upstart planter to his estate at a call, “ Till this time," says our author, which faves the gentleman so many ne I had chiefly been Joanna's friend ; but groes, and for which they receive, in re now I began to feel I was her captive. turn, nothing-many times not so much I renewed my wild propotals of purchaas a mouthful of meat and drink; palli- fing, educating, and transparting her to ating hunger and thirft by begging from Europe ; which, though offered with the tbe ilaves a few bananas or plantains ; most perfect fincerity, were by her reeating oranges, and drinking water, jested, with this humble deciaration : which, in a little time, relieves them from “ I am born a low contemptible Nave. every complaint, by flipping them off to Were you to treat me with too much ateternity. In every part of the colony tention, you nuit degrade yourself with they are no better treated, but, like all your friends and relations; while tlie burits, they must (having unloaded the purchase of my freedom you will find exvetiels) drag the commodities to the dir pentive, difficult, and apparently impollitant ttore-houses, being bathed in sweat, ble. Yet, though a Nave, I have a soul, and bullied with bad language, fometimes I hope, not interior to that of an Eurowith blows; while a few negroes are pean ; and bluth not to avow the regard I ordered to attend, but not to work, by retain for you, who have diftinguished the direction of their masters, which me so much above all others of my un-, many would willingly do to relieve the happy birth. You have, Sir, pitied me; drooping sailors, to whom this usage and now, independent of every other must be exceedingly disheartening and thought, I shall have pride in throwing galling The planters even employ mytelf at your feet, till fate shall part those men to paint their houses, clean us, or my corduet become such as to give their safh-windows, and do numberlets you caule to banish me from your preother menial offices, for which a teaman sence.” was never intended. All, this is done " This the uttered with a downcast to save the work of their negroes; while look, and tears dropping on her heaving by this usage thousands are swept to the bofom, while she held her companion by gave, who, in the line of their proteflion the hand. alone, might have lived for many years ;

“ From that instant this excellent creaDos dare the West India captains to re ture was mine ;- nor had I ever cause to fuse their men, without incurring the dif. repent of the itep I had taken, as will appitature of the players, and teeing their pear more particularly in the course of fhips rot in the harbour without a load. this narrative. inz; nay, I have heard a faitor fervently “ I cannot omit to record, that having wish be had been born a negro, and beg purchased for her presents to the value of !o be employed amongst them in cultivat- twenty guineas, I was the next day greating a coffee plantation."

ly astoniihed to see all my gold returned Admit the truth of the facts above upon my table ; the charming Joanna ftated in their full extent (and there is no having carried every article back to the reason to call them in queition), and then merchants, who cheerfully returned her say whether Naves are the only objets of the money. a jutt man's compassion ; and whether Your generous intentions alone, Sir, Europeans and Freemen are not often (the faid) were fufficient : but allow me plunged in deeper and more pungent dit to tell you, that I cannot help considering: treis.

any fuperfluous expence on my account Soon after his arrival our author was as a diminution of that good opinion attacked by a violent fever, in conse- which I hope you have, and will ever quence of an intemperate and dissipated entertain, of my disinterested disposicourse of life in a very unhealthy climate. tion." in this calamity he was treated with great “ Such was the language of a slave, kindnels and humanity hy many of the in- who had simple nature only for her instrucbahiants cf Surinarn. But he attributed tor, the purity of whoie lentiments stood bis recovery chiefy to good offices in need of no ornament; and these I was and ter.der nursing of Joanna, who, hear. now determined to improve by every 1 z of his malady, came, with one of her

care." Liters, to offer her tervices. By her un of our author's talent for delineating remitting care and attention he had the and discriminating characters, no unfae 6*tortune to regain his health and vourable specimen may be given in his

pints in a giat meafure ; at least, fo portraits of Governor Nepleu, the preliPas to take sa airing in the carriage of dent of the colony, and of Colonel Four.

geond, the commander of the regiment in of their own oxen, it is accounted a molt which Capt. Stedman served.

valuable and delicate present. The man“ As the ingredients of ffattery or ner of preserving the meat for this long fear make but a small part of that man's voyage, when roafted, is hy putting it composition, who presumes to give those in a block-tin box, or canister; then fil-. outlines, and who pretends perfectly to ling up the empty space with gravy or have known both characters, the reader dripping, till it is perteetly covered over; may depend on having them painted in after which the hox must be folc'ered and their true original colours, however Itrong made fast round about, so that neither air the shades.

nor water can penetrate :-- ny these means " Governor Nepseu was said to be ra it may be carried, with safety, round the ther a man of senle than of learning, and globe. was wholly indebted to his art and ad At Paramaribo, the capital of Suridrets for having risen to his present dig. nam, our author talted a tit called a nity from tweeping the hall of the jackce, about eight or ten inches long, Court-house. By the same means he was exceedingly fat and delicate, of which it enabled, from nothing, to accumulate a is extremely remarkable that it changes fortune, by tome computed at no leis than to a trog:

« of this truth," says Capt. 8000l. sterling, ardually, and to com S. “I was fully satisfied, by feeing the mand respect from all ranks of people, above animal diffeéted, and túlpended in no perion ever daring to attack him but a bottle with fpirits ; when the two at a distance. His deportinent was affa hinder legs of a very small frog made ble, but ironical, without ever loting the their appearance, growing within tide command of his temper, which gave hinn from that part of the back to which uluthe appearance of a man of tathion, and ally the intestines are fixed. Ile thererendered his intiuence almoft unbounded. fore justly concludes, that the jackee is He was generally known by the appeila- only a kind of tadpole, growing to a tion of Reynard, and was most certainly a large lize before its usual transformation. fox of too much artifice to be run down He mentions another extraordinary by all the hounds in the colony.

fpecies of fish, leen in great quantities “Colonel Fourgeond was almost exactly near the town of New Amsterdam, in the reverte of this portrait. He was this colony, which has four eyes, and impetuous, pasionate, telf-suflicient, and swims constantly with two above and two revengeful : he was not cruel to indivi- under the water. They are about the duais, but was a tyrant to the generality, size of a kinelt, and move in thoals with and caused the death of hundreds hy incredible velocity. his fordid avarice and oppreflion. With In the Seventh Chapter there is the all this he was partia!, ungrateful, and following acc-unt, in his own words, of confused; but a moi indefatigable man the alınoit miraculous e cape of a soldier, in bearing hardhips, and in braving dan who was wounded by the rebel negroes, gers not exceeded hy Columbus him- and tell, in the engagement in which a ielf, which, like a true Buccaneer, he Lieutenant Lapper and many men were fustained with the most heroic courage, killed. patience, and perfeverance. Though “ I was shot, Sir,” said he, « with a unconquerably harth and levere to his musket bullet, in my breast; and to reofficers, he was, however, not wanting fift or escape being imposible, as the only in affability to the private Toldiers. He means left me to save my life, I threw had read; but had no education to allilt myself down among the mortally woundhim in digefting what he read. In ed and the dead, without moving hand Wort, few men could talk better, but, on or foot. Here, in the evening, the rebe! moft occafions, few could act worse. chief, surveying his conquest, ordered

Such were the characters of our com one of his captains to begin instantly to mandeis, while the opposition of two cut off the heads of the llain, in order to Juch mer to cach other could not fail to carry then home to their village, as troproduce unhappiness to the trcops, and phies of their victory; this captain, #perated as a sutricien: cuide for the fiuc. having already chopped off that of Lieutulating tale of political attairs in this tenant Lapper, and one or two more, dujecied colony."

faid to his friend, “ Soride go piecby, caba (apt. S. mentions a curious contri. makewedbrian tora ciozo tay tamara; vance for finding a piece of ready roasted “the sun is just gcing te leep, we mutt beef froin Europe to Surinain, where, on leave those other dogs till to-morrow. account of the imall size and ccarte grain pon laying which (continued the fol.


dier), as I lay on my bleeding breast, cut from among the carnage, and get with my face resting on my left arm, he, under cover in the forest, where I met dropping his hatchet into my shoulder, another of our soldiers, who was less made the fatal wound you see, of which wounded than myself ; with whcm, after I tball, perhaps, no more recover.-1, ten days wandering, in torment and dehowever, lay quite fill. They went fpair, without bandages, ' not knowing away, carrying, along with them the which way to proceed, and only one fingle Mangled heads of my comrades, and five loaf of black bread for our fubfiftence, we e lix prisoners alive; with their hands at' last arrived at the military poft of tied behind their backs, of whom I ne. Patamaca, emaciated, and our putrified ver Unce have beard. When all was wounds full of live worms." quiet, and it was very dark, I found

(To be continued.) mans, on my hands and feet, to creep The Economy of Nature explained and illustrated on the Principles of Modern Phi

lolophy. By G. Gregory, D. D. Joint Evening Preacher at the Foundling Hot pital, Author of Edays Historical and Moral, &c. In Three Volumes. Withi

Forty-fix Plates. J. Johnfon. 1796, WE announce with pleasure the publi- ject of optics is treated with accuracy

cation of a work which has long and ability, but in some parts will prove been a desideratum to students; a work rather uninteresting to persons not acwhich communicates the important disco- quainted with the mathematics. The Feries in natural knowledge in an enter. Fourth Book treats of electricity and taining manner, and which presents to electrical phenomena, thunder and lightgeneral readers an easy explanation of the ning, waterspouts, meteors, the aurora bomett curious phenomena which conti- realis, &c. The Fifth Book relates to air, mually fall under the obfervation of man- and is particularly important. kind. To acquire such information is On the discoveries which have been not only agreeable, but profitable, as by made with respect to the properties of the thewing the connexion, utility, and mu. elastic fluids principally depend thote tual dependance of the works of the Cre- vast improvements in chemical and phiator, it converts idle wonder into devout losophical knowledge which have for some adıniration, and raises an impregnable years past so much engaged the attention bulwark againt the affaults of atheism. : of scientific men. We have no hesitation

Dr G. commences his work with a in saying that the work before us congeneral account of the properties of mat- tains the best account of the different speter, and concludes the Firit Book with the çies of air which has yet been presented subje&t of inagnetism. In the Second Book to the public. In this book are included the nature and properties of that active the elasticity and weight of the atmoand universal agent, heat, or fire, are sphere, with their more remarkable effects, coldered. After giving a history of the nature of sound, the causes of opinions and discoveries, both ancient winds, and the atmospherical phenomena; and midern, with respect to fire, he com- together with an account of the progaol. Feies the subject by a full account of the tics of the weather, as far as they have doctrines by which' Dr. Black of Edin- been ascertained. It also explains the burgh has deservedly gained 10 much re. principles on which balloons ascend into putation. In the Third Book the disco. , the higher regions of the atmosphere. teries relative to light and colours are Minerals are the subject of the Sixth brought down to the present time. In Bock, which leads to the structure of the explaining the laws of vision, the eye is earth, and the striking effects of volcaconsidered as an optical instrument, which noes and earthquakes. In this part of pres cccafion to remark fuch defects in the work the new chemical doctrines are that organ as may be relieved by glatles. better applied in explaining the changes The fructure of the various sorts of mi- which mineral fubitances undergo than trufcopes and telescopes is considered, we have yet feen. Water is the subječ and the principles are explained on which of the Seventh Book, and from the vari. there inftruments are capable of improx. cus ttates and circumstances in which it ing to wonderfully the powers of vision is found, forms an interesting fubiect This book con:ains many pleating rela- of enquiry. The Eighth Book treats, licos reipesting the more striking phe- pretty largely, of vegetation, the frucT.strena of light and colors. The Lub. iure of vegetables, and the properties of VOL. XXXI. N, 1797.


vegetable substances. The Ninth Book, It is, however, plain, that we have a for almost the whole of which our author power of interrupting the train of thought, acknowledges himself indebted to Dr. of dwelling more intensely upon particular Belcher, of Maidltone, treats of the strut. ideas, and even of occasionally diverting ture and functions of animals. The ana- our reflections and contemplations into tomical part is accurate, but in some new channels, and this power alone is parts more minute, than, perhaps, the sufficient, in my opinion, to constitute plan of the work required. The physia- man a free agent *. Indeed, those aulogy is entertaining, and might have thors who contend most for the doctrine been prolonged with advantage... The of a fatal necessity are among the first Tenth and last book gives a concise and to recommend an application to ftudy and judicious view of the human mind. That the cultivation of the mind; whereas, if the Doctor has not embraced the pernicious the mind is endued with no spontaneous tenets of what is called the New Philofo. energy whatever, no self-directing agenphy, will appear from the following ex. cy, lurely such a recommendation is intract :

conlistent and abfurd t. «That the doctrine of the association of “On any question of serious importance, ideas should, in the mind of any visionary analogical reasoning should be admitted writer, have ever been connected with with the utmost caution; and yet a fenie. the fatal necessity of human actions, is, less and puerile analogy has been called in I confefs, to me a matter of surprize. to the aid of an argument, which cannot Miserable, indeed, must be the state of be supported by politive proof. Motive man, if he was endued with no power and action in morals, have been compare of regulating or directing the train of ed to cause and effect in physics 1. That his ideas ; if they must flow for ever in some motive in the mind precedes every one necessary, unbroken channel, or if human action is certain, and thus far the external objects alone were to dictate to analogy is juft; bat the motive inay as us whar to think. It is obvious, that if well be in the will itself, as the mere re. this was the case, there could be no va- fult of any external cause. If, indeed, riety, and scarcely any change in the pur- the analogy was true in all its parts, a fuits of men : the thoughts must flow human being would be altogether as subfrom each other in one uninterrupted le- ject to the laws of inert matter as a block ries, and man could not be an accounta- of marble or of wood. Whatever is ble, and scarcely a rational creature. subject to an absolute necesity, can never

“ . It is impoßible to observe, without a smile, men boasting of being the disciples of Mr. Locke, who have apparently never read a page of his writings, or, if they have ooked into theon, have evidently misunderstood them. With how much justice this real philosoplier is represenced as a favourer of the absurdities of the fatalists, will appear from the following pastage : “ This at least (fays Mr. Locke) I think evident, that we find in ourselves a power to begin or forbear, continue or end feveral actions of our minds, and motions of our bodies, barely by a thought or preference of the mind ordering, or, as it were, commanding the doing or not doing such or luch a particular action. This power which the mind has thus to order the confideration of any idea, or the fo: bearing to confider it, or to prefer the motion of any part of the body to its rest, and vice versa, in any particular instance, is what we call the will."-Locke's Effay, B. ii. c. 21.

" of If there is no degree of freedom or Ipontaneity in human actions, what is meant by the words deliberation, prudence, and judgment? If the opinion of the fatalifts is true, our interference in any matter or action is superduous; and yet who is there that does not perceive, that the course of a dangerous disease may be impeded hy the calling in' of a phyfi. cian? a matter which was entirely within the choice of the pacient himself.

"I The arguments by which the atheists have attempted to prove this analogy are the moit abfurd and puerile that can well be imagined. “ Every effe&." say they, “ muft pro. ceed from some cause, and this caufe must be dependent on another." The direct conclufion from this is, "that there is no where any origin or beginning of motion, but every thing iş neceffarily produced by an eternal chain of causes and effe&s, without any independent orie gin.” Such reasoning as this exactly resembles that of the Indian, who fupposes the earth to rest on a crocodile, the crocodile on an elephant but what does the clephant rest on? In fact, to compare the operations of the mind to any of the qualities of matter, is to compare, as Dr. Clarke obferves, a square to the colour of blue, or a triangle to a sound. It is like the blind man, who, being asked what idea lit bad of karlé, faid, he fancied it must be Sorbething like the sound of a druin,


be the incipient cause, or the beginning mate uniform mass, fubje&t to certain and of motion or action of any kind ; it mult definite laws, as much as inert matter. be altogether under the command and di- In this, therefore, the fame happy medium rection of external objects; it must be appears to be established as in other inaltogether inert or passive, having no stances. Man, froin his natural relation principle of action in itself. On this ac- to external things, from that wonderful count, as I before intimated, there would connexion which exists between the body be much more unitormity in the actions and the mind, is subject to a certain inof men, if they were subject to a fatal Auence froin situation and circumstances'; intuence, than there appears to be; there but there is still in his own mind a powej would be no difficulty in deciding what of reflecting, deliberating, and deciding mutt be their conduct in any given cir- upon his motives and conduct. cunftances.

“ Another argument in favour of fata. "A freedom of deliberating, chusing, lity is deduced irom the prefcience of the and deternining upon things, is what Deity. "If God foreknows all things every man feels in himself *. It is the (it is alleged), then every event must be dictate of nature and common sente ; one predetermined." But this argument of the first perceptions we have of the rests upon the fame presumptuous founi. operations of our own minds. It does not dation as the preceding, which would Jie with us, therefore, to prove, that the politively determine the precise degree of human mind is free ; but it lies with the influence that external causes must have upopponents of liberty to prove that it is on the mind ofman. Dogmatiim certainly est free; ard this ought to be done upın never was the road to truth, and is utterly direct, positive, experimental evidence; inconsistent with that modelty and humi. and not upon fancitul analogies or con- lity, which is the very characteristic of a jecture.

real Philosopher. The prescience of the "The only argument which the fatalists Deity! Who will dare to say that he is have ever been able to adduct, which at able to define it? Who will dare to alall bears upon the point, is this that ' lege that he understands every particular men act fron motives, and these motives circumstance and attribute of the Divine are dependent upon situation and external existence ? To say that God cannot excircumstances. This, then, is really ercise his own powers in that way which is the point at issue between the fatalists, molt agreeable to the ends that infinite and the advocates for the free agency of wisdoin proposes, and infinite goodness man. The former luppose the in. would di&tate, is to define and limit om. fluence of mctives from external causes' nipotence ! and to affirm that God canto be absolute and unlimited; the latter not conftitute man a free agent, cannot in allow the influence of mctives to a certain this inttance dispense with his own preextent, but they deny that it is absolute fcience, is to say, that God is not omniand unlimited.

potent. This was long my own opinion; “In the prefent state of liuman know. and I was happy to find it confirmed by ledge, it is, indeed, a species of dogma- the excellent and judicious Dr. Henry tilm not to be endured, to pretend pre More, whose fentiments on this subject cisely to ascertain how far the influence were pointed out to me by a friend. “It of external motives extends over the is true (lays be) we cannot otherwise mind of man,

That external causes think of God's forr-knowledge, but as should have a certain weight and influence bing every way clear and perfect, and with us, is certainly, confiftent with the without pollibility of error, as to thoto wisdom of Divine Providence, and con- objects about which he judges or profiftent with that order and regularity nounces. And surely he does always which he has every where established. If judge and determine of things according men were to act entirely independent of as they are ; that is to say, of a contina all influence from external causes and `gent thing as it is contingent ; and of a circunstances, the world would be an necessary thing as it is necessary. Whence entire scene of coniufion and disor- it comes to pass, that those things which der; if, on the contrary, they were en are contingent and proceed froin a free dued with no power of choice or deli- principle of a&ting, are allowed to be feen þeration, the whole would be an inani- by God's content.

" * As it is in the motions of the body, so it is in the thoughts of our minds ;, where any one is such, that we have power to take it up, or lay it by, according to the prefeence of the mind, there wc arc at liberty." --Locke's E(Tay, B. ii. 6. 21.

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