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DISTRICT COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
No. Berkshire. For the towns of Adams, Cheshire, Clarksburg, Florida, and Savoy, at Adams, crim., daily, 9 A. M.; civil, weekly, at north village of Adams, and 1st Wed. of each month at south village.
Central Berkshire.-For the towns of Dalton, Hancock, Hinsdale, Lanesborough, Peru, Pittsfield, Richmond, and Windsor, at Pittsfield, crim., daily, 9 A. M.; civil, every Saturday.
So. Berkshire. For Alford, Egremont, Great Barrington, Monterey, Mt. Washington, New Marlboro', and Sheffield, at Great Barrington, crim., daily, at 9 A. M.; civil, every Sat., at 10 A. M. 1st of Bristol. For Taunton, Rehoboth, Berkley, Dighton, Seekonk, Attleborough, Norton, Mansfield, Easton, and Raynham, at Taunton, crim., daily; civil, every Mon.
2d of Bristol. For Fall River, Freetown, Somerset, and Swansea, at Fall River, crim, daily; civil, every Mon.
3d of Bristol.-For New Bedford, Fairhaven, Acushnet, Dartmouth, and Westport, at New Bedford, crim., daily; civil, every Mon.
1st of Essex.- For Salem, Beverly, Danvers, Hamilton, Topsfield, Middletou, and Wenham, at Salem, crim., daily, 9 A. M.; civil, every Wed.
Bridgewater, E. and W. Bridgewater, at Brockton, crim., daily; civil, every Tues. 2d of Plymouth. - For Abington, So. Abington, Rockland, Hingham, Hull, Hanover, Sc. Scituate, and Hanson, crim., at Abington, every Mon., Wed., Thurs. and Sat., at Hingham, every Tues, and Frid.; civil, at Abington, 1st and 3d Wed., and at Hingham, 4th Frid. of every month.
3d of Plymouth.- For Plymouth, Kingston, Plympton, Pembroke, Duxbury, Marshfield, and Scituate, crim., at Plymouth, every Mon., Wed.. Thu., and Sat., at Scituate, every Tues, and Frid.; civil, at Plymouth, 1st and 3d Wed., and at Scituate, 4th Frid. of every month.
4th of Plymouth.-For Middleborough, Wareham, Lakeville, Marion, Mattapoisett, and Rochester, crim., at Middleborough, every Tues., Wed, and Sat., and at Wareham, every Mon., Thu., and Frid.; civil, at Middleborough, 1st and 3d Wed., and at Wareham, 4th Fri., of every month.
1st of So. Worcester. For Sturbridge, Southbridge, Charlton, Dudley, Oxford, and Webster, crim., at Southbridge, Mon., Wed, and Fri., and at Webster, Tues., Thurs., and Sat., 9 A. M.; civil, at Southbridge, Mon., Webster, Tues., weekly.
2d of So. Worcester. - For Blackstone, Uxbridge, Douglas, and Northbridge, for trials by jury, in Blackstone or Uxbridge, at such times as, in the discretion of the justice, the public convenience may require; when not in session for trials by jury, the court shall be held for crim business, in Blackstone, every Mon., Wed., and Fri., in Uxbridge, every Tues., Thurs., and Sat.; for civil business, in Blackstone, every Mon., in Uxbridge, every Sat.
3d of So. Worcester.- For Milford, Mendon, and Upton, at Milford, crim., daily; civil, 1st and 3d Wed. each mon.
Central Worcester.—For Worces
1st of E. Middlesex. - For Wilmington, No. Reading, Reading, Stoneham, Wakefield, Melrose, Malden, Ever-ter, Millbury, Sutton, Auburn, Leicester, ett, and Medford, crim., at Malden, every Mon., Tues., Frid., and Sat., at Wakefield, every Wed. and Thurs.; civil, at Malden, every Sat., and at Wakefield every Wed.
1st of S. Middlesex.-For Ashland, Framingham, Holliston, Hopkinton, Natick, Sherborn, Sudbury, and Wayland, at So. Framingham, crim., daily; civil, every Mon.
E. Norfolk. - For Randolph, Braintree, Cohasset, Weymouth, Quincy, Holbrook, and Milton, at Quincy, crim., daily, 9 A. M.; civil, every Mon.
1st of Plymouth.- For Brockton,
Paxton, W. Boylston, Boylston, Holden, and Shrewsbury, at Worcester, crim., daily, at 9 A. M.; civil, every Sat.
1st of E. Worcester. — For Northborough. Southborough, Westborough, and Grafton, crim., Westborough, every Mon., Wed., and Fri., at Grafton, every Tues., Thurs., and Sat., 9 A. M.; civil, at Westborough, every Mond., at Grafton every Tues.
2d of E. Worcester.-For Clinton, Berlin, Bolton, Harvard, Lancaster, and Sterling, at Clinton, crim., daily.; civil, 2d and 4th Sat. of each month.
MUNICIPAL AND POLICE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
(Corrected Sept. 1875.)
Municipal Courts are held daily in the city of Boston, as follows: In Boston (old city), Highland District (Roxbury), South Boston, East Boston, Dorchester District, Charlestown District, Brighton District, and West Roxbury District. Police Courts are held daily at Cambridge, Chelsea, Chicopee, Fitchburg, Gloucester, Haverhill, Holyoke, Lawrence, Lee, Lowell, Lynn, Newburyport,
PROBATE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS. (Corrected Sept. 1875.) Barnstable. At Barnstable, 2d Tu. Jan., Feb., March, Aug., Sept., Dec., and 3d Tues. April and June.; Harwich, 2d Mo. af. 1st Tu. May, and Mo. af. 3d Tu. Oct.; Orleans, 3d Tu. May and 4th Tu. Oct.; Wellfleet, Wed. af. 3d Tu. May, and Wed. af. 4th Tu. Oct.; Provincetown, Th. aft. 3d Tu. May, and Th. aft. 4th Tu. Oct.; Falmouth, 3d Tu. Nov.
Hampden.-At Springfield, 1st Tu. Jan., Feb., March, Ap., May, June, July, Sep., Oct., and Dec.; Palmer, 2d Tues. Feb.. May, and Sept., and 4th Tues. Nov.; Westfield, 3d Tues. in Feb., May, Sept., and Dec.
Berkshire. At Pittsfield, 1st Tues. in Jan., Feb., March, April, May, June, Sept., Oct., and Dec., 3d Tu. July, and Wed. after 1st Mon. Nov.; Lee, Wed. aft. 1st Tu.in Jan., Ap., and Oct., and Wed. af. 3d Tu. July: Adams, Th. aft. 1st Tu. Jan. and Oct., Wed. af. 1st Tu. Mar., and Th. af. 3d Tu. in July; Gr. Barrington, Wed. after 1st Tu. in Feb., May, Sep., and Dec. Bristol. — At Taunton, 1st Fr. Mar., Jun., Sep., Dec.; New Bedford, 1st Frid. Feb., May, Aug., and Nov.; Fall River, ist Fri. Jan., Ap., Oct., and 2d Fr. July.
Dukes County. - At Holmes' Hole village in Tisbury, 3d Mo. Ap. and 1st Mo. Sept.; Edgartown, 3d Mo. Jan. and July, and 1st Mo. Mar. and Dec.; W. Tisbury. 1st Mo. June and 3d Mon. Oct.
Essex. At Salem, 1st Mon. of each mo., and 3d Mon. of ea. mo., except Aug.; Lawrence, 2d Monday Jan., Mar., May, June, July, Sept., and Nov; Haverhill, 2d Mon. Apr. and Oct.; Newburyport, 4th Mon. Jan., Mar., May, June, July, Sept., and Nov.; Gloucester, 4th Mo. Ap. and Oct.
Franklin. — At Greenfield, 1st Tues. in every month, except Nov.; Northfield, 2d Tues. May and Sept.; Orange, 2d Tu. Mar. and Dec., and 3d Tu. June; Conway, 3d Tu. May; Shelburne Falls, 4th Tu. May, 2d Tu. Feb., and 4th Tu. Oct.
-At Northampton, 1st Tues. of every mo.; Amherst, 2d Tues. Jan., Mar., June, Aug. and Nov.; Belchertown, 2d Tues. of May and Oct.; and Williamsburg, 3d Tues. May and Oct.
Nantucket. At Nantucket, on Th. aft. 2d Tu. of ev. mo.
Norfolk.-At Dedham, 1st and 3d Wed.; Quincy, 2d Wed., Hyde Park, 4th Wed. ev. mo. exc. Aug.
Middlesex.-At Cambridge, 1st, 2d, and 4th Tu. ea. mo. ex. Aug.; Lowell, 3d Tu. of Jan., Mar., May, July, Sep., and Nov.
Plymouth. At Plymouth, 2d Mon. ev. mo., ex. July and Aug.; Wareham, 4th Mon. Oct.; E. Bridgewater, 4th Mo. Feb. and Dec.; Hingham,4th Mo. Mar.; Middleboro', 4th Mon. Jan. and Ap., and 2d Mon. July; Abington, 4th Mo. May, Aug., and Nov.; Hanover, 4th Mo. June; Bridgewater, 4th Mo. Sep.; North Bridgewater, 3d Mon. Apr. and Oct.
Suffolk.-At Boston, every Monday in each month.
Worcester. At Worcester, 1st and 3d Tu. of every mo. except Aug.; Fitchburg, 4th Tu. of Ap. and Sep.; Milford, 2d Tu. of Ap. and Sep.; Templeton, 2d Tu. of May and Oct.; and Barre, Wed. next after 2d Tu. of May and Oct.
When the appointed day falls on a holiday, the court will be holden by adjournment at such time and place as the judge may appoint.
JUDGES OF PROBATE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
Barnstable Co., Jos. M. Day, Barnstable.
Hampden Co., Wm. S. Shurtleff, Springf.
Norfolk Co., G. White, Newton Lr. Falls.
(Corrected Barnstable, at Barnstable, on the 2d Tues. of April and Oct.
Berkshire, at Pittsfield, on 1st Tu. of Apl., July, and Sept., and last Tu. Dec. Bristol, at Taunton, on the 4th Tues. of March and Sept.
Dukes Co., at Edgartown, on the Wed. next after the 3d Mon. of May, and the Wed. next after the 2d Mon. of Nov.
Essex, at Ipswich, on the 2d Tues. of April; at Salem, on the 2d Tues. of July; at Newburyport, on the 2d Tues. of Oct.; and at Lawrence, on the last Tues. of Aug.; and on the 4th Tues. of Dec., at Ipswich, Salem, or Newburyport, as they shall order at their next preceding term. Franklin, at Greenfield, on the 1st Tues. of March and Sept., and the 2d Tues. of June and Dec.
Hampden, at Springfield, on the 2d Tues. of April, the 1st Tues. of Oct., and the 4th Tues. of June and Dec.
Hampshire, at Northampton, on the 1st Tu. of Mar., Sept., and Dec., and on the Tues. next after the 2d Mon. of June.
Middlesex, at Cambridge, on the 1st Tues. of Jan., and the 1st Tues. of June; and at Lowell, on the 1st Tues. of Sept.
Nantucket, 1st Wed. of each month. Norfolk, at Dedham, o the 3d Tues. of April, the 4th Tues. of June and Sept., and the last Wed. of Dec.
Plymouth, at Plymouth, on the 1st Tues. of Jan., the 3d Tues. of March, and the 1st Tues. of Aug.
Worcester, at Worcester, on the 4th Tu. of March, the 3d Tu. of June, the 2d Tu. of Sept., and the 4th Tu. of Dec.
Economy of Pasture Management.
As long as the dairy continues to be the leading specialty in New England farming, the treatment of pastures must remain, as it is now, of paramount importance. Thomas Horsfall, of England, whose reputation as a successful practical dairyman, is well known in this country, has built up his dairy by wise and judicious management of his pastures, and his method of feeding dairy cows. Though the details of his system may not be in every respect applicable to this country, they are full of valuable suggestion, and furnish an instructive lesson to us. Consider what he says about his treatment of permanent pasture: "The Home pasture, of barely fifteen acres, carries my twenty milch cows during the day. They are housed during the night. This clearing the pastures by night has in some degree the effect of change of pasture, and prevents their lying so much on the grass they eat. In addition to the twenty cows in milk, twenty ewes with their lambs graze and fatten on this home pasture of fifteen acres. These ewes are supplied with half a pound of rape cake cach per day. It will be observed that the dung from the cows is likewise enriched by the extra food given to the cows in stall. Several times during the season a laborer is sent around the pastures to spread about the dung; for this operation I prefer wet weather. My other pastures are also rich feeding pastures, and carry a beast and a ewe with her lambs per acre. During July and August the coarse tufts of grass in the pastures are mown and carried home for fodder for my horses. I prefer this pasture grass for horses to that from aftermath, which is too relaxing. These pasture mowings more than suffice for the bulky food for four or five horses during July and August. The surplus is partly eaten by the cattle, the remainder being converted into hay, and mixed with cut straw for steaming. After this mowing of the tufts the pastures assume the appearance of aftermath, and the animals graze with appetite over the whole. Late in autumn and early in spring the ewes are continued on these pastures, which they graze quite close. They are housed during severe weather, and at night on boarded floors, and turned on the pasture during the day through the winter in fine weather.
"To these frequent cuttings of my meadows and close grazing of my pastures I am in some degree indebted for the excellent quality of their produce."
Here we see the same liberal course of treatment of pastures by this distinguished dairyman, that we find adopted by the skilful dairymen of Holland. We see his pastures carrying a cow and a ewe to the acre, with a plenty of rank growing redtop to spare. But in his case there was some extra feed at the time of pasturing, which the dairy stock of Holland does not generally get.
This example certainly ought to lead us to adopt a more generous policy towards the creatures that minister so completely to our wants, and towards the pastures to which we are to look in the future to supply their necessities. The prosperity of the coming farmer of New England will turn largely upon his pasture-grounds, and we cannot expect that these will take care of themselves.
ALL the wood ashes of the house ought to be saved with scrupulous care, and applied to the garden or to the grass land of the farm. Good hard-wood ashes are worth more to a farmer than the ash-man will give for them. A bushel of such ashes contains from four to five pounds of potash, and potash is worth about eight or ten cents a pound. The old custom throughout New England of selling ashes to the soap man was a very bad one.
To any land not already containing an excess of alkali, like some of the plains on what is called the Great American Desert, ashes are of very great value. On clayey, stiff, or heavy land, especially, they can be used with very great profit, while on land of an opposite character, sandy and light, they never fail to be of immediate and permanent value. Even coal ashes, on very heavy land, will have the effect to improve its mechanical condition. They are worth saving and applying to such land. But wood ashes ought to be saved with the greatest care.
Colorado Potato Beetle.
THIS terrible pest is rapidly advancing eastward, having averaged from fifty to eighty miles a year, and we shall probably make its acquaintance in Massachusetts during this centennial year or the next. It is estimated that it will cover the New England States before the close of 1877; and if so, it will prove to be the greatest insect curse that has yet appeared in our midst; and it is important that every farmer should understand something of its habits, and know what to expect. Previous to 1859 the home of this beetle appears to have been in the Rocky Mountains, where it had been known to exist for many years, feeding on a wild species of the potato peculiar to that region. When civilization reached the foot of the mountain range, it soon acquired the habit of feeding on the cultivated potato. In that year it had reached a point about a hundred miles west of Omaha, in Nebraska, and invaded Iowa in 1861, and soon spread over that state, and crossed the Mississippi in 1864 and 1865, invading Illinois and other adjacent states, marching in separate columns eastward, just as Sherman marched from Atlanta to the
sea. During the last ten years its progress has been steadily eastward, till it has already reached Delaware, New Jersey, and New York. It is clear that it will inevitably reach us soon, and that we shall have to take our turn in efforts for its destruction. Its scientific name is the Doryphora decem-lineata, or Ten-lined Spearman.
The wings of this beetle are of a bright rose color, its body is cream colored, and it has five black stripes upon each wing-case, or ten in all. It can fly, but it appears to be reluctant to do so, except in the heat of the day. At other times it is sluggish. It is wonderfully prolific, producing three broods in a season, the last brood wintering over in the beetle state, under ground, which it enters in October, and from which the beetles issue forth early in May. Though in general it is three brooded, it may be found at any part of the growing season in all its various stages, on account of the fact that the female continues to deposit her eggs in patches of potatoes from time to time for forty days, and that among the larvæ, which hatch out in six days, some will develop up into beetles a week or ten days earlier than others, so that some of the later brood may pass the winter in the pupa state. Each female can deposit more than a thousand eggs. They hatch into larvæ, which feed on potato-vines for about twenty days, when they go into the ground, to issue forth as beetles in ten days. These beetles in turn begin to deposit eggs in about two weeks after issuing from the ground, so that in about fifty days after the egg is laid in the spring, its offspring will begin to propagate. Its capacity for increase is thus seen to be quite amazing. It is estimated that a pair of these beetles, if undisturbed, will produce a progeny of sixty millions in a single season.
Thus far Paris green in powder mixed with ashes, and dusted over the vines when the dew is on, or when they are wet from rain, or else put into water and sprinkled over the vines, has been the only effective remedy found. The powder does not dissolve in water, and the water simply has the effect to hold it in place on the leaves and vines. Paris green, being an active poison, must be used with care. It is supposed that its poisonous properties will remain after its application to the soil, and that it may prove dangerous in future. If so, the remedy would seem to be quite as bad as the disease; but tons of this arsenic green have been used at the West, and we have heard of no case of poisoning that could be traced directly to this source. The "lady-bird," or "lady-bug," a little red beetle with black spots, feeds on the eggs of the potato beetle, and so helps very much to keep it in check. Let us all protect and encourage the “lady-birds" as among our best friends.
WHEN oily or fatty substances are brought into contact with an alkali held in solution at a high temperature, they undergo an entire change, and the process of soap-making depends on this change. Soft soap, such as is commonly made in the farm-house, is formed by the union of potash with fatty matter, while hard soaps are formed by the use of soda instead of potash. If water is present, as it always is in soft soaps, potash will not harden. Soit soaps are most commonly made of soft fats, while hard soaps are oftener made from tallow. Olive oil and soda are used in making what is called castile soap, the peculiar marbled appearance being produced by the mixture of iron rust. In the manufacture of yellow bar soap rosiu is often used. Rosin soaps form lather so readily, that is, they dissolve so easily, -that they are often thought to be better, or more effective; but, in point of fact, their cleansing properties are inferior, and they are by no means so economical as soda soaps. The cleansing properties of soaps depend on their alkaline constituents. When soaps are brought into contact with soiled clothing, or with the impurities of the skin, which consist largely of oily matters derived from the exhalations of the body, the alkali in the soap seizes hold of these oily matters and dissolves them, so that they are readily removed by the water. Water alone will not always have this effect, because it has no affinity for oily matters. It just leaves them-lets them alone in the skin or the clothing; while if an alkali were used alone, it would be so strong as to injure, or perhaps destroy, whatever it came in contact with.
MANY farmers are careless in the curing of their clover, and treat it as they do the hay made from the grasses. They often lose a great deal by this method. Clover ought to be cut immediately after blossoming, and before the seed is formed. It ought to be cured so as to preserve the blossoms and the leaves, and not exposed long to the scorching sun. After being wilted and partially dried, let it be forked up into cocks while it is still warm from the afternoon sun, and left to cure in this position. In three or four days, when the weather is fair and warm, it may be opened and aired an hour or two, when it will be fit to cart to the barn. Clover cured in this way, without the loss of its foliage, is one of the best kinds of hay for cows in milk, and for sheep and young stock. It may be fed to horses that are not hard at work, but it is most valuable for dairy cows. If clover is not sufficiently cured when stored away, mix it in alternate layers with old swale hay or straw.
Ploughing under Clover for Manure.
THE venerable John Johnston, of Geneva, who is now eighty-four years old, and who says he thinks the average of all his wheat crops would be not less than twentyeight bushels per acre, while he has raised, many times, over thirty-five bushels, and occasionally forty-two bushels, thinks it indispensable to success in wheat-growing to plough under clover. The Hon. Geo. Geddes, and very many other farmers of Central New York, are of the same opinion. The same enterprising men by no means undervalue barn-yard manure; on the contrary, they feed all the stock possible for the sake of accumulating a good supply; but, with the best management, whenever grain is sold to any considerable extent, the available supply of manure is not enough to maintain the fertility of the land without the aid of clover to be ploughed under. But with its aid the land improves. There may be reasons why this practice will not succeed here, but the method is worthy a fair trial.
It may seem at first an absurd project to attempt to improve land by ploughing into it what has just grown out of it. If the clover drew all its nourishment from the land alone, this would be true. The clover, however, has the property of drawing large quantities of nitrogen from the air which are stored for the use of the grain crop following, which can absorb nitrogen only by its roots. Clover, then, is to be regarded as the cheapest known source of nitrogen and organic matter, carbon, &c., but it cannot restore to exhausted land either potash or phosphates; and if our land is deficient in these essentials, we must add them to the clover before we can expect a good yield of grain. In New York this has not yet proved necessary, as the clover alone, with such manure as could be easily obtained, has been able to maintain the fertility of the land, under judicious rotation, for scores of years. Experience may prove that we may need in addition to use some potash and phosphate. Now, the potash can be had cheaply in the German potash salbs, and superphosphate can be prepared of good quality so as to be sold at $25 per ton, if it were not mixed with any nitrogenous manure. It is the nitrogen that costs, and which can be cheaply supplied by the farmer himself by ploughing under clover. The manufacturer of so-called superphosphate generally mixes some nitrogenous compound with the superphosphate at a cost which the farmer can ill afford to pay, even if he gets an honestly-mixed article the purpose of the manufacturer being to get a manure which will produce a visible and immediate effect upon foliage when applied to farm crops. The farmer can buy his nitrogen, by ploughing in clover, at a price with which no trader can ever possibly compete, with the additional advantage of loosening the soil by the decomposing vegetable matter. The clover should be ploughed under when in full blossom. If the laud will produce two crops, the first may be cut for hay, and the second ploughed under for manure.
THE PUBLIC DEBT.
Statement of the Public Debt, September 1, 1875, not including bonds issued in aid of the Pacific Railroad Corporations.
Total Debt, less amount in Treasury, September 1, 1874. . $2,140,178,614 24