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EUROPEAN MAGAZINE, ,
A N D
LONDON REVIE W;
For FEBRUARY 1797.
SIR BENJAMIN THOMPSON, KNT. COUNT OF RUMFORD, KNIGHT OF THE ORDER OF THE WHITE EAGLE
AND ST. STANISLAVS, &c.
(WITH A PORTRAIT.) IN the progress of our labours there is In the fame year, by his Majesty's
no circumstance which has afforded us permission, he engaged himself in the more satisfaction than the opportunity Service of his Serene Highness the Elector we have had of making known to the Palatine, Reigning Duke of Bavaria, and world, and celebrating the virtuous ef. was employed in various public lervices, forts of individuals employed for the particularly in arranging his military af. good of the Public. To relieve distress, fairs, and introducing a new lyftem of to footh affli&ion, to alleviate pain, to order, discipline, and economy among furnish the means of existence for humble his troops. But thele were not the most induftry, to obviate temptation to the important services rendered to the Elector breach of the laws of fociety, are em- by Count Rumford : he formed eliablishployments which entitle the agent to the ments for the relief of the poor at Mu. respect,
to the love, even to the vene furnished them with employment ; ration, of every good citizen. The me put a complete stop to mendicity, then fits of Jonas Hanway and John Howard exceedingly prevalent; and, by eitablishhave been already. amply detailed in the ing good regulations, brought the whole course of our Magazine ; we now proceed vagrant tribe to prefer industry to idleto do justice to another gentleman, whose nels, and cleanliness and decency to filth exertions leem not less delerving applause and rags. He suggested many plans for than those of either of the former, regret, providing the poor with food, wholeting, at the same time, that our materials lome, agreeable, and nourishing, at a for “ a life chequered," as he lays, small expence ; and by various experi" by a great variety of incidents," should ments, was enabled to save in the article
of fuel a great part of the expence which Count Rumford's name is Thompson; before had been incurred in the article of and he is, if we are rightly informed, a dressing the provision for the table. In Dative of a town of the same name as his pursuing these enquiries he made many present title in the province of Malfa- 'valuable discoveries in the construction of chufets. During the late unhappy war chimneys; and was enabled to point out between the Colonies and the mother the means, which have since been success. country, he raised a regiment of Amne. fully employed, of increasing the heat, rican Dragoons, and signalized himself and at the same time decreasing the on many occafions during the heat of that quantity of fuel. In any parts of the to-be-lamented contest. At one period three kingdoms, these experiments have he was, we are told, employed under been tried, and found to answer the proLord George Germaine, Secretary of poled end; and, at the time we are writ. State for the American Department ; and ing this Memoir, numbers are employed about February 1784 received from his in adapting the chimneys of inany noMajesty the honour of knighthood. blemen and gentlemen to receive the he.
be lo scanty.
Defit of the plan. He was the means of not to be confined to them but introducing into Germany the use of that are calculated for every situation not wholesome vegetable the potatoe; of fa- forbidden by climate or inveterate premiliarizing the use of it to the people in judice. Much of Count Rumford's plans general; and of conquering the national might be adopted in these kingdoms, to prejudice against it. 'He introduced ma. 'the benefit of every class; and fome of nufactures, until then unknown, into them have already met with a cordial reMunich ; and before he left that place to çeption. Where so much has been done come to England, had the pleasure to as at Munich, it may well be concluded allift in packing up, and sending off over that the Author has not gone unrewardthe Alys, by the Tyrol, fix hundred ar ed. He has received honours from bis ticles of clothing of different kinds, for new master, the Elcctor (we hope more the poor
of Verona. At that juncture than honours), and now ftiles himself he had hope foon to see the poor of Ba- Count of Rumford, Knight of the Ore yaria grow rich by manufacturing cloth. ders of the White Eagle and St. Sta. ing for the poor of Italy. -How far this - nillaus, Chamberlain, Privy Counsellor expectation has been defeated by the ca of State, and Lieutenant General in the lamities of war, which has since raged in service of the Duke of Bavaria, Colonel the place where his improvements were in- of his Regiment of Artillery, and Com. troduced, we are afraid to enquire, mander in Chief of the General Staff of
Services such as these, though origi. his Army, F. R. S. Acad. R. Hiber. mally intended for particular places, are Berol. Eleç. Boicæ, Palat. et Ainer. Soc.
FOR THE EUROPEAN MAGAZINE, THE following is the Copy of a Manuscript found among the Papers of the late
Francis Cotes, Esq. the celebrated Crayon Painter. It cannot fail to afford pleafure to fuch of your Readers as amule themselves in the ftudy and practice of this elegant branch of the Fine Arts,
CRAYON PAINTING. CRAYON Pi&ures are in their nature Crayon pictures are dry, and have of
more delicate, and consequently more course à powdery furtace, they never liable to injury, than alır:ost every other
should be left uncovered with a glass ; kind of painting : they are usually exe
because whatever dust lettles upon them cuted upon a paper ground, pasted over cannot be blown off or removed in any the fine it linen, and are otten painted upon other manner. Crayon pictures, when blue, but most commonly upon paper pre- finely painted, are luperlatively beautiful, pared with a size ground, 'rendered of a and decorative in a very high degree in middle teint for the sake of expedition, apartments that are not too large ; for, and sometimes upon paper perteily having their surface dry, they partake in white. It must not be concluded that appearance of the effect of Fresco, and by because Crayon pictures are rarily injurel, candle light are luminous and beautiful that they cannot with care be preterved beyond all other pi&tures. a great length of time; nay, tor many The finest examples that are known in centuries; but it wil alivays be necessary this branch of painting are the pictures to keep them with attention, and above by the Caval. Mengs in the gallery at all things to take care that they are not
Dreiden, the Seasons and other beautiful Jeft in dánp rooms, or in moiit places, paintings by Rofalba, and certain por. for the patte which iş used in preparing traits of Lietard, which are disperfed and the grounds will inevitably produce a
to be found all over Europe, as he painted mildew, and blacks and the darkest in almost every country; perhaps to thele - rolours be covered with spots.
may be added a few of my late matter's All the light teints of English Crayoris portraits; and finally, if it will not be are perfectlytate and durable, and pictures deemed too much prefumption, my faof this description are to be seen that have ther's portrait and Mr. Knapton's, her · been painted more than forty years, and Majesty with the Princess Royal fleeping; which have been expofed to the climates Mrs. Child, Miss Jones, Miss Wilton, of the Eaft and West Indies; and are, and a few other portraits by mytelf. notwithftanding, in no respect decayed. Whatever spots appear in the blacks It must always be semembered, that as and darkęlt colours are eafily removed
with care by the point of a penknife ; corresponding with the surrounding teints, and if any Ipots should arise upon the till all the decayed pares are reitored, hight parts of the fieth, or other places, which has often been done with admira, they inculd in like manner be scraped off ble effect, and repainted in, a spot at a tiine, exactly For the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE.
Interdum vulgus re&um videt; of ubi peccat. HOR. THAT England possesses more freedom Others maintain, that it is owing to
than any other part of the world, is the wife and adınirable form of our Conthe creed of almost every Briton ; inftitution, which carries nut in ittelt, like which creed I most heartily, concur. other worldly structures, the principles of That one Englishman can beat five corruption and decay. Some philoío. Frenchmen, leems likewise to be a position phers, who maintain the existence of punong the lower ranks of people not innate ideas, assert, that we are born with cally thaken ; and the Honeit Cobler,” a propensity to freedom, and that we tays Lord Cbesterfield, “ is fo firmly muit ever rise with an elastic force from persuaded of this truth, that he would the pressure of tyranny and ufurpation : by no means be averie to the trial.” nor are there wanting inany who atcribe Now, though I am by no means fure that our love of freedom to the temperature cur Cobler would come off victoricus in -of the air and nature of the foil, a species this unequal engagernent, but rather of Phyfico-freemen, who will doubtiels by imagine it would be Sutor ulira Crepidam; teeling a man's pulle declare the degree of Yet while prejudice holds her leat in the freedom that circulates in his veins. world (and it is likely to remain a long My friend Jack Ranter lately honoured time), all we have to do is to endeavour me with a vilit; and, as he is a protefied to direct it to a proper object, in the at. Orator, I asked his opinion of the origin tainment of which men will be fure to of liberty; when he delivered himself as alt with more force and energy, than by follows: “ Without deviating from the any effort refulting from the cool dictates plain road of common sense into the wil. ef prudence and reason.
derners of abstract and metaphylical fpecu. At the same time, there are certain lation, I think I have discovered the cause of þcunds beyond which this prejudice the continuance of freedom in this our must not extend; for daily observation highly-tavoured Illand to be no less than will convince us, that from an immoderate the rise, pregrels, and continuance of love of liberty, our dear countrymen are Debating Societies.-Nay do not laugh," too frequently guilty of intolerance and added he; " let Philosophers puzzle their oppreslion; in despiting the understand- brains in searching for a more reinote ing, and insulting the persons of men, caulė, their airy fights will be vain, and whole moderate disposition they call ler- they will find the truth not in the clouds vile coinpliance, and whole love of order of conjecture but on terrá firmú, that is at is conftrued into affection for absolute the Weltmintter Forum, or Ciceronian monarchy.
School of Eloquence. There each man, This fort of prejudice is not however as he enters, divests himself (or is fupmeant to apply to the freedom of our poted to divest himtelt) of every particle Island, which is allowed by the most of prejudice, and deals out his portion of liberal and unprejudiced men to be Itable wisdom with the scales of justice in his and uniform; thought what is the cause hand. What a sacred awe must fuch an of this almost uninterrupted continuance auguit allembly inspire! Surely in this of liberty, and the question, how long is temple dedicated to Liberty and Cicero, is likely to continue? is a point that has decency and impartiality must pretide. been frequently agitated, and is indeed There each man brings his opinions adbuc sub juuice. Some learned, pious, to market, and vends thein without and enthuhastic men, have deduced the interruption. Legislators,” continued bliling of liberty from the immediate in- Jack, “ may talk of one part of their terpofition of Providence; and aflert, that nicely-balanced Constitution being a the fame power that keeps the planets in check upon the other; I affirm, that a DeTegular motion preferves the equilibrium bating Society is a check upon them all. of liberty in the island of Great Britain. It is biaffed by no interefted motives; it