers (not weeklies), without regard to weight, de. posited in carrier offices, for delivery there, each one
.01 Weekly newspapers to transient parties, deposited in carrier offices for delivery, each ounce .
,01 Periodicals not over 2 ounces in weight deposited in carrier offices for delivery there, each one
Periodicals over 2 ounces in weight, deposited in carrier offices for delivery there, each one.
.02 Books.-For each ounce, or fraction, not to exceed four pounds in weight, . .01
MERCHANDISE IN THE U. S. Merchandise. - Samples of metals, ores, minerals, and small packages of
merchandise, flexible patterns, sample cards, phonographic paper, letter envelopes, postal envelopes and wrappers, imprinted cards, plain and ornamental paper, and photographs, not exceeding four pounds in weight, for each ounce, or fraction thereof.
.01 MISCELLANEOUS. Miscellaneous, including pamphlets, occasional publications, transient news
papers, magazines, handbills, posters, prospectuses, book manuscripts, proofsheets of books, maps, prints, engravings, lithographs and blanks; also seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots, and scions, for each ounce, or fraction .'
.01 UNITED STATES MONEY ORDERS. Money Orders. - For any amount not over $150, and not exceeding $50 on
one order, are issued in the principal offices, on payment of the following
.25 FOREIGN LETTERS. Foreign Letters should indicate on the outside the route by which they are
to be sent, as the difference by various routes is great. The rate given is for
Hp For rates by special routes, and on particular dates, inquire at the
.15 Via Brindisi
.21 New Zealand and N. S. Wales, via San Francisco . Australia, via San Francisco .
FOREIGN LETTERS, Continued.
.05 Belgium, via England, or direct steamer
.05 Brazil, by American packet
. 15 Via England.
.27 Buenos Ayres and Argentine Confeileration, by stm. tin. N. York to Brazil , Via England.
.27 Canada, including Vew Brunswick, Nova Scotia, P. E. I., and Brit. Columbia. 0:3 China, Japan, and Java, by British mail, via Southampton . Via Brindisi
.33 Via San Francisco, except Hong Kong, &c., which see below
.05 Denmark Egypt,
*.05 France, including Algeria, via England, or via direct steamer Gibraltar
*.08 Great Britain and Ireland
*.05 Guiana, British, French, and Dutch
.13 Holland Honduras
.13 Hong Kong, Canton, Amoy, Swatow, and Foo Chow
.10 India, by British mail, via Southampton .
.21 Via Brindisi
.27 Except Ceylon, German mail
*.17 Via San Francisco
*.10 Italy. Manilla, Philippine Islands, via Southampton
.27 Brindisi Mauritius, via England . Mexico
.10 Nassau, Bahamas Newfoundland
.00 Norway Panama.
.05 Peru, Ecuador, and Chili
.17 Portugal, via Southampton or Liverpool
*.05 Prussia, Austria, and German States Russia.
*.05 Sandwich Islands
.06 Singapore, via San Francisco
*.05 Turkey, European or Asiatic Venezuela, vin direct steamer
.10 W. Indies (except islands at which mail stms touch, where the rate is 5 cts.). .13 POSTAL CARDS, MONEY ORDERS, &C., FOR FOREIGN
and Ireland, the Continent of Europe, Egypt, and Morocco, by affixing a
the face. To Canada no extra stamp is required.
To Gt. Britain, Ireland, and Switzerland, for each $10 or fraction thereof.25
.15 Over $5 and not exceeding $10...
.25 For every $10 or fraction thereof over $10
.25 To Canada (not Newfoundland), for orders not exceeding
.20 For every additional $10, or fraction, over $10
.20 Newspapers, Samples, and Printed Matter for Foreign Coun
tries. - Newspapers not over 4 oz, in weight, to any country in Eu
rope, to Asiatic Turkey, Egypt, North Africa, and Morocco, each one .02 Pamphiets, Magazines, Books, miscellaneous Prints, and samples of mer
ch'indise, to any country in Europe, to Asiatic Turkey, Egypt, North
.02 To Canada (not Newfoundland), the postage on printed matter of all
kinds, whether transient or to regular subscribers, is the same as the
domestic rates for the same, Foreign Registered Letters. – To Great Britain, Ireland, European states, Egypt, Morocco, and Spanish possessions in North Africa, in addition to the regular postage, which must be prepaid for registered letters, each letter
HINTS FOR THE HOUSEHOLD. Care of Children. — Use your brains upon the three subjects of air, food, and clothing for your children, I things do not seem to go well with them, think about it, search for causes hi heir daily lives, make changes in little things which you think you can improve, and sometimes you will find that you can substitute case for trouble in your own lives, and health for sickness in theirs, by these same small changes. The Housekeeper.
Pure Air.- Perhaps the supreme importance of giving the lungs, day and night, an unlimited supply of pure air, cannot be better impressed upon some minds than by stating that after more than twenty years' observation of the causes which produce consumption, and a familiarity with the opinions of the best physicians of the day, I am firmly of the conviction that no one need have any fear of this disease if his lungs are only nourished on good air during every hour of life. The breathing of a pure air a few hours each day will not keep off the terrible destroyer, but the lungs must have this kind of air as often as nature requires it, and this, at the least, is sixteen times every minute. - Dr. Black.
Sunshine for the Sick. – If possible, the sick-chamber should be the room of the house which has the most sunshine coming into it, and if the bed can be so placed that the person lying in it can see a good piece of the blue sky, so much the better it will be. It is fouud in all hospitals that those rooms facing the sun have fewer deaths, all other things considered, than those which are upon the shady side of the house; and where statistics have been kept for a period of years, it is found that the average time for recovery is less upon the sunny side than upon the shady side of the building. -“Care of the Sick," pub. by Mut. Life Ins. Co. of N. Y.
Toast Water. - A good Drink for the Sick. - Carefully remove the crust from a slice of stale bread, aud toast the slice through on both sides, but do not burn it. Break the slice into three or four pieces, and put them into a pitcher with a smal piece of orange-peel or lemon-peel. Pour on a pint of boiling water, cover up with á napkin, and, when cold, strain off the water for use. It should be freshly made, especially in warm weathér.
To Clean Black Dresses. — A teaspoonful of powdered borax dissolved in a quart of tepid water is good for cleaning old black dresses of silk, cashmere, or alpaca.
To Restore a Crape Veil. - Take an old piece of crape and dip it into a cup of vinegar, and sponge the veil with it; then pin the veil to a pillow carefully, and let it dry. It will look like new, and can be done wiienever it looks rusty.
For a Person who is very Weak.– Take the white of an egg, a teaspoon. ful of brandy, and a tablespoonful of cream. Beat the egy very light. Then let somebody add the brandy, while you continue beating. Then add the cream.
Thickened Milk, for Suinmer Complaint. - Especially good for Sick Children. – Tie a pint of flour as closely as possible in a bit of strong cotton cloth, boil it four hours, well covered with water; then take it out and let it cool. This makes a hard ball of fluur, which will keep for months in a dry, cool place. To cook it, boil a pint of milk over water; thicken it with a tablespoonful or more of the flour, scraped, and mixed smooth with a little cold milk. Season with salt and sugar if liked.
Improved Method of Cooking Onions. – Take off the outside skin, cut off both ends close, and let them stand in cold water an hour. Then put them into a saucepan with two quarts of boiling water. Cover, and boil fifteen minutes. Pour off the water, and add again two quarts of boiling water, and boil half an hour longer. Pour off this water, and add a cupful of milk, which has just been scalded, salt, and a little butter and flour, if the two latter ingredients are wanted. Boil up for a few minutes, and serve hot.
To Boil Shelled Beans. – After shelling the beans, let them lie in cold water for an hour. Pour this off, and put them in boiling water and let them boil for fifteen minutes; then pour this water away. Put boiling water with them again, and let them boil for fifteen minutes more. Then drain again, and fill with boiling water, and let them cook until perfectly tender. They ought to be boiled between one and two hours.
Rye Griddle Cakes. One quart of warm water, one teaspoonful of soda, one teaspoonful of salt, two tablespoonfuls of sugar. Make a thick batter of rye meal, with a little Indian meal, which makes it less clammy, and improves the flavor.
Hard Times Pudding. One cup of molasses, one cup of cold water, one cup of raisins chopped, one teaspoonful of salt, and one teaspoonful of soda, Flour enough to make it the thickness of soft gingerbread. Steam it two hours in a pudding mould or pail. To be eaten with sauce.
Cooking Salt Pork. - Cut slices of nice salt pork; freshen them, and then partially try. Then dip each slice separately in a batter made of one cup of sweet milk, one egg well beaten, a little salt, and flour sufficient to make the batter of the thickness of pancakes. Then fry, in the fat that first fried out of the pork, till a light brown. - Cor. New England Farmer.