The Principles of science, 1. kötet

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Macmillan and Company, 1874 - 480 oldal

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Arithmetic of Approximate Quantities
9
CHAPTER II
29
PAGE
33
Terms
36
ANALOGY
38
CHAPTER IV
59
Immediate Inference
60
Inference with Two Simple Identities
61
Inference with a Simple and a Partial Identity
64
Inference of a Partial from Two Partial Identities
66
On the Ellipsis of Terms in Partial Identities
69
Inference of a Simple from Two Partial Identities
70
Inference of a Limited from Two Partial Identities
71
Miscellaneous Forms of Deductive Inference 10 Fallacies 59 60 61 64 66 69 70 71
72
PAGE
77
CHAPTER V
79
Expression of the Alternative Relation 3 Nature of the Alternative Relation
81
79
84
Laws of the Disjunctive Relation 5 Symbolic
85
Expression of the Law of Duality
87
Various Forms of the Disjunctive Proposition
89
Inference by Disjunctive Propositions 79 81 81 85 87 89
90
CHAPTER VI
95
95
97
The Indirect Method of Inference 2 Simple Illustrations 3 Employment of the Contrapositive Proposition
99
Contrapositive of a Simple Identity
101
Miscellaneous Examples of the Method
103
Abbreviation of the Process
105
The Logical Abecedarium
109
The Logical Slate
110
1
119
PAGE
124
51
139
Induction of Simple Identities
146
SECTION
149
Complete Solution of the Inverse or Inductive Logical
154
Distinction between Perfect and Imperfect Induction
164
59
195
66
208
Triangle and
214
Possible Variety of Nature and
216
Higher Orders of Variety 214 216
219
CHAPTER X
224
Fundamental Principles of the Theory
228
Rules for the Calculation of Probabilities
231
Employment of the Logical Abecedarium in questions
234
Probability
235
Comparison of the Theory with Experience
236
3
238
Probable Deductive Arguments
239
Difficulties of the Theory
243
CHAPTER VIII
250
Various Classes of Inductive Truths
251
The Relation of Cause and Effect
253
Fallacious Use of the Term Cause
254
Confusion of Two Questions
256
Definition of the Term Cause
257
Distinction of Inductive and Deductive Results
260
On the Grounds of Inductive Inference
262
Illustrations of the Inductive Process
263
PRINCIPLES OF NUMBER
265
Geometrical Reasoning
268
Discrimination of Certainty and Probability in the Inductive Process 250 251 253 254 256 257 260 262 263 268
271
CHAPTER XII
276
Principle of the Inverse Method
279
Simple Applications of the Inverse Method
281
Application of the Theory of Probabilities in Astronomy
285
Statement of the General Inverse Problem
289
79
302
THE EXACT MEASUREMENT OF PHENOMENA SECTION PAGE 1 The Exact Measurement of Phenomena
313
Division of the Subject
318
81
319
The Fallacious Indications of the Senses
320
Complexity of Quantitative Questions
323
The Methods of Accurate Measurement
328
Measuring Instruments
330
SECTION
335
The Method of Repetition
336
Measurements by Natural Coincidence
341
Modes of Indirect Measurement
345
Comparative Use of Measuring Instruments
349
Systematic Performance of Measurements
351
The Pendulum
352
Attainable Accuracy of Measurement
354
CHAPTER XIV
357
Standard Unit of Time 379
359
The Unit of Space and the Bar Standard
365
The Terrestrial Standard i
367
The Pendulum Standard
369
Unit of Density
371
Unit of Mass
372
Subsidiary Units
374
Derived Units
375
Provisionally Independent Units
377
Natural Constants and Numbers
380
Mathematical Constants
381
Physical Constants
383
Astronomical Constants
384
Terrestrial Numbers
385
Social Numbers
386
CHAPTER XV
387
Illustrations of the Complication of Effects
388
Methods of Eliminating Error
391
Method of Avoidance of Error 5 Differential Method 6 Method of Correction 7 Method of Compensation 8 Method of Reversal PAGE
393
85
403
CHAPTER XVI
414
Several Uses of the Mean Result
416
The Significations of the Terms Mean and Average
418
On the Fictitious Mean or Average Result
422
The Precise Mean Result
424
Determination of the Zero Point by the Method of Means
428
Determination of Maximum Points 414 416 418 422 424 428
431
CHAPTER XVII
434
The Graphical Method
5
Simple Illustration of the Inverse Problem
6
General Solution of the Inverse Problem
7
Rules of the Inverse Method
8
Abstraction of Indifferent Circumstances
9
Summary of the Theory of Inductive Inference
10
The Rejection of the Mean Result
11
Method of Least Squares
12
Works upon the Theory of Probability and the Law of Error
13
Detection of Constant Errors
14
cal Prin
31
CHAPTER XX
50
Collective Experiments
57
Combined Periodic Changes
63
286 288
91
101
101
103
103
soning
105
106
106
110
110
113
113
116
116
120
120
125
125
127
127
CHAPTER XXIII
131
276
135
Requisites of a good Hypothesis
138
The First RequisitePossibility of Deductive Reasoning
140
The Second RequisiteConsistency with Established Laws of Nature
143
The Third RequisiteConformity with Facts
146
Experimentum Crucis 7 Descriptive Hypothesis 131 138 140
148
153
153
CHAPTER XXIV
157
Empirical Knowledge
163
Accidental Discovery 4 Empirical Observations subsequently explained
166
Overlooked Results of Theory
168
297
170
Predicted Discoveries
171
Predictions in the Science of Light
173
Predictions from the Theory of Undulations
176
Predictions in other Sciences
178
Prediction by Inversion of Cause and Effect
181
Facts known only by Theory
185
279
200
443
211
158
212
CHAPTER XXIX
217
GENERALIZATION
243
Comparative Generality of Physical Properties
249
Variable Properties of Matter
258
The Law of Continuity
268
Negative Arguments on the Principle of Continuity
276
281
281
285
285
289
289
292
292
295
295
297
297
302
302
EXCEPTIONAL PHENOMENA 1 Exceptional Phenomena
306
307
307
Imaginary or False Exceptions 3 Apparent but Congruent Exceptions 4 Singular Exceptions 5 Divergent Exceptions 6 Accidental Exceptions 7 Nove...
308
309
309
313
313
316
316
320
320
162
323
324
324
328
328
331
331
Limiting Exceptions
335
Real Exceptions to Supposed Laws
336
Unclassed Exceptions 306 309 313 316 320 324 328 331 336 338
338
CHAPTER XXX
344
346
346
Classification 2 Classification involving Induction 3 Multiplicity of Modes of Classification 4 Natural and Artificial Systems of Classification
351
Correlation of Properties
353
Classification in Crystallography
359
Classification an Inverse and Tentative Operation
364
Symbolic Statement of the Theory of Classification
367
157
369
Bifurcate Classification
371
The Five Predicables
375
Summun Genus and Infima Species
379
The Tree of Porphyry
381
105
387
Does Abstraction imply Generalization
389
Discovery of Marks or Characteristics
394
Diagnostic Systems of Classification
396
166
398
Index Classifications
400
Classification in the Biological Sciences
405
Classification by Types
411
Natural Genera and Species
414
99
415
Unique or Exceptional Objects
418
Limits of Classification
421
444
444
447
447
449
449
451
451
454
454
458
458
459
459
460
460
171
464
112
471
353
472
173
473
418
474
103
475
185
477

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359. oldal - Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a right line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it.
233. oldal - I have long held an opinion, almost amounting to conviction, in common I believe with many other lovers of natural knowledge, that the various forms under which the forces of matter are made manifest have one common origin; or, in other words, are so directly related and mutually dependent, that they are convertible, as it were, one into another, and possess equivalents of power in their action.
145. oldal - That it is the glory of God to conceal a thing, but the glory of a king to search it out.
465. oldal - Scientific method leads us to the inevitable conception of an infinite series of successive orders of infinitely small quantities. If so, there is nothing impossible in the existence of a myriad universes within the compass of a needle's point, each with its stellar systems, and its suns and planets, in number and variety unlimited. Science does nothing to reduce the number of strange things that we may believe. When fairly pursued, it makes large drafts upon our powers of comprehension and belief...
63. oldal - If one part of any system connected either by material ties, or by the mutual attractions of its members, be continually maintained by any cause, whether inherent in the constitution of the system or external to it, in a state of regular periodic motion, that motion will be propagated throughout the whole system, and will give rise, in every member of it, and in every part of each member, to periodic movements executed in eijual periods with that to which they owe their origin, though not necessarily...
161. oldal - Malus, while looking through a prism of calcareous spar at the light of the setting sun reflected from the windows of the Luxembourg palace in...
244. oldal - He that will not eat till he has demonstration that it will nourish him; he that will not stir till he infallibly knows the business he goes about will succeed, will have little else to do but to sit still and perish.
84. oldal - A peer is either a duke, or a marquis, or an earl, or a viscount, or a baron.' If expressed in Professor Boole's symbols, it would be implied that a peer cannot be at once a duke and marquis, or marquis and earl. Yet many peers do possess two or more titles, and the Prince of Wales is Duke of Cornwall, Earl of Dublin, and Baron Renfrew.
272. oldal - not one of the inductive truths which men have established, or think they have established, is really safe from exception or reversal. . . . Euler expresses no more than the truth when he says that it would be impossible to fix on any one thing really existing of which we could have so perfect a knowledge as to put us beyond the reach of mistake.
6. oldal - Whatever is, is." (2) The law of contradiction: "Nothing can both be and not be." (3) The law of excluded middle: "Everything must either be or not be.

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